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THE 



AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 



EDITED BY 



JOHJS" M. MAISOH. 



DEC 9 ffi80 

[ITTEE FOR 1880 : 

CHARLES BULLOCK, HENRY RITTENHOUSE, 

JAMES T. SHINN, THOMAS S. WIEGAND, 

AND THE EDITOR. 

VOLUME LII. 
FOURTH SERIES, VOLUME X. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
MERRIHEW & SON, PRINTERS, 135 N, Third St. 
1880. 



n 

\ 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JANUARY, 1880. 



ON THE PRESENCE OF TANNIN IN GENTIAN. 

By John M. Maisch. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting December 15, 1879; 
In February, 1876, the writer read a paper on this subject, in which 
he believed to have proven that gentian root contains no tannin, and 
that the dark coloration produced with iron salts is due to gentianic or 
gentisic acid. These conclusions seemed to follow from the following 
observations : 

1. That the infusion of gentian, sufficiently diluted so as to be filtered 
from the suspended pectin compounds, yields with gelatin a slight pre- 
cipitate which after having been washed with cold water is not colored 
black or dark green by ferric chloride, but merely acquires the brownish 
color of ferric salts. 

2. That the cold infusion of gentian, treated for 24 hours with a large 
fragment of fresh hide, showed not the slightest diminution in the dark 
coloration imparted by ferric chloride. 

These experiments were supplemented by the following one per- 
formed by Mr. E. L. Patch, of Boston, and reported in the "Amer. 
Jour. Pharm.," 1876, p. 188. The alcoholic solution of the 
etherial extract of gentian yielded with ferric salts dark green color- 
ations, but on diluting it with water and filtering from the precipitated 
resin, etc., the clear liquid yielded no precipitate with gelatin, which 
should have occurred if tannin had been present. 

In 1877 Mr. Jules Ville published an essay, which was reviewed in 
the "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1877, P* 4^9 i arrived at the conclusion 
that tannin is present in gentian, because 

1. The infusion produces a slight precipitate with gelatin, and 

2. The infusion treated with fresh hide, February i6th, gradually 
gave fainter reactions with ferric chloride, until on April 12th the 
infusion was insensible to the action of the reagent named. 



2 



Presence of Tannin in Gentian. 



Am Jour. Pharro. 
Jan., 1880. 



Mr. Ville concluded that the gentisic acid is the tannin of gentian^ but 
he failed to prove that the aqueous solution of this acid would yield a 
precipitate with gentian, or that the precipitate by gelatin in infusion of 
gentian, after having been washed with cold water, would be affected 
by ferric chloride. As to the gradual disappearance of the dark color- 
ation by iron salts in infusion of gentian treated with fresh hide, I 
believe that this may be easily arrived at by the previous removal of 
pectin compounds, as indicated above, to such an extent that the color 
of the infusion will be scarcely darkened on the addition of the iron 
salt, owing to the very slight solubility of the coloring principle, gen- 
tisic acid, in cold water. 

An abstract of Mr. Ville's essay will be found in the "Year Book 
of Pharmacy," 1877, p. 217, in which it is claimed, that " he obtained 
unmistakable indications of the presence ot tannin with ferric chloride, 
gelatin and albumen," but I have failed to find in the essay itself any 
experiment which would disprove the observations made by myself and 
Mr. Patch in 1876. I then obtained the same reactions with ferric chlo- 
ride and gelatin as Mr. Ville, but showed that neither was due to tannin. 

At'"the last meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Conference a 
paper was read by Mr. Edward Davies (" Phar. Jour, and Trans.," 
1879, Sept. 20, p. 220), in which the presence of a trace (o"o8 per 
cent.) of tannin (pxohMy gallotannic acid) in recently dried gentian root 
was inferred from precipitates obtained in the infusion by gelatin, acetate 
of cinchonia and tartar emetic, and from the distinct darkening of color 
by ferric chloride. Mr. Davies also observed that the infusion of 
powdered gentian would only be slightly darkened by ferric chloride, 
and yield a faint precipitate with gelatin after long standing, and no pre- 
cipitate with tartar emetic; and he infers that this trace of tannin is 
liable to decomposition when the root is powdered and so exposed to 
oxidation ; or that it is not a constant constituent of gentian root. 

It will be observed that this is an entirely novel view of the question, 
differing very essentially from those advanced by Mr. Ville, and it is to 
be regretted that Mr. Davies did not prove his position completely, 
either by repeating the interesting experiment made by Mr. Patch, 
alluded to above, or by washing the gelatin precipitate and afterwards 
ascertaining the effect of ferric chloride upon it. The new reactions 
brought forward embrace tartar emetic and the salt of an alkaloid. 

Desiring to examine these precipitates, I requested Mr. Chas. Baur, 



"^Vn^'i^o"™ } Presence of Tannin in Gentian, 3 

a member of the present class, to make a series of experiments in the 
laboratory of the College, and he has complied with my request and 
carefully examined a sample of the same root, and a portion of the con- 
centrated infusion, preserved by the addition of alcohol, with which I 
experimented about four years ago. He also procured three additionaf 
samples of gentian root of good and fresh appearance. The infusion 
had deposited a precipitate of a pectin compound ; filtered and freed 
from alcohol by evaporation, the liquid gave no precipitate with gelatin. 
The old root yielded by percolation with cold water a rather thick and 
opaque infusion, which produced a dark greenish-black color with ferric 
chloride, and a gelatinous precipitate with gelatin. But since the 
infusion could not be obtained perfectly transparent by filtration, and 
since alum solution would also precipitate it, it was diluted with about 
an equal bulk of water, and on standing over night a similar gelatinous 
precipitate of pectin had separated, and the clear filtrate was not pre- 
cipitated by gelatin, even after prolonged standing, and yielded only a 
very slight coloration on the addition of ferric chloride. A dilute 
infusion of the same root was left in contact for over a week with a 
large piece of fresh hide, when ferric chloride produced merely a slight 
tint of the same intensity as in the beginning of the experiment. 

The infusions prepared from two other samples of root were not dis- 
turbed by gelat'in. The third sample apparently yielded a slight pre- 
cipitate with gelatin on standing ; but it was noticed that another por- 
tion of the same infusion, to which no gelatin had been added, likewise 
separated a precipitate similar in amount and appearance to that formed 
after the addition of the gelatin, and evidently consisting of a pectin 
compound. After removing this spontaneous precipitate by filtration, 
the liquid was not disturbed by gelatin, tartar emetic or sulphate of 
cinchonidia. 

Since it was found impossible to procure gentian root, the clear infu- 
sion of which would give a decided precipitate with gelatin, further 
experiments were not made ; but Mr. Baur has taken steps for obtain- 
ing recently dug gentian root from Europe and expects to continue the 
investigation. 

From the observations thus far made, I believe it is safe to conclude 
that commercial gentian root is free from tannin. The pectin present 
in the root is doubtless altered in the course of time, and possibly con- 
verted into the pectonic acid of Fremy, or a similar compound, which, 
while not entirely insoluble in water, becomes so in the presence of 



4 



Anemopsis Californka, 



fAm. Jour. Phann;.. 
\ Jan., 1880. 



various salts, and probably also by gelatin and other substances. In 
separating from the imperfect solution, most of the yellow coloring 
matter is carried down with it ; hence the gelatinous precipitate, after 
the mother liquor has been drained off, acquires a deep green-black 
color on the addition of ferric salt, and on account of the sparing solu- 
bility of the gentisic acid in water, needs copious washing with 
water to free it from this compound, after which it will not be colored 
dark by the same reagent. In the same manner may also be explained 
the result of Mr. Ville's experiment with hide, and possibly the behavior 
of the infusion observed by Mr. Davies with tartar emetic and cin- 
chonia salt. 



ANEMOPSIS CALIFORNICA, Hooker.— YERBA MANSA. 

By J. U. Lloyd. 

This is a small perennial plant growing in damp situations in the 
southern part of California and Northern Mexico. The leaves are 
mostly radical, smooth, of a firm texture, and borne on sheathing peti- 
oles. The stem is about six inches high, bearing a clasping leaf near 
the middle, and terminating in a spike of flowers. The flowers are 
small, apetalous, cohering into a thick spadix, which is surrounded at 
the base by about six petaloid bracts, giving the entire inflorescence the 
appearance of a single terminal flower. A prominent character of the 
plant is its tendency to produce stolons. 

In 1876 the writer received a specimen of the plant through the 
kindness of Dr. George, of California. It was known as " Terha 
Mansa'' in his neighborhood, and used as a domestic remedy. This 
specimen was fresh, and upon cultivation grew vigorously, passing the 
hard winter of 1878-79 with impunity. The characteristics of the 
native grown plants were preserved, but while there was a rapid increase 
in the number of plants by means of runners, none have blossomed. 

The plant, which belongs to the order Saururaceae, was noticed in 
this journal, December, 1878, p. 589, by Dr. Edward Palmer in his 
interesting article upon " Plants used by the Indians of the United 
States," as follows : 

'^The root of this plant is a great remedy among the Indians of 
Arizona and Sonora, in Mexico and Southern California. It has a 
strong peppery taste and odor. A tea made from the roots and a pow- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 

Jan., 1880. j 



^Anemopsis Calif ornica. 



5 



der prepared from the same and applied to venereal sores are a great 
remedy. The powder is advantageously used on cuts and sores, as it 
is very astringent. The leaves, after being wilted, and applid to swell- 
ings, are a sure cure." In connection with this the following exami- 
nation may be of interest. 

All parts of the plant exhale, when broken, a pungent, disagreeable, 
penetrating odor. The taste is aromatic and peppery. Alcohol readily 
extracts all the sensible characteristics. Water simply becomes flavored 
when boiled with the root, the filtrate being astringent and highly 
charged with glucose. It does not afford precipitates with the usual 
reagents for alkaloids. The odor and taste of the plant is derived from 
a volatile oil; this is obtained, according to our experiments, in the 
proportion of six fluid drachms to the avoirdupois pound by distilling 
the dried root with water. 

Essential Oil, A. — This is heavier than water, yellowish, very 
refractive and to the taste sharp, pungent and possessing in a high degree 
the characteristic odor and flavor of the plant. It dissolves in all pro- 
portions in alcohol, ether, chloroform and carbon disulphide. When 
mixed with an equal bulk of sulphuric acid heat is evolved, and a thick, 
dark red liquid results. This dissolves in alcohol and chloroform, with 
production of a beautiful red color; is insoluble in ether, but becomes 
thinner when mixed with it and permitted to separate. This substance 
does not retain the odor of the oil. 

When the essential oil is poured upon the surface of freshly pre- 
pared nitro-muriatic acid in a test tube and gently agitated, it turns blue ; 
then with evolution of nitric oxide and a sudden increase of tempera- 
ture decomposes, the result being a brownish resinous substance ; the 
natural odor of the oil disappears, and the underlying acid changes to a 
red color. 

When the essential oil is in like manner poured upon the surface of 
hydrochloric acid and gently agitated, a gradual change in color to deep 
blue results ; in the course of twenty hours passes into violet, then 
changes to purple, and lastly to brown. The natural odor of the oil 
remains. 

After distillation with water the root has a slight odor of the oil, an 
astringent taste and a benumbing action upon the tongue. 

Alcohol seems to extract all the sensible properties of the recently 
dried root. When percolated with this menstruum a dark reddish tine- 



6 



Anemopsis Caltfornica. 



Am. Jour. Pharm* 

Jan., i£8o. 



ture results. Upon evaporating from it the alcohol at I50°F. the 
residuum separates into a reddish oil, and a stiff gummy substance, C. 

Characteristics of the Oil, B. — It is heavier than vi^ater. The 
odor and taste is exactly like that imparted when the root is chewed. 
It dissolves in alcohol, ether, chloroform and disulphide of carbon, but 
from the latter solution a small amount of flocculent reddish matter 
separates. When the solution in disulphide of carbon is filtered, a light- 
colored oil results, seemingly similar to the essential oil obtained by 
distillation, the color being somewhat darker. The flocculent red pre- 
cipitate is astringent and deliquescent, absorbing moisture and forming 
a red liquid. It is the material that gives the red color to the oil R 
and constitutes a considerable proportion of the bulk of the 

Gummy Substance, C. — This is purified from adhering oil by tritu- 
ration with carbon disulphide, the residuum being granular, astringent 
and peppery, and of a brownish color, soluble in dilute alcohol, and 
mostly soluble in glycerin. It dries by exposure to cool atmosphere,, 
but melts to a red varnish-like substance at the temperature of I25°P\ 
to i5o°P\ When the dry powder is triturated with water a flocculent 
substance remains, astringent to the taste, soluble in glycerin, alcohol, 
and dilute alcohol ; insoluble in chloroform, ether and carbon disul- 
phide ; precipitates black from solution in glycerin and dilute alcohol,, 
with ferrous sulphate, and is negative to action of the usual precipi- 
tants for alkaloids. The filtrate from the precipitate C, after rubbing 
with water, is almost colorless, astringent, precipitates black with 
ferrous sulphate, and when boiled with Fehling's solution yields a heavy 
red precipitate. It fails to respond to reagents for alkaloids. When 
the precipitate C is triturated with ether and chloroform a portion 
dissolves and an astringent substance remains, which deliquesces upon 
exposure, forming a red gummy substance, eventually liquefying. This 
seems to be the same as the substance that separated from the oil B by 
the action of carbon disulphide. 

The residuum within the percolator, after extraction with alcohol,, 
seemed thoroughly exhausted. Water and acidulated water are some- 
what astringent after maceration with it, odorless, react with Fehling's 
solution, but not with tests for alkaloids. Ether and disulphide of 
carbon fail to extract a vegetable wax, resin or other constituent worthy 
of attention, and inert extractive matter and mineral salts of na 
importance, together with woody matter, thus far have been found. 



'^'"janriso^"^'} Preparation of Spirit of Nitrous Ether, 7 

THE PREPARATION OF SPIRIT OF NITROUS ETHER. 

By R. F. Fairthorne, Ph.G. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting December 15. 

Amongst other members of the committee on the revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia, having the duty assigned to me of revievi^ing that class 
of substances in which spirit of nitrous ether is included, I w^ould 
respectfully make a few suggestions. The uncertainty of strength of 
sweet spirit of nitre, as made by the officinal formula, owing chiefly, 
perhaps, to the extreme volatility of nitrous ether and the difficulty of 
determining its etherial strength, make it desirable that a process should 
be devised by which such uncertainty should be avoided, and I would 
propose the following as meeting these requirements, namely : First, 
to make the nitrous ether, which I accomplish without the use of heat 
or distillation ; then to mix 5 parts of this with 95 parts of alcohol, so 
as to have a preparation of definite composition in accordance with the 
supposed strength of the article, as made by the present formula. 

If 5 parts, by weight, of nitric acid, of specific gravity 1*36, are 
mixed with 4 parts of alcohol, of specific gravity -822, both liquids 
having, previous to mixing, been reduced to the temperature of 
6o°F., no perceptible action takes place. To this is added a small 
portion of starch (30 grains to 9 ounces of the mixture), and the whole 
placed in a deep cylindrical vessel, in which the liquids would occupy 
about one-sixth of its capacity. If the vessel is then set aside in a 
cool place, the temperature of which is above the freezing point but 
below 6o°F., in two or three days the liquid will be found divided into 
two distinct layers, the upper one being impure nitrous ether. This is 
removed by means of a funnel havir.g a stop-cock in the neck, and 
after ^pouring it into a four-ounce well -stoppered vial, it is agitated 
first with 3 per cent, of calcined magnesia, and to the mixture is added 
8 per cent, of stronger solution of ammonia, and well shaken ; the 
upper layer of liquid, which is the purified nitrous ether, is filtered 
through cotton, moderately packed in a funnel, and then weighed. To 
every 100 parts, by weight, are added 1900 parts of alcohol, of specific 
gravity '822. By this treatment of the crude nitrous ether, both free 
acid and aldehyd are removed, the first by the magnesia and the last by 
the ammonia, which has a strong affinity for it. 

In order to succeed with this process it is necessary to bear in mind 
that the ether is extremely volatile (boiling between 61 and 62°F.), and 



8 Preparation of Spirit of Nitrous Ether, { jlrisso""* 

that the action of the acid upon the alcohol must be moderated if ebul- 
lition should take place too rapidly, which is sometimes the case when 
the temperature approaches 6o°F. This can easily be accomplished by 
placing the bottle containing the acid and alcohol in water, the temper- 
ature of which is below 50°F. I have found it to be a convenient 
plan to allow the water from the hydrant (the temperature of which at 
this time is 50°F.) to run on the bottle for about half an hour, when 
the action will be checked. 

Another method by which nitrous ethers can be made, and which 
requires less attention, is as follows : Place 4J parts by weight of 
nitric acid in a vessel of similar proportions to the one used in the first 
process, and with a long-necked funnel pour into it with care 2 parts of 
water so as not to mix with the acid, and on this pour 4J parts of alco- 
hol in the same manner so as not to mix with the water. There will 
be three distinct layers at first, but having placed this in a cool place, 
and under the same conditions as before described, there will be found 
in two or three days only 2 layers, the upper one being impure nitrous 
ether. This is to be treated in the same manner as in the previous 
process. 

The great volatility of nitrous ether renders it necessary, in order 
to avoid loss, that all vessels used during the purifying process should 
be maintained at a temperature below 6o°F. 

I would also state that by the first process named 572 grains pure 
ether were produced, having a specific gravity of about '908 and boil- 
ing at 62°F. 

I prefer the first named method for making nitrous ether, the yield 
by it being larger and sufficiently great, even with my imperfect appa- 
ratus, to produce spirit of nitre at a cost not above that of the best 
commercial article. 

Before giving -908 as the specific gravity of nitrous ether, I wish to 
rectify it over chloride of calcium or quick lime.' The spirit of nitre 
produced by either process, mixed with ammonia, does not become yel- 
low, does not discolor with solution of potassa, and does not effervesce 
on the addition of a carbonate. , 



^ Liebig gives the specific g av'tv of nitrous ether at i5"C. (59°F.) at '947, and 
its boili ig point at i6-4°C.^6i'5°F. — Editor 



A.m. Jour. Pharm, 
Jan., 1880. 



Mollisine, 



9 



MOLLISINE. 

By William C. Bakes, Ph.G. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting December 15, 1879. 

The increasing popularity of petroleum in its various forms, as a 
medicinal agent, has led to the introduction of several proprietary pre- 
parations which claim to be made exclusively from petroleum. The 
convenience to the pharmacist of having a stable and reliable prepara- 
tion of his own make to offer in place of such proprietary articles will 
be apparent. 

Last summer my attention was called to a brief note in the "Ameri- 
can Druggists' Circular," suggesting a formula for a substitute for 
cosmolin and vaselin. 

I procured some of the spindle oil and made a number of experi- 
ments with various substances ; paraffin did not answer a good pur- 
pose — it produced a flakey ointment which was quite unsightly. 

Yellow wax seems much better suited as a congealing substance, 
and I find the following to yield a nice unguent of good consistence 
and permanent. 

The proportions are as follows : Spindle oil (Downer's), 29° gravity, 
4 parts ; purified yellow wax, i part. 

Melt the wax in the oil by the aid of a gentle heat, then set aside to 
cool ; the result is a smooth ointment readily fusible without any 
odor of petroleum. I have given the name of Mollisine to this pro- 
duct from " Mollis," soft, pliant, sweet, easy, delightful, smooth, 
and " ine," belonging, relating or pertaining to. 

This serves as an excellent base for a variety of substances, in com- 
bination with carbolic acid. I have prepared a Carholi%ed Mollisine in 
the proportion of i part carbolic acid to 16 parts of Mollisine. 

A very satisfactory zinc ointment may be made in the usual propor- 
tions, substituting Mollisine for lard, and adding balsam of Peru in the 
proportion of i drachm to each ounce. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

The Volatile Oil of Myroxylon peruiferum, Lin., has, according 
to Dr. Theod. Peckolt, the specific gravity 0-892 at -j-i3°C. and 0*852 



lo Gleanings from the German Journals, { ^'"ja^Tisso.^""' 

at -[-I5^R., is slightly yellowish, but may be obtained colorless by 
redistilling, and has a pleasant, aromatic odor, resembling sassafras, and 
a burning, aromatic taste. It does not change the color of test papers^ 
burns with a bright flame and aromatic smoke, and is not affected by 
sodium, but reacts very strongly with fuming nitric acid, forming ulti- 
mately a dark purple soft resin, which, after washing with water and 
drying, is brown, solid, readily pulverizible, and insoluble in cold but 
soluble in boiling alcohol. The combined action upon the oil of nitric 
and sulphuric acids yields also a brown resinous mass, having a mild 
aromatic musk odor. One gram of oil yields o*6o gram of this resin, 
which retains its musk-odor for a long time, and is well adapted as a 
substitute for musk. The ultimate result of its reaction with sulphuric 
acid is a dirk brown soft resin, having a terebinthinous odor. — Ztschr. 
d. Jllg. Oest. Jp, Ver,^ Oct. 20, 1879, p, 441. 

Menthol as an Antiseptic. — The ordinary Japanese or Chinese oil 
of peppermint (Took-chang-yonk) contains so much stearopten (men- 
thol) that it is a solid mass at the ordinary temperature. A liquid oil 
of peppermint, called " Poho-Oil," or "Poho-Essence," was also intro- 
duced into Europe, and greatly resembles the German oil, but has a 
slightly bitter taste. It is said to be distilled from Mentha Javanica,"" 
a variety of Mentha arvensis, Lin. The solidified oil is probably sepa- 
rated in China by the influence of cold on the liquid oil, and was 
recently warmly recommended by Duncan as an antiseptic equal to 
thymol. — Pharm. Centralh.^ Oct. 23, 1879, p. 394. 

Pilocarpina, as a hair restorer, was recommended by Dr. 
Schmidt, who is now corroborated by Schueller. The remedy is 
employed by injecting hypodermically about 0*005 to O'Oi pilocarpina 
muriate twice daily. — Pharm. Centralh.^ Oct. 23, 1879, p. 400. 

Balsamurn salicylicD-benzoinatum, or benzoin balsam, is 
recommended as a suitable, cheap substitute for Peru balsam, which it 
greatly resembles. It is particularly well adapted for veterinary prac- 
tice, and is applied externally directly to small wounds or excoriations^ 
a single application being usually suflicient to heal the wound in a few 
days. It is prepared according to the following formula : 



R Benzoei Slam, contusa?, . . . loo'o 

Picis nigrae, . . . . 15 

Acidi salicylici, .... lo'o 
Balsami gurjunici, . . . 40*0 

Spiritus vini absoluti, . . . 5oo"o 



^']°Z'^Ibo"°'} Gleanings from the German Journals. ii 

Mix and digest for a few hours, stirring from time to time, set aside 
to settle, decant the liquid, strain, remove a portion of the alcohol by 
distilling from a water-bath and dilute the remaining mass after cooling 
with sufficient absolute alcohol to give the mixture a thin syrupy con- 
sistence. — Pharm. Centralh,^ Oct. 30, 1879, p. 408. 

Action of Potassium Permanganate on Oil of Turpentine. — 
Oil of turpentine, when kept for some time in partly-filled and not air- 
tight bottles, resinifies (oxidizes) to a certain extent, and then possesses 
bleaching properties, which were formerly attributed to the presence of 
ozone in the old oil. Boettger's recent investigations prove, however, that 
it contains no ozone, but traces of hydrogen peroxide. This can be 
shown by oxidizing a fresh distilled oil by adding to it, drop by drop^ 
stirring continually, an aqueous potassium permanganate solution, when 
the oil becomes gradually loaded with hydrogen peroxide. — Pharm. Post^ 
Nov. I, 1879, p. 325, from Polyt. Notizbl. 

The presence of hydrogen peroxide in partially oxidized oil of 
turpentine, is detected by pouring a little ethylic ether on a few cubic 
centimeters of the oil contained in a test-tube, and adding double its 
bulk of distilled water, a few drops of starch solution containing 
cadmium iodide, and a small crystal of iron sulphate. On gently agitat- 
ing the test-tube the lower aqueous layer will turn intensely blue in a 
few minutes in case hydrogen peroxide is present. — Pharm. Ztg..^ Nov^ 
I, 1879, p. 326, from Polyt. Notizbl. 

Tests for Adulterations in Volatile Oil of Mustard. — Hager 
recommends the following: 

1. Evaporation. — One or two grams of the oil are evaporated in a 
shallow dish at from 40° to 50°C. If pure, the oil evaporates totally 
in the course of two hours ; a residue indicates the presence of fatty 
oils, phenol, oil of cloves, oil of cinnamon or myrbane oil, etc. 

2. Dropping into cold water. — Strictly pure oil sinks in water, and 
remains clear for hours. If the drops become cloudy or milky in a 
minute, i per cent, of alcohol or amylic alcohol is present. 

3. Pure concentrated sulphuric acid. — Ten drops of the oil are mixed 
in a test-tube with 4 or 5 cc. of sulphuric acid, when no change of 
color is produced if the oil is purej a darker coloration indicates the 
presence of adulterations, such as fatty oils, myrbane oil, carbon bisul- 
phide, chloroform, etc. 



12 Gleanings from the German Journals, { jlnris^so""" 

4. Solution of ammoniated copper. — The solution is made by adding 
ammonia gradually to a concentrated aqueous solution of copper sul- 
phate until the precipitate is redissolved. To 10 drops of the suspected 
oil, dissolved in about 4 cc. of pure absolute alcohol, add 2 or 3 cc. of 
the copper solution, when an ultramarine-blue precipitate falls, which 
does not change its color if the oil is pure. If a trace of carbon 
bisulphide is present the precipitate turns first violet-brown, and then 
dark reddish-brown in a few minutes; the presence of amylic alcohol, 
phenol or oil of cloves also causes a change of the color. 

5. Test for carbolic acid. — Mix 10 drops of the suspected oil with 
10 cc. of water; shake, filter 15 minutes later, and add to the filtrate 
2 drops of solution of ferric chloride (Phar. Ger.), when the presence 
of carbolic acid is indicated by a blue coloration. 

6. Test for carbon bisulphide. — This adulterant was quantitatively 
determined by distilling 100 grams of the oil, contained in a previously- 
weighed glass retort, first in a water-bath and afterwards in a glycerin- 
bath. The carbon bisulphide began to distil at 6o°C., and continued 
to come over until the temperature had been raised to I03°C. — Pharm. 
Centralh..^ Sept. 25, 1879, P- 3^^~3^3- 

A new Anthelmintic, known at Buenos Ayres as Jlbahaca^ is 
supposed by Hager (" Pharm. Centralh.," 1S79, p. 343) to be not 
Ocymum basilicum, as stated, but the herb of Ocymum incanescens, 
Martius.^ or of an allied species. It has been recommended by Dr. 
Lemos as an always reliable anthelmintic, superior to calomel, san- 
tonin, kousso and kamala, and to possess at the same time the decided 
advantage over most other similar remedies of being entirely harmless. 
It is stated not to have the slightest injurious effects, even if taken by 
patients not suffering with helminthiasis ; in such cases it simply acts 
as a pleasant cathartic. — Pharm. Ztschr. f. Russl.., ^^79, p. 591, from 
Jllg. Med. Centr. Ztg. 

The Acid of Drosera intermedia. — Lucas and TrommsdorfF 
regarded the free acid of this plant to be malic ; Reess and Will be- 
lieved it to be a mixture of formic, propionic and butyric acids, and Hager, 
of both citric and malic acid. G. Stein now proves it to be citric acid. 
The expressed, intenselv red juice of D. intermedia, collected shortly 
before flowering, was treated with lead acetate, the dirty, grayish-green 
lead salt was washed and decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, and 
the acid, which is soluble in water, was obtained by evaporating the 



^"■jan",''ir8o*"" } Gleanings from the German Journals, 1 3, 

filtrate on a water-bath and allowing the remaining brownish syrup to 
crystallize; most of the acid separated in well-defined rhombic prisms,, 
which with lead, formed an entirely white salt. Stein believes that all 
Droseraceae contain citric acid. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Oct., 22, 1879, p. 654, 
from Ber, d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges.^ 1879. 

Disguising the Odor of Iodoform (see also "Am. Jour. Pharm.," 
1879, p. 190). — The addition of oil of peppermint was successfully 
resorted to by V^ulpius. Dr. Lindemann prefers oil of cloves and 
balsam of Peru, and prescribes 2 parts of the balsam to i pint of iodo- 
form. Iodoform ointment is prepared either with lard, glycerin oint- 
ment, or soft paraflin, and a liquid preparation is made with glycerin, 
alcohol or collodion, as follows : 

R Iodoform, . . . i*o Or, R Iodoform, . . .10 

Balsam of Peru, . . 2 Balsam of Peru, . 3*0 

Lard (or glycerin ointment or Alcohol (or glycerin or collo- 

soft paraffin), . . 8 dion), . . . 12*0 

Mix, in both cases, the iodoform first with the balsam and then add 
the vehicle. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Oct. 25, 1879, p. 663, from Jllg, Med,. 
Central Xtg. 

Use of Pepsin. — Finzelberg has observed that quinia, digitalis, the 
mineral acids and other medicines, when combined with pepsin, may be 
given for a long time without impairing the digestive apparatus. In 
order to prevent the injurious effects of acid liquids upon the teeth the 
desired dose of pepsin is placed on a wafer and a little cavity is pressed 
into it with the finger, into this the acid is dropped and covered with a 
little pepsin, after which the wafer is closed and taken as usual. 
Quinia-pepsin powders may be prepared in the same manner with acid, 
the eflBcacy of the quinia, as well as that of the pepsin, being increased^ 
by the addition of the acid. — Pharm, Ztg.^ Oct. 25, 1879, p. 663. 

Dialyzed Soap. — The solid opodeldoc, officinal in the German 
Pharmocopoeia, frequently separates star- shaped crystals after standing 
for some time. E. Dieterich believes this to be due to the crystallizable 
salts present in every soap, and obviates the difficulty by dialysis, by 
suspending parchment-paper bags, containing a concentrated solution of 
soap, in hot water for some days, then evaporating the water used in 
dissolving, and drying the soaps ; the latter are then used by the author 
for opodeldoc in the proportion of 16 grams of dialyzed oil-tallow soap,. 



1 4 Gleanings from the German Journals, { ^^'^^^I'^^o!^' 

or 12 grams of dialyzed stearin soap, to 320 grams of alcohol. G. 
Berg considers these quantities of dialyzed soap too small, and states 
that opodeldoc, thus prepared, will become partially liquid during the 
hot season; he, therefore, increases the proportion to 20 parts oil- 
tallow soap, or 16 stearin soap, to 320 parts alcohol, and thus obtains 
the preparation permanently transparent, clear and solid. — Pharm. Ztg,^ 
Nov. I, 1879, p. 678. 

Syrupus glycyrrhizae, corresponding in strength to the syrup offi- 
cinal in the German Pharmacopoeia, but being clearer and more elegant 
if prepared carefully, is made by H. Reinige by dissolving i part of 
purified extract of liquorice in i part of distilled water, and adding 17 
parts of simple syrup and 12 parts of purified honey. — Pharm. Ztg.^ 
Nov. 5, 1879, P* ^^7- 

R. Scherff recommends boiling for a few minutes 3J pounds of honey 
with I J pounds of water, 5 grams of Irish moss and O'lO of tannin, 
straining through a woolen cloth, adding sufficient water to the strained 
mixture to make it weigh 6 pounds, dissolving in it 3J pounds of sugar 
by heating gently, straining through linen, adding to the cooled liquid 
10 grams of purified extract of liquorice root, dissolved in 25 grams of 
warm water, and 25 grams of alcohol and filtering. — Pharm. Ztg..^ Oct. 
29, 1879, P- 673- 

The Active Constituent of Insect-Powder (see ''Amer. Jour. 
Pharm.," 1877, p. 17). — G. dal Sie has been studying the constituents 
of Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum) cinerariaefolium since 1 873, and found it 
to contain a volatile acid soluble in ether, alcohol and water, which 
seems to exist in a free state in the plant. Ether extracted a crystal- 
lizable acid and also an aromatic acid, having an oily consistence at the 
ordinary temperature. Alcohol extracted a resinous substance, which 
was decomposed by dilute sulphuric acid into sugar and another product. 
The author is still continuing his investigations, but feels convinced 
that the volatile acid is the active principle. — Pharm. Centralh.^ Oct. 2, 
1879, p. 371, from Ztschr. d. Allg. Oest. Apoth. Ver. 

Estimation of Morphia in Opium. — E. Mylius proposes a modi- 
fication of FlUckiger's process as follows : 8 grams of powdered opium, 
air-dry, are macerated with 80 grams of water for 12 hours, and 42*5 
grams of the filtrate (=4 grams of opium) are mixed in a flask having 
a capacity of lOO cc, with 12 grams of alcohol, spec. grav. 0*830; 



^'"jlZ'is^o""' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 1 5 

10 grams of ether, spec. grav. 0*728, and 1*5 gram of ammonia, spec, 
grav. 0*960. The mixture is set aside for 24 hours, at the expiration 
of which time the morphia crystals are collected on a filter having a 
diameter of 3 or 4 centimeters ; the crystals remaining in the flask are 
loosened, either by means of a glass rod, or by shaking with a piece of 
platinum foil, and are also transferred to the filter, where the morphia 
is washed with 10 grams of a mixture of equal bulks of ether and 
alcohol. The filter is then dried by pressing with bibulous paper and 
by keeping it at ioo°C. for half an hour; is allowed to regain its 
hygroscopic water by remaining in the air for half an hour, and is then 
weighed. The morphia is now removed from the filter, and the latter 
again weighed. To the quantity of morphia thus determined 0*o88 
gram is added, the sum being the total amount of morphia present in 4 
grams of opium. — Archiv d. Pharm.^ Oct., 1879, p. 310. 

Solubility of Morphia in Alcohol and Chloroform. — Prof, van 
der Burg finds pure morphia soluble in absolute alcohol to the very small 
extent of i in 15,000. It is soluble in 150 parts of chloroform, containing 
10 parts alcohol ; but if contaminated with narcotia, which is very soluble 
in chloroform — of course much less of the solvent is required. — Pharm, 
Ztg.^ Nov. 8, 1879, p. 696, from Pharm. Weckhl. 

Chininum crudum, Chinium and Quinium, are the different names 
mentioned by Hager under which a crude, blackish-brown quinia is 
found in the German market, the quinia strength of which is equiva- 
lent to 60 per cent, of that in quinia sulphate, while its cost is less than 
one-seventh of the puie quinia salt, for which reason it is particularly 
well adapted for poor patients. 

Chinetum or ^inetum represents the impure cinchona bark alkaloids as 
obtained from the bark of Cinchona succirubra. The total percentage 
of quinia and quinidia hydrates often amounts to 40 per cent., and 
that of cinchonidia to 55 per cent. Chinetum is a chamois-colored or 
reddish-yellow or yellow dry powder, scarcely soluble in water, but 
readily so in alcohol. Hager thinks that the quinia value in chinetum 
is equivalent to three fourths of that contained in quinia sulphate, which 
would make it also an extraordinarily cheap and good substitute for 
that salt. — Pharm. Centralh.^ Sept. 4, 1879, p. 339. 

Determination of Alkaloids in Plants. — After criticising the prin- 
cipal methods now in use, A. Loesch publishes the following new 



1 6 Gleanings from the German Journals. { ^"^'^^l^^i^T^' 

method: Heat a weighed portion of the contused or coarsely- powdered 
plant twice successively for three hours on a water-hath with 90 per 
cent, alcohol, previously acidulated with muriatic acid, express, wash 
with alcohol of the same strength, unite the alcoholic liquids, distil ofF 
about two thirds, filter the cooled residue, wash the filter with alcohol, 
evaporate the filtrate on a water-bath to the consistence of an extract, 
heat the residue with water equal to double the weight of the substance 
examined, and containing a little sulphuric acid; allow to cool, filter^ 
mix the filtrate with three times its bulk of alum solution .saturated at 
the ordinary temperature, heat, add ammonia in slight excess, evaporate 
the whole on a water-bath, powder the residue, and then treat it suc- 
cessively with ether, chloroform, amylic-alcohol, and finally with 90 
per cent, alcohol, evaporating each extraction and drying the residues. 
Thus the total quantity of alkaloids is not only extracted in a pure 
state, but the different alkaloids sometimes contained in the same plant 
being soluble respectively in the different solvents, are obtained separate, 
and may usually be distinguished by their different solubilities. — Pharm, 
Ztschr. f. RussL^ Sept. 15, 1879, p. 545. 

Detection of Free Acids. — Donath adds to the substance in aque- 
ous solution a few drops of potassium iodide and potassium dichromate, 
and then several cubic centimeters of carbon bisulphide, when the 
latter will turn violet if free acid is present. 

Free sulphuric acid in vinegar is ascertained, by the same author, by 
boiling 20 cc. of vinegar with 9*5 grams of lead chromate for i minute ; 
filtering, adding to the filtrate, after cooling, several grains potassium 
iodide, and then shaking with carbon bisulphide, which will be colored 
violet if free sulphuric acid be present in the vinegar. This test is 
sufficiently accurate to detect the presence of O'l per cent, of this acid. 
— Phann. Centralh.^ Sept. 11, 1879, P- 34^5 from Po/yt. Journ. 

New substitute for isinglass, gelatin and glue is made by C. A. 
Sahlstroem, at Stockholm, by first thoroughly soaking fishes, or parts 
of fishes, in fresh water, and then for three or four hours in a solution 
of about 85 grams of chlorinated lime in 25 or 30 liters of water ; 
they are now washed, treated for 30 or 40 minutes with a solution of 
about 5 grams of potassium permanganate in 25 or 30 liters of water, 
and exposed to the influence either of nitrous acid vapors, produced 
from 300 or 400 grams of nitric acid for every 40 kilograms of raw 



j^Zjf'} Chemical Notes, 1 7 

material, or of sulphurous acid vapors, produced by burning about 200 
grams sulphur for the same weight of raw material. The latter is then 
rinsed off, and the portion, intended as a substitute for isinglass, deprived 
of the outer skin, dried at a moderate heat and pressed, while the por- 
tion intended for gelatin or glue is exposed for about 10 or 12 hours 
to a heat of from 40 to 50°C., when the greater portion is dissolved ; 
it is then forced through a strainer or sieve and dried. — Pharm. 
Handehb:^ Nov. 5, 1879, p. 45. 

New Mineral Gum. — This gum is reported to be an excellent sub- 
stitute for gum arabic, glue, etc., and to make an excellent cement with 
gypsum, and consists of a solution of aluminium phosphate in sulphuric 
or phosphoric acid. It is said to be made by moistening 380 pounds 
rodondo phosphate (?) with 15 gallons of water, adding 10 gallons of 
sulphuric acid, specific gravity i-6, previously diluted with 35 gallons 
of water ; boiling the mixture for several hours, then filtering by means 
of a Needham's press, concentrating the solution, adding a little more 
phosphate while concentrating, and removing an excess of acid, if pres- 
ent, by lime. 

If phosphoric acid is used instead of sulphuric acid, it is made by 
the action of sulphuric acid on bone-dust. — 7^/V.,Nov. 5, 1879, p. 45. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof Samuel P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry. — On a new Method of Preparing Hydrohromic 
and Hydriodic Acid Gas. — G. Bruylants has sought to avail himself of 
the fact that bromine and iodine combine at ordinary temperatures with 
many organic bodies, and under the influence of heat, escape as hydro- 
hromic or hydriodic acid gases, in preparing these gases for use. Of 
different organic bodies tried he finds that oil of copaiba works most 
readily, giving up almost, if not quite, all the bromine or iodine in the 
form of hydrogen bromide or iodide. The oil should distill at 250*^ to 
255°C., and should be previously dried over calcium chloride. Some 
50 per cent, of such oil, or even at times 80 per cent., may be gotten 
from the copaiba balsam. A given amount of this oil will convert 
three times its weight of bromine or iodine into the corresponding 
hydrogen compound : 60 grams of oil were taken and placed in a 



2 



1 8 Chemical Notes, {"""jiT^lz:!" 

retort or flask, connected with an inverted condenser, the upper end of 
which connected with a tube for drying gases. After warming 
the oil, 20 grams of iodine were gradually dissolved and the whole 
heated, when an abundant and regular evolution of gas commenced. 
When it had ceased the retort was allowed to cool somewhat and a 
fresh portion of iodine added. In this way 150 grams of iodine were 
converted into 145 to 150 grams of hydrogen iodide. Bromine acts 
in the same way when dropped in from a funnel tube provided with 
stop-cock. The copaiba oil gradually solidifies during this reaction, and 
cymol was recognized among the products. — Ber. der Chem. Ges.^ xii, 
p. 2059. 

On the Volatility of Platinum in Chlorine Gas, — As bearing upon the 
recent results of Victor Meyer, on the behavior of chlorine at high 
temperatures, F. Seelheim gives some experiments made by him upon 
the volatility of platinum. He found that platinum, heated to bright 
redness, while a slow stream of chlorine gas was passed over it, was 
volatilized, and well-defined crystals were gotten in the cooler part of 
the tube. Platinous chloride was decomposed when heated in a tube 
to bright redness, and crystals of platinum were also gotten. Now, the 
observed increase in volume of the chlorine, in Victor Meyer's experi- 
ment, may be explained in part by this volatilization of platinum from 
the platinous chloride used without any necessity of supposing a decom- 
position of the chlorine. — Idem.^ xii, p. 2066. 

On the Antiseptic Action of the Acids. — Miss Nadina Sieber has pub- 
lished the results of a series of experiments which were made to estab- 
lish how much acid was necessary to prevent decomposition in solu- 
tions charged with fermenting materials. It was found that the 
presence of 0*5 per cent, of hydrochloric, sulphuric, phosphoric and 
acetic acid was sufficient to prevent perfectly this decomposition ; of 
butyric acid about i per cent, was necessary, and of lactic acid even 
more. In the case of boracic acid even 4 per cent, was not sufficient 
to completely prevent decomposition, while half of a per cent, of 
phenol had pronounced antiseptic properties. — four, fur pr. Chem.., 19, 

P- 433- 

Organic Chemistry. — On the Antiseptic Properties of Pyrogallic Acid. 
— V^. Bovet has shown i), that pyrogallic acid in i to ij per cent, 
solution hinders the decomposition of animal tissue ; 2), that in 2 to l\ 
per cent, solution a material, smelling strongly and filled with bacteria, is 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Jan., i£8o. 



Chemical Notes, 



19 



deprived of its odor and the organisms killed in a very short time ; 3), 
that in 2 per cent, solution the alcoholic fermentation and likewise the 
formation of mould is prevented. — Idem.^ p. 445. 

On Carbohydrates, — Franchimont has made studies upon several of 
the sugar varieties, which may be summarized as follows: 

I. On Tunicin or Animal Cellulose. The mass, purified by treatment 
with acids, alkalies, alcohol and ether, was dissolved in ammoniacal 
solution of cupric oxide and precipitated by hydrochloric acid, washed 
and dried. It was then treated with sulphuric acid in the cold and 
examined in the polariscope, when it showed right rotation. After 
boiling for 48 hours with inverted condenser, the excess of acid was 
removed with barium carbonate, and the solution concentrated to the 
point of crystallization. The substance so gotten had aH the appear- 
ance of ordinary glucose, and showed similar rotatory power, diminish- 
ing after some hours nearly one-half. He considers the sugar formed 
as ordinary glucose, and therefore the tunicin may have the same for- 
mula as vegetable cellulose, although the possibility remains that it 
may be a multiple of it. 

II. On Glucose. Upon attempting to get an acetyl compound from 
glucose by Liebermann's method, using acetic anhydride and fused 
sodium acetate, he obtained a compound, crystallizing out of ether in 
dazzling white cauliflower-like crystals, which appeared to be an 
octacetyl-saccharose formed from two molecules of glucose. This 
compound is not readily oxidizable, and the aldehyde character of 
glucose seems to have vanished entirely. The author proposes at a 
future date to make public some views on the structure of glucose 
which will explain this fact as observed. 

III. On Vegetable Cellulose. Upon trying the Liebermann method 
upon ordinary Swedish filter paper no acetyl compound of cellulose 
was gotten until a few drops of sulphuric acid were added, when a 
strong reaction set in. Several products were gotten, the best crystal- 
lized of which seems to be a tri-glucose, containing eleven acetyl groupes, 
a compound which might result from three molecules of glucose by the 
loss of two molecules of water. The author has studied also the 
acetyl derivatives of other carbohydrates, such as inulin, saccharose, 
starch and dextrin, and promises to communicate these results at a 
future time. — Ber. der Chem. Ges.^ xii, p. 1938. 

On a new base obtained from ^inia. — Wischnegradsky and Butlerow 



20 



Goto Barks, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1880. 



had announced some time ago that cinchonia, under the influence of 
alkalies, was decomposed into chinolin and a solid compound, which 
subsequently on decomposition yielded ethyl-pyridin. From this was- 
drawn the conclusion that cinchonia contained both the chinolin and 
the pyridin grouping. They had also shown that quinia, under the 
same treatment, yielded a base similar but not identical with chinolin, 
and a second compound corresponding to the ethyl-pyridin. They 
therefore thought it probable that the difference between quinia and 
cinchonia lay in the difference in the chinolin grouping, and that the 
oxygen atom, by which the two compounds differ, is in the chinolin 
group. They have now prepared this base, and find it to contain 
oxygen. The free base boils at 280°, under partial decomposition. Its- 
composition appears to be Cj^HgNO. This differs from lepidin only 
by an atom of oxygen. Its solution, and the solution of its salts, show 
decided blue fluorescence. The authors will continue their study of 
this base. — Ber. Chem. Ges.^ xii., p. 2093, St. Petersburg Corresp. 



ON THE GOTO BARKS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTIC 

CONSTITUENTS, 

By Jul. Jobst and O. Hesse. 
Abstract of a reprint from "Liebig's Annalen," vol. 1 99, p. 17-96. Communicated 
by the authors. 

The investigations concerning coto bark, made by Wittstein, Hartz 
and vcn Gietl, have been previously reported C-'Amer. Jour. Pharm.,'* 
1875, p. 541); also the results of the chemical investigation by Jobst 
of true coto bark, and of a similar bark, named paracoto bark by the 
authors {ibid.^ 1876, p. 352, 1877, P- 7°)- Brazil the bark of 

Palicurea densiflora, Mart.^ nat. ord., Rubiaceae, is known as coto-coto ; 
but the origin of the two Bolivian barks, of which the paracoto bark 
is collected on the banks of the river Mapiri, has not been ascertained. 

Coto bark is met with in flat or slightly curved pieces, either irregu- 
laily broken or 0*6 meter long, 60 millimeters wide and from 8 to 
millimeters thick. It is deprived of the corky layer, of which occa- 
sionally small patches remain, and has a reddish cinnamon color, darker 
upon the inner surface, and an agreeable odor, somewhat cinnamon- 
like, which, on bruising the bark, is more powerful and strongly ster- 
nutatory. The taste is biting, but neither bitter, mucilaginous or 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1880. 



Coto Barks. 



21 



astringent. The outer layer breaks granular and nearly even, but the 
inner bark has a coarsely fibrous and splintery fracture. 

Hartz observed that the membranes of all the cells, except those of 
the sclerenchyma and liber are tinged blue by iodated zinc chloride, as 
well as by iodine and sulphuric acid, and therefore consist of pure 
cellulose. The sclerenchyma and bast cells are of a golden-yellow 
color and are not tinged by immersion in solution of iodine or rosanilin, 
and subsequent washing with glycerin ; their walls consist of numerous 
concentric layers, which contain numerous pores, are woody and very 
hard. The outer and inner bark contain in the unthickened parenchyma 
cells a little tannin, reacting green with iron salts, phlobaphen-like 
substances, which are soluble in alkalies, a small quantity of little 
starch granules, and drops or globules composed of resin and volatile 
oils. 

Paracoto bark is met with in pieces sometimes 0"j meter long, 40 
to 70 millimeters wide, and from 12 to 18 millimeters thick. The 
outer surface is frequently covered with the whitish, deeply fissured, 
cork 5 otherwise the color and the fracture are the same as in true coto 
bark. The odor is much fainter, and resembles that of nutmeg ; the 
taste is slightly acrid. This bark is at present much more common in 
the market than the former. In its medicinal action it is decidedly 
weaker. 

The investigation of the chemical constituents gave the following 
results : 

CoTOiN. — The etherial tincture of true coto bark is contentrated, 
and while still warm, mixed with warm petroleum benzin ; on cooling 
a considerable quantity of a blackish-brown oleoresin is deposited, and 
the clear solution, left to spontaneous evaporation of the ether, separates 
large sulphur-yellow crystals of cotoin. The oleoresin is boiled with 
water and a little lime, the clear brown-yellow solution, while still hot, 
is supersaturated with acetic or hydrochloric acid, and the turbid liquid 
^et aside for about twenty-four hours, when the cotoin will have crys- 
tallized in large shining yellowish crystalline plates, and upon these in 
-single needles or in acicular groups. The crystals are purified by 
recrystallization from boiling water with the addition of a little animal 
charcoal. This operation is very tedious, owing to the cotoin melting 
and its sparing solubility in this condition. 

Thus prepared cotoin forms pale-yellow, usually curved prisms, but 



22 



Goto Barks. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm,, 
t Jan., 1880. 



is obtained in large prisms or plates on the slow evaporation of its solu- 
cion in chloroform or alcohol. In the latter case it is occasionally 
obtained amorphous and crystallizes after some time. It is easily 
soluble in alcohol, chloroform, benzol, aceton and carbon bisulphide, 
but is nearly insoluble in petroleum naphtha. . Cold water dissolves 
very little cotoin, but acquires a rather yellow color ; it is somewhat 
more soluble in boiling water. Alkalies and alkaline carbonates dissolve 
cotoin readily and separate it again completely on the addition of hydro- 
chloric or sulphuric acid. The same solutions treated with carbonic 
acid gas deposit by far the la5;gest part of cotoin, which is also soluble in 
potassium disulphide and again precipitated by acids. 

Concentrated nitric acid colors cotoin blood-red ; on heating dis- 
solves it with a blood-red color, and deposits a red resin on cooling or 
on the addition of water. Cotoin dissolves in concentrated sulphuric 
acid with a brown-yellow, and in warm hydrochloric acid with a yellow 
color, and crystallizes from the latter solution unaltered. The aqueous 
solution of cotoin has a neutral reaction, and reduces gold and silver salts 
in the cold; it is not precipitated by neutral acetate, but yields a yellow 
precipitate with basic acetate of lead, and a brownish-black precipitate, 
or in dilute solution a brownish-black color, with ferric chloride. The 
alcoholic solution of cotoin is colored intensely brown-red by ferric 
chloride, and yields, with aqueous solution of lead acetate, a yellow 
crystalline deposit of cotoin. Fehling's solution is reduced slowly in. 
the cold, but rapidly on heating. 

Cotoin has a burning acrid taste ; its dust excites sneezing and 
coughing. It has no action on polarized light. It melts at I30°C, 
(266°P\) (if contaminated with even traces of resins at a lower point),, 
and congeals on cooling in a crystalline condition. At a higher tem,- 
perature it is decomposed. It is free from water of crystallization, its 
composition being represented by the empirical formula Q.^^^^O^. A 
saturated solution of cotoin in ammonia yields with lead acetate a 
bright-yellow, amorphous precipitate of trilead cotoin, C22Hj2Pb30g. 

When heated in a sealed tube for tvvo hours to I40°C. with strong 
hydrochloric acid, benzoic acid and a little of a red amorphous substance 
is produced. Benzoic acid is also produced on melting cotoin with 
potassium hydrate, together with a small quantity of an oily substance 
having a bitter almond odor. 

Tribromcotoin^ CggH^gBrgOg, is obtained by acting with bromine at the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1880. J 



Goto Barks, 



23 



common temperature upon cotoin dissolved in chloroform, evaporating 
the solvent and crystallizing from hot alcohol. It crystallizes in yel- 
low prisms, melts at II4°C., is nearly insoluble in cold water, but dis- 
solves gradually in boiling water with a dark blood-red color. It is 
readily soluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether, and is colored yellow 
by cold, and dissolved by warm sulphuric acid with a dingy-brown 
color. Warm nitric acid produces a reddish-yellow resin. 

Triacetylcotoin^ Q.^^^^O^ {Q^^O.^^^ is obtained in large prisms on 
heating cotoin with acetic anhydrid in a sealed tube to 160° or lyo^C. 
for two hours, and recrystallizing from boiling water. It is freely soluble 
in chloroform and ether, less in cold alcohol, and is not colored by ferric 
chloride or warm nitric acid. 

DicoTOiN. — On treating crude cotoin with boiling water, repeating 
the operation with the mother-liquor from the crystallized cotoin, after 
a whiTe the foliaceous crystals increase in quantity and require to be 
separated mechanically from the cotoin. The authors formerly called 
this compound cotonetin^ and gave it the formula ^^^if^^^ ; but it is 
now regarded as dicotoin^ of the formula C^^^Hg^O^j. It melts in boil- 
ing water and dissolves sparingly, separating on cooling again in pale 
yellow plates like cotoin. On dissolving the residue in ether, treating 
with animal charcoal and evaporating spontaneously, a yellow amor- 
phous mass is obtained, which soon changes to tabular crystals of 
cotoin. Dicotoin is, therefore, the anhydrid of cotoin \ it crystallizes 
in nearly white scales, which are readily soluble in alcohol, aceton, 
ether, chloroform, ammonia and soda solution. Its alcoholic solution 
IS colored strongly brown-red with ferric chloride, and its solution in 
ammonia yields with lead acetate an amorphous yellow precipitate of 
variable composition. 

Paracotoin. — The concentrated etherial tincture of paracoto bark 
congeals in a few days to a crystalline mass, consisting of paracotoin, 
leucotin, oxyleucotin and dibenzoyl-hydrocoton. This is expressed to 
separate the resinous mother-liquor and recrystallized in fractions from 
hot alcohol, from which paracotoin crystallizes first. It is pure, when 
on boiling with strong nitric acid it is colored yellow or brownish-yel- 
low, but not blue green. It forms pale yellow, shining laminae, melting 
at I52°C., congealing at I48°C., and subliming at a higher tempera- 
ture. It is easily soluble in ether, chloroform, and in boiling alcohol, 
aceton and benzol \ also somewhat soluble in boiling water and 



24 



Goto Barks, 



Am. Jour Pharm. 
Jan., 1880 



ammonia, and crystallizes from the hot solutions. It has a neutral reac- 
tion, is tasteless, and is not colored by ferric chloride. Its composition 
is Cj9Hj20g, and on being dissolved in solution of potassa or soda, it is 
converted into a weak acid — paracotoic acid, C^gH^^Oy. Sulphuric and 
nitric acid dissolve paracotoin yellowish brown, the warm solution of 
the latter depositing on cooling yellow prisms. 

On adding bromine to the chloroformic solution of paracotoin 
hydrobromic acid is given off, and a scarlet-red crystalline precpitate is 
produced, which, on dryiiig, becomes yellow and at I00°C. green, with 
the evolution of hydrobromic acid ; its composition is CggHgiBrgO^a^ 

On fusing paracotoin with caustic potassa, protocatechuic and formic 
acids are produced ; and on boiling it with solution of potassa para- 
cumarhydrin^Q^W^O^ is formed, which is in colorless scales of a couma- 
rin-like odor; neutral to test paper, and freely soluble in ether, alcohol, 
aceton and chloroform, but sparingly soluble in. cold water. At the 
same time an acid homologous with piperonylic acid is generated, and 
paracotoic acid^ C^gH^^O^, which is insoluble in water, readily soluble in 
alcohol and ether, and not colored by ferric chloride. 

Leucotin, C3^H320jq, is present in largest proportion among the 
crystalline constituents of paracoto bark, and is readily dissolved from 
the mixture by glacial acetic acid, and purified by recrystallization from 
warm dilute alcohol. It crystallizes in small white prisms, which are 
readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, aceton and glacial acetic 
acid. It melts at 97°C., is not colored by ferric chloride, and yields 
with strong nitric acid a blue-green resin and a blue-green solution, 
which is rendered turbid by water. It yields with bromine d'lhromleu- 
cotin^ Cg^HggBrgOjQ, and tetrahromleucot'in ^Q^^^^x fly^^ which are crys- 
talline. 

On fusing leucotin with potassa, hydrocoton, CjgHg^Og is volatilized, 
and protocatechuic and formic acid are formed, together with protoca- 
techuic aldehyd, C.HgOg, and cotogen'in C^^H^^Og, which is sparingly 
soluble in alcohol and ether, melts at 2io°C., and at a higher temperature 
vields pyrocatechin. 

OxYLEUCOTiN, C3^H320i2, IS left in the alcoholic mother-liquor of 
paracotoin. To free it from the latter warm potassa solution is used, 
and the undissolved oxyleucotin is crystallized from boiling alcohol or 
glacial acetic acid, on the cooling of which solvents it separates in 
handsome prisms, which are also soluble in warm chloroform, ether 



Am. Jour. P^la^^i. 
Jan., iS8o. 



Goto Barks. 



25 



and benzol. Warnn nitric acid acquires with oxyleucotin a blue green 
color, and forms a resin of a similar color. Bromine produces two 
crystallizable substitution products, and fusing potassa decomposes oxy- 
leucotin into hydrocoton, cotogenin and benzoic, protocatechuic and 
formic acids. 

DiBENzoYLHYDROCOTON, C32H320y, is Contained in the crude leucotin, 
and prepared by washing it with little glacial acetic acid, and recrystalliz- 
ing the undissolved portion from the same solvent. It is readily soluble 
in hot alcohol and glacial acetic acid, and in cold chloroform, ether and 
aceton, and is insoluble in petroleum naphtha. Nitric acid produces a 
blue-green resin and liquid. With fusing potassa, hydrocoton and ben- 
zoic acid are formed, together with a little cotogenin and protocate- 
chuic acid. Bromine yields two substitution compounds. 

Hydrocotoin, Ci5Hi^04, remains in the resinous mother-liquor 
separated from the mixture of paracotoin and other constituents. It 
is dissolved in dilute solution of soda, the liquid supersaturated with 
hydrochloric acid and the precipitate recrystallized from boiling alco- 
hol. It forms large pale-yellow prisms or long thin needles, is spar- 
ingly soluble in petroleum naphtha, more so in ether, and freely soluble 
in chloroform and aceton. It has a neutral reaction, melts at gS^C, 
and yields with ferric chloride a deep brown-red color, and with sul- 
phuric acid a dark yellow solution. It yields substitution products with 
bromine and acetyl, and with fusing potassa is decomposed into hydro- 
coton and benzoic acid, probably with a little methylic alcohol. 

PiPERONYLic Acid, CgHgO^ — Paracoto bark, exhausted with ether, 
is treated with lime and water, the alkaline liquid supersaturated with 
hydrochloric acid, agitated with ether, and this solution evaporated ; 
the semi-crystalline mass is dissolved in boiling alcohol, when, on cool- 
ing, piperonylic acid ^ crystallizes. Goto bark, treated in the same 
manner yields the same acid, but in much smaller quantity. It is net 
altered by melting it with potassa, or by treatment with potassium per- 
manganate. Its salts are mostly crystallizable ; those with the alkalies 
are freely soluble in water, those with other metals are mostly sparingly 
soluble in cold water. The quinia piperonylate, C2oH4oN202- CgHgO^ 
-j- H2O, crystallizes in white needles, is rather freely soluble in hot 

^ This acid was discovered by Fittig and Mieick (1869) on treating piperic acid 
with potassium permanganate, when piperonal, having a coumarin-like odor, and 
piperonylic acid are produced, which sublimes at 228^0. — Editor. 



26 



Goto Barks, 



f Am Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan., 1880. 



water, but requires, at I2°C., 733 parts for solution. The quinidia 
(conchinia) salt is amorphous. The piperonylic ethyl ether is a thin, 
very refractive yellow^ish liquid of an agreeable fruit odor. 

On treating piperonylic acid vi^ith concentrated nitric acid several 
nitro-compounds (nitropiperonylic acid, mononitro- and dinitro- 
methylenpyrocatechin) are obtained. 

Volatile Oil of Paracoto Bark. — It is obtained by distillation 
with superheated steam, is colorless, has a neutral reaction, a very 
agreeable odor, at I5°C. the specific gravity is '9275, and is slightly 
levogyre (-2'I2° for 100 mm.). Five different compounds were 
obtained by the repeated fractional distillation of the volatile oil. 

a Paracoten^ C^gHjg, boils at i6o°C., has an odor resembling that of 
bitter almond and turpentine, does not absorb dry hydrochloric acid gas,, 
and is colored red by sulphuric acid. 

/5 Paracoten, C^^H^g, boils at 170 to 172^0., has a slight agreeable 
odor, does not absorb hydrobhloric acid gas, and is colored dark red by 
sulphuric acid. 

a Paracotol^ C15H24O, boils at 220 to 222 °C., has a faint odor, becomes 
green and then gray with bromine, and yields with sulphuric acid a red 
ointment-like mass, and with nitric acid a yellow resin. 

/? Paracotol^ Q.^^^O^^ boils at 236^0., has a faint aromatic odor, is 
colored blue and green by bromine, yields with nitric acid a red resin^ 
and with sulphuric acid a red solution. 

y Paracotol^ Co^H^Og, boils at 240 to 2420°., and is the heaviest of 
these constituents, its spec. grav. being '9650. It has a very faint odor, 
behaves with sulphuric and nitric acids like the preceding oil, and 
detonates with bromine, acquiring at the same time a blue, then a violet 
red, and after 12 hours a dark green color. 

Physiological and Therapeutical Action. — Dr. Burkart 
observes that 0*5 to I'Ogram of coto bark produces eructations, nausea, 
a continued feeling of warmth in the stomach, and even vomiting. The 
alcoholic tincture (i : 9) has a biting and acrid taste, and applied to the 
skin produces hyperaemia of the part and burning \ taken internally, it 
produces the same symptoms as the bark. 

Paracotobark and its tincture act similar as the preceding, but the 
effect upon the skin, mucous membrane and sores is very weak. 

From his use of coto bark and its tincture in private practice, as well 
as in the Ludwig's hospital at Stuttgart, Dr. Burkart confirms in 



Am, Jour. Pharm, I 
Jan., i88o. J 



Co^o Barks, 



27 



general the observations of Dr. von Gietl, that coto bark may be 
regarded as a specific against diarrhoea in its various modifications ; but 
the unpleasant secondary effects seem to render it an undesirable rem- 
edy. Paracoto bark and its tincture were found to possess scarcely any 
effect in the disease mentioned. 

Cotoin vi^as used in doses of 0*05 gram every two or three hours, 
either in powder or in aqueous solution, with the addition of a flavoring 
excipient, and was found to be particularly useful in chronic intestinal 
catarrh combined with atonic condition of the membranes. Phthisical 
diarrhoeas were alleviated and a diminution of the fever resulted. The 
observations in diarrhoea of children have as yet been too limited. 

Cotoin is excreted through the urine within 4 or 6 hours after taking 
it, and may be recognized by its behavior to nitric acid. Dr. Burkart 
suggests that cotoin may be useful in cholera in the form of hypoder- 
mic injections. 

Paracotoin was found by Dr. Burkart to have no action whatever 
upon the mucous membranes, and to be excreted with the urine. It 
was given in doses of o*i to 0*2 gram every two or three hours, in 24 
cases of acute intestinal catarrh, 3 cases of cholera nostras and 6 cases 
of chronic intestinal catarrh. In 22 out of the 24 cases three or four 
doses effected a cure ; in the other 2 cases no effect was observed. 
Two cases of cholera nostras were cured, ice and champaign having 
been given at the same time. The third case was a man 74 years old, 
who died on the third day. Three cases of chronic diarrhoea were 
those of consumptives, and were much benefitted. The other three 
cases required, respectively, 3 weeks, 2 weeks and 4 days for curing 
the diarrhoea. 

Paracotoin has been successfully used, hypodermically, in 5 cases of 
cholera in Japan (" Centralbl. d. Medic. Wissensch.," 1878, p. 482); 
the chief difficulty for this form of medication being its limited solu- 
bility. Paracotoic acid, which is formed from paracotoin by the addi- 
tion of I molecule H2O, was experimented with by Dr. Burkart, who 
found it to possess a slight aromatic odor and taste, to irritate but little 
the mucous membranes of the mouth, to somewhat stimulate the secre- 
tion of saliva, and to produce a very insignificant irritation on wounds 
and sores ; it may be given without inconvenience in doses of 0*5 to 
1*0 gram, but is otherwise physiologically and therapeutically indifferent. 



28 Ozonization of Air by Moist Phosphorus. { jlris^so^"* 

Three cases, of diarrhoea, which paracotoic acid failed to relieve, 
yielded promptly to paracotoin. 

Oxyleucotin, leucotin and hydrocotoin resemble cotoin and paraco- 
toin in their action, but require very large doses to produce the same 
effects. 

The five volatile oils of paracoto bark do not possess any important 
physiological action ; the properties of that bark reside, therefore, 
almost exclusively in the paracotoin, and of true coto bark in cotoin. 
The volatile oil of the latter bark has not been further exammed. 

, J. M. M. 

AMMONIUM NITRITE and the BY-PPRODUCTS obtained 
in the OZONIZATION of AIR by MOIST PHOSPHORUS. 

By a. R. Leeds. 

Sterry Hunt, as long ago as 1848, threw out the suggestion that the 
nitrogen of the atmosphere is really composed of two equivalents 
(atoms) of the element, sustaining toward each other the same rela- 
tions as the two equivalents (atoms) in nitrous oxide. Schaeffer 
appears to have arrived at a similar conclusion concerning the dual 
nature of nitrogen, and holds Hunt's view, that it is the nitryl of 
ammonium nitrite, and capable of forming this body by assuming 
again the elements of water. In 1862 Schonbein published an exten- 
sive series of experiments on the generation of ammonium nitrite 
from water and atmospheric air under the influence of heat. In none 
of these experiments, however, was the precaution apparently taken 
to use air which had been purified from its pre-existing ammoniacal 
and nitrous compounds. In repeating these experiments Carius 
employed most elaborate precautions, using only air and water which 
had been most carefully purified. The water was evaporated both with 
a rapid and with a slow change of atmosphere, at various temperatures, 
from the ordinary temperature of the air to 100°, both alone and after 
addition of baryta, the latter being devoid of nitrogen compounds, in 
contact with platinum spirals, and diffused over a great surface of puri- 
fied cotton-wool, but in no case was ammonium nitrite formed. In 
such experiments therefore it is of the highest importance to exclude 
the possibility of the formation of ammonium nitrite and nitrous com- 
pounds from any extraneous sources. In cases of rapid oxidation, like 
the combustion of hydrocarbons, fats, phosphorus and other bodies in 



"^>Iri8^8Sr™ } Ozonization of Air by Moist Phosphorus. 29 

the air, if it be true that ammonium nitrite is formed, irrespective of 
any nitrogen compounds pre-existing in the atmosphere, the origin of 
this ammonium nitrite is to be looked for in other causes than the con- 
junction of atmospheric air and water-vapor under the influence of 
heat. The same remark applies if any ammonium nitrite is formed by 
the slow oxidation of phosphorus in contact with air and water. 

Quite independently of the work done by other observers, an 
extended series of experiments was instituted by the author upon the 
phenomena which accompanied the ozonization of air by means of 
phosphorus. In the earlier trials, attention was limited to the question 
whether oxidized compounds of nitrogen were produced or not. Subse- 
quently, the research was made to include all other by-products. It 
was deemed important to purify and measure the air used and the ozone 
formed, to determine the amount of phosphorus consumed and of phos- 
phoric and phosphorous acids produced, and in case they were really 
present and it were possible to estimate them, the amounts of nitrogen 
compounds, of hydrogen peroxide and ozone, remaining in solution in 
the jar and wash-waters. 

The phosphorus ozonator described in the ''Journal of the Ameri- 
can Chemical Society," vol. i, p. 8, was employed throughout the whole 
course of this investigation. The most important result which the 
author appears to have arrived at is that the chief by-product of the 
ozonization of moist air by phosphorus is not phosphorous acid but 
phosphoric acid. It is generally stated that the former of these two 
substances is the one principally formed under these circumstances^ 
This may be true in the sense that the phosphorous acid is first formed 
and that it is gradually transformed into phosphoric acid under the 
influence of nascent ozone. The author could not determine this point 
very readily in the course of these experiments. It is certainly an 
error to ascribe, as is done in various text-books, the dense white fumes 
seen in the ozonizing chambers to ammonium nitrite — they are chiefly 
due to phosphoric anhydride. 

The author's experiments do not permit him to say that no ammo- 
nium nitrite was formed during any period of the ozonization ; they 
prove merely that no ammonium nitrite could be detected at its close. 
If therefore this body were produced, it must have become oxidized to 
:-mmonium nitrate. 

As to the cause of the formation of ozone itself under these circnm- 



30 Nicotin and Nicotinic Acid, { jiZ is?o?'°' 

stances, it may be conjectured, with Lament and others, that it is con- 
nected with the uneven quantivalence of the elements taking part in 
the reaction, which may be represented by the equation -f = 
P2O3 + P2O5 + ^Og. If this be true, we should anticipate the 
development of ozone whenever oxidation of a perissad occurred at 
temperatures compatible with the stability of the ozone molecule. In 
entering into new combinations, the oxygen molecules must undergo 
temporary resolution into their constituent atoms. These, while in the 
course of taking up new positions in other combinations, and animated 
by their atomic energy or energy of the nascent state, may either 
oxidize the oxygen molecule, or the nitrogen, or the molecule of water. 
In the first case, ozone would be produced ; in the second, regarding 
water as the basic body and NNO as the nitryl, there might be 
formed, as Hunt has indicated, ammonium nitrate ; in the third, hydro- 
gen peroxide. — 'Jour, Chem. Soc,^ Nov., 1879, p. 881, from Chem. 
News. 



NICOTIN AND NICOTINIC ACID. 

By R. Laiblin. 

The following modification of Schloesing's process for preparing 
nicotin is recommended : Coarsely-cut tobacco is digested for a day 
with cold water, and the mixture subsequently boiled by injection of 
superheated steam, filtered, and the residue pressed. The same series of 
operations is repeated, and the mixed filtrates are evaporated to one- 
third of their volume. A quantity of lime, one-tenth of the weight of 
the tobacco used, is now added, and the mixture distilled by a current 
of steam as long as nicotin (recognized by its odor) comes over. The 
distillate is exactly neutralized by oxalic acid, the amount used being 
noted, and evaporated to a thin syrup. The exact amount of potash 
necessary to neutralize the oxalic acid is now added, and the crude nic- 
otin which separates is collected. The remaining liquid is exhausted 
with ether, and the nicotin thus extracted added to that first obtained. 
That portion of the crude base which distils over below 250° is con- 
verted into oxalate by adding powdered oxalic acid to its ethereal solu- 
tion ; and the purified oxalate, which separates as a syrup, after being 



"""^ jln";8^8o"" } . Nicotin and Nicotinic Acid, 31 

washed with ether, is dissolved in water and again decomposed with 
potash as above. The product is finally heated to iio°C. for six hours 
by a paraffin-bath, and a slow stream of dry hydrogen passed through 
!t to remove ammonia, ether and water. The temperature is then 
gradually raised to 2io°C. to complete the removal of the water, and on 
fractionally distilling the residue, pure nicotin comes over between 240 
and 242°C. It must be preserved in sealed tubes. One centner of 
tobacco thus treated yielded 600 grams of pure nicotin (=1 J per cent.), 
besides impure base. 

Nicotin is not decomposed into well-defined simpler bodies by heat- 
ing with hydrochloric acid at 280 and 300°C. No addition product" is 
formed by the action of nascent hydrogen on the brominated hydro- 
bromide, CioHi3N2Br5. 

Nicotin is readily oxidized by potassium permanganate in the cold, 
but only when the salt is added to its solution as long as it is decolor- 
ized is it possible to obtain crystalline oxidation-products. By employ- 
ing a suitable process, which is fully described, potassium carbonate and 
nicotinate are the sole products found. The nicotinate is dissolved out 
by absolute alcohol, and converted into silver salt' by precipitation. 
Nicotinic acid may be obtained from this by decomposing it with 
hydrogen sulphide. 

Nicotinic acid was first obtained by Huber, by oxidizing nicotin with 
chromic mixture, and was subsequently recognized by him as carhopyri- 
denic acid, C^H.N.COOH ("Ber.," 3, 849). Weidel also (''Annalen," 
165, 328), by acting on nicotin with nitric acid, obtained an acid which he 
identified with Ruber's and which the author, by a crystallographic 
comparison of salts, proves to be identical with his own \ he, however, 
assigned to it the formula CjQHgN203. By analyses of the acid and a 
variety of its salts (silver, calcium, potassium) and other compounds 
with hydrochloric acid and auric and platinic chlorides, the author 
decides in favor of Huber's formula. He also shows that when nico- 
tinic acid is distilled with soda-lime, it yields a quantity of pyridene 
nearly equal to that which might be expected from a carbopyridenit 
acid. Moreover, nicotin yields carbopyridenic acid in almost molecular 
proportion. 

Nicotinic acid forms crystalline compounds with hydrochloric and 
hydrobromic acids, of the formula C6H5NO2.HCI and C^H^NO^HBr. 



32 Nicotin and Nicotinic Acid. . 

Ethyl chlorocarbonate acts violently on pyridene, but does not fornn> 
ethyl nicotinate ; the only products are ethyl chloride, ethyl carbonate, 
and pyridene hydrochloride. Neither is ethyl nicotinate formed by 
acting with ethyl iodide on silver nicotinate. When the compound oi 
nicotinic chloride with hydrochloric acid (see below) is treated with 
absolute alcohol, a violent action occurs, and the product evaporated in 
a desiccator deposits crystals of nicotinic acid hydrochloride. The 
mother liquor from these crystals gives with caustic soda an oily liquid, 
probably containing the ether, Vv'hich no doubt existed in combination 
with dydrochloric acid. 

If nicotinic acid, or better, potassium nicotinate, is treated with phos - 
phorus pentachloride, energetic action ensues, and a volatile crystalline 
compound sublimes, the analysis of which corresponds approximately with 
the formula C^H^N.COCl. HCI. This chloride is insoluble in ether, 
chloroform, benzin, and petroleum-ether. When heated with water it is 
reconverted into nicotinic acid ; but no amide could be formed from it 
by the action of ammojiia. 

When the double chloride of zinc and nicotin, CjoHj^Na-lHCl-}- 
ZnCi2-l-4H^O, is distilled with soda- lime, a large quantity of gas is 
given off, containing ammonia, methylamin, free hydrogen and traces 
of hydrocarbons. The liquid distillate consists principally of nicotin, 
but contains also a considerable quantity of pyrrol, which was sepa- 
rated by fractional distillation, and analyzed as the cadmium double salt. 
By carefully adding water to the fraction 245 — 270°, containing much 
nicotin, an oily liquid was separated, which, when dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid and fractionally precipitated by platinic chloride gave a 
carmine-red easily decomposable double salt, (Cj^3HjiN.HC])2.PtCl^. 
The free base is a yellowish liquid of extremely penetrating and repul- 
sive odor, boiling between 250 and 270^^. The smallest quantity of it, 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, gives an intensely red solution when 
boiled with platinic chloride. It is probably formed from nicotin by the 
direct separation of ammonia, C\qHj_jN2 — NHg^Ci^HiiN. — Jour^ 
Chem. Soc.^ Oct., 1879, I'^'O'ti Liebig's Annalen. 



Am. Jour. Phara. 
Jan., i£8o. 



Commercial Trimethylamin, 



33 



COMMERCIAL TRIMETHYLAMIN. 

By E. DUVILLIER AND A. BUISINE. 

Commercial trimeihylamin prepared by the dry distillation of beet 
molasses, contains other . substances besides trimethyLimin. It is free 
from ammonia, and when treated with oxalic ether yields a dense white 
precipitate. The filtrate concentrated by distillation yields a further pre- 
cipitate. These two precipitates are mixed, and separated by boiling 
water into three portions, one which is insoluble in hot water, but 
which melts and floats on the surface of the liquid, and solidifies like 
wax on cooling ; another more soluble in hot water than the first ; and 
a third still more soluble, especially in hot water. 

The first body, which is di-isobutyloxamide, after recrystallization 
from alcohol, is obtained in pearly needles, which melt in boiling water. 
The free base has a slightly aromatic odor, and yields a platinochloride 
crystallizing in orange-colored plates, and slightly soluble in water. 

The second product crystallizes from alcohol in pearly needles (m. 
p. 110°), and consists of dipropyloxamide. The free base gives an 
orange colored precipitate with platinum chloride. 

By recrystallizing the third product from waterand alcohol, a granu 
lar substance is obtained, intermediate between dipropyloxamide and 
dimethyl'jxamide. The presence of the former body is probably the 
cause of the latter not crystallizing in the ordinary manner. This 
body when decomposed with potash yields a base which forms a golden- 
yellow precipitate with platinum chloride, possessing all the properties of 
the methylamin compound described by Wurtz ("Ann. Chem. Phys." 
[3], 30, 457), and wi.th which the results of the analyses correspond. 

The bodies not precipitated by oxalic ether consist of di- and tri- 
methylamin, and are contained in the mother-liquors (residue and dis- 
tillate). The bases are distilled and collected in absolute alcohol, and 
the solution treated with oxalic ether. When the reaction has ceased, 
the liquid is distilled, and the unatracked base which distils over con- 
sists of trimethylamin . 

The residue is dissolved in water, and caustic baryta is added ; barium 
oxalate is precipitated, which is separated, and the excess of baryta 
precipitated with carbonic anhydride. The filtrate is evaporated, and 
the residue dissolved in alcohol at 80°. On cooling, an amorphous 
mass is left, perfectly insoluble in absolute alcohol, but very soluble in 

3 



3 4 Oil of Calophyilum Imp hy Hum . } ^^Z'^^^^^ 

water. It consists of barium dimethyl-oxamate, and on decomposition 
with potash yields dimethylamin, the double paltinum salt of which 
forms octohedra. 

It is, therefore, evident that commercial trimethylamin is not pure, 
as Vincent (" Bull. Soc. Chim.," 29, 194, and 217, 151) declares it to 
be. The quantity of trimethylamin present is but small, only from 5 to 
10 per cent., that of the dimethylamin being about 50 per cent., whilst 
the remainder consits of methylamin, propylamin and butylamin, in 
about equal propoitions. — Jour. Che?n. Soc.^ Nov., 1879, ^^^^ Compt. 
rend. L. T. O'S. 



THE OIL OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM. 

By J. E. O'CoNNER, Simla. 

This tree is a member of the natural order Guttifera^ an order 
which includes many useful and valuable trees, such as that from which 
gamboge is obtained, the Mesua ferrea^ yielding an excellent timber, 
the mangosteen, and others. It is grown extensively in Java, Ceylon 
and India ; in Bengal, in Madras, in Travancore ; in the Andamans 
(where iVlr. Kurz says it attains an enormous size) and other places, 
succeeding best, it is said, near the seacoast. Roxburgh states that it 
is indigenous near the shores of the southern parts. Inland it is rare, 
and indeed almost non-existent. It is believed that it will not thrive 
beyond a certain distance from the coast. In Calcutta it is to be seen 
in the Botanic Gardens, and is not uncommon in private gardens, in 
many of which it has attained large dimensions. The tree is one of 
very ornamental appearance, and is well worth cultivation if only for 
the beauty of its foliage and fragrant flowers. It is described in botan- 
ical language as having opposite, simple, coriaceous, shiny, closely- 
veined, entire leaves, and axillary drooping racemes of fragrant, white, 
polygamous flowers, 

From the seed-kernels there exudes on pressure an oil which is used 
as a lamp oil, and by the natives as a medicine for external application 
in rheumatism. The oil is variously called Pinnay and Poon oil in 
Southern India (these being also names applied to the tree), Poonung in 
Orissa, and Surpun-ka tel in Hindustani. The Hindustani name of the 
tree, according to Roxburgh, is Sultana Champa. It is in flower and 
fruit most part of the year, but the harvest for oil generally occurs 
twice a year, viz.: in August-September, and February-March. 



^""jLnTisso?™ I Oil of Calophyllum Inophyllum. 35 

Dr. Balfour informs us that the wood of the tree is employed in 
Ceylon for masts and cross- sticks of dhonies and fishing-boats, and poles 
of bullock carts. A cubic foot of the timber weighs 40 pounds. It is 
•coarse-grained but very strong, durable and ornamental, and on the 
Madras coast is used for ship-building. He adds, on the authority of 
Mr. Dalrymple, that no tree is superior to this for ships' knees and 
crooked timber. In Java, Dr. Balfour says, it is cultivated for the sake 
of its shade and the fragrance of its fiowers, and he recommends it as 
worthy of attention because it will grow well in sandy :racts close to 
the sea where few others thrive. 

The oil is manufactured and used in Bombay, in Tinnevelly and 
other parts of India as a lamp oil. The seeds from which it is obtained 
are very oleaginous and yield about 60 percent of their weight of oil.^ 
The fresh seeds when shelled and subjected to pressure yield a dark- 
green oil of a peculiar odor ; old seeds yield a higher colored and 
thicker product. Formerly the seed and oil were shipped from Madras 
to the Straits and Ceylon, but it has now ceased to be an article of 
export. In Tanjore, 437 acres, producing on an average 24^ cuUums 
per acre of seed, are covered with this tree. This yields 2,67 
maunds of oil at Rs. 20*4 per maund. In Tinnevelly it costs 4 annas 
and 8 pies, and in Trichinopoly 4 annas per seer. In Tanjore it is 
used for lamps and for caulking vessels, but is chiefly valuable as a 
medicine. It is seldom procurable in the bazaar, but is expressed when 
required. (Balfour's " Cyclopaedia of India "). 

Major Drury, Useful Plants of India," says that the gum which 
flows from the wounded branches being mixed with strips of the bark 
and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil which rises to the surface is 
used as an application to sore eyes. Dr. Waring, in the "Pharma- 
copoeia of India," says, that the kernels yield a grateful-smelling fixed 
oil, held by the natives in high esteem as an external application for 
rheumatism. From the bark and roots exudes a resinous substance, 
which has been thought, apparently erroneously, to be the Tacamahaca 
of old pharmacologi«ts. It is stated in the " Bengal Dispensatory " to 
resemble myrrh, and to be a useful application to indolent ulcers. True 
East India Tacamahaca is said, by Lindiey, to be the produce of 

^Apparently this is an excessive estimate. It is doubtful whether any seed would 
yield such a large quantity of oil. Castor-seed, for instance, which is highly olea- 
ginous, only yields about 25 per cent, of its bulk in oil. 



3 6 Oil of Calophyllum Inophylium. { ^"^ jfC^fso"'" 

Calophyllum Calaha^ a tree indigenous in Malabar and other parts of the 
Madras Peninsula. 

The medicinal qualities of the oil seem somewhat doubtful. It is- 
certainly held in some repute among the natives as a remedy in rheu- 
matism, but they hold many other oils in equal estimation for the same 
purpose, and in most cases they are inert except mechanically, by pro- 
tecting the surface of the affected part from the action of extremes of 
temperature. In Calcutta the local European druggists are not acquainted 
with the oil as a medicinal agent, nor does it seem to be known in 
commerce. 

The only sample I have met with was at the Economic Museum. 
This sample, w^hich was received from Pooree, is a clear oil of dark 
color, and rather disagreeable odor. It w^ould apparently be well 
adapted for burning, and it is for this purpose it would seem that the 
oil is most used. Dr. Hill, Civil Surgeon of Pooree, says that there 
the oil is only used for burning, though the native doctor in charge of 
the dispensary uses it in the preparation of ointments. The only 
account I have been able to find of the cultivation of the tree is given 
in a recent report by Bahu Nand Kishor Das, Deputy-Collector of 
Pooree. This report was sent to the Economic Museum with the 
sample above referred to. The Bahu writes : " The tree is here called 
Punang. It grows well in sandy soil. The seeds are sown in the 
ground where the trees are intended to grow, and transplantation is 
rarely resorted to.' Until the trees grow to the height of about five or 
six feet they require to be constantly watered and protected from cat- 
tle. They bear fruit when they are about five years old, the trees 
yielding two harvests of oil seeds annually, in August and again in 
February, when the seeds are gathered (those only that are intended to- 
be used as seeds for taansplantation being allowed to fall when ripe). 
The seeds being gathered, are beaten with a small wooden hammer or 
some such thing, which causes the separation of the shell from 
the kernel, which is then cut, sliced and dried in the sun, and is then 
put in the mill. The mill used for the purpose is the common country 
mill, which consists of a small trunk of wood in which a hole is made 

^ From personal experience I should say that a good method of propagation would 
be to let the seeds germinate where they fall in the shade cf the parent tree. This 
they do freely. The transplantation of the young plants when niae or ten inches, 
high is, if carefully done, attended with hardly any loss.. 



^'^'jiZ'rZ^'"'' } Oil of Calophyllum Inophylium, 3'7 

an the form of a frustrum of a cone, the circumference of the hole 
being wider at the bottom than at the top. The oil-seed is deposited 
in the hole, which has a long axis, and the motion is given to the axis 
by bullocks yoked in a horizontal piece of wood attached to the same 
by another piece of wood cut into a curved form. A given quantity 
of seeds will produce one-third of its weight of oils ; thus, three sers 
of seeds will produce one ser of oil. The ordinary price of the oil 
now-a-days is 8 Rs. per maund (of 80 tolahs weight). The oil pro- 
duced here is of the dirtiest kind, and no method of refining is known 
to the manufacturer. The cake is used for fuel, and sometimes in lieu 
of oil for burning. It is not used as food for animals or for manuring." 

Dr. Hill states that the bazaar price of the oil when he wrote was 
six annas the ser of 105 tolahs. When the crop is first gathered, 
which, he says, is three times a year, viz.: in June-July, November- 
December and February- March, the price falls to three sers per rupee. 
At these rates the oil could not compete with castor-oil, the best qual- 
ity of which is now selling in the Calcutta market at 10 Rs., the 
qiaund, unless it could be laid down in great abundance, and of very 
superior quality. The refining of the crude oil would no doubt largely 
increase the prime cost. In Burmah it would seem that things are 
different, for it appears that at Kyouk Phyoo, 40 Rs. (per maund it is 
presumed) have already been offered for the oil. 

The best method of extraction of the oil would be certainly by the 
hydraulic press. The native mill obtains the oil by friction, which 
produces heat, and consequently all the resinous matter of the oil is 
passed out of the seed along with it. The principle of the hydraulic 
mill is simply pressure without heat. This is the principle applied to 
the production of what is called " cold drawn " castor-oil. The mill 
is of very simple construction, consisting simply of a couple of iron 
plates, one being adjusted over the other. Motion is communicated to 
one of the plates (either the upper or the under) by animal, water, or 
steam power. This motion brings the surface of the one plate into 
direct contact with that of the other, crushing everything between. 
The ordinary copying press gives a fair idea of the kind of action 
required. The seed should first be shelled (there are machines for 
this purpose in good oil mills, but in Burmese prisons this would prob- 
ably be done by hand) and then placed in a bag on the fixed plate. Care 
should be taken to spread out the contents of the bag as flatly as pos- 



38 



Drug Smoking. 



j A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan., 1880 



sible. The pressure is then applied and the oil exudes. Several bags 
may be pressed simultaneously, one being placed over the other with 
an iron plate of sufficient strength between each. The necessity of 
flattening out the bags is apparent here, for if this precaution is not 
adopted, the plates which divide each layer of bags would be apt to 
bend or break under pressure. The refining process should be con- 
ducted in the usual manner in filters of animal charcoal or sand, or 
bjth combined. — J^our. of App. Sci.^ Dec. i, 1879. 



DRUG SMOKING. 

Bv Reginald E, Thompson, M.D. 

The following remarks and formulae are extracted from a paper on 

The Therapeutical Value of Drug Smoking," especially in reference 
to asthma, which appeared in the " Practitioner " for August: 

The chief difficulty in treating an individual case of asthma arises 
from individual peculiarities, which makes the choice of the appropriate 
neurotic a matter rather of hap-hazard selection, numerous experiments 
being sometimes necessary before an indication is obtained as to the 
special drug required; one drug will have a so-called magical effect in 
one case which may prove inert when used in another, and hence in 
endeavoring to meet the exigencies of a number of individuals it 
becomes necessary to combine a number of remedies, and such a com- 
bination of drugs becomes more universal in its application in propor- 
tion to its complexity, the chance of its proving effectual in any indi- 
vidual case being greatly enhanced by such a composition. 

It is a matter of some difficulty to analyze with any certainty those 
mixtures of vegetable and other substances which are sold as remedies 
for asthma, but an examination of them shows conclusively that they 
are composite, different leaves being found on submitting any sample 
to microscopical analysis ; some of them contain opium, others do not ^ 
most of them contain lobelia, and it may be stated with some certainty 
that all of them have stramonium for their basis. 

If such remedies are tried in a number of cases it is surprising how 
one remedy at one time appears to be of the greatest service, another 
at another time ; much depends, doubtless, upon the method of prepa- 
ration and preservation, and upon the care with which the drugs are 
selected, and the best secret remedy I know (Himrod's) is evidently 



Am. Jour Pharir, 

Jan., 1880 



Drug Smoking, 



39 



well prepared and preserved, the leaves of which it is composed being 
fresh and green. 

Remedies for asthma are supplied in three forms : a powder which is 
burnt and the fumes of which are inhaled, cigarettes composed of 
tobacco combined with various drugs, or of paper dipped in a solution 
of the drugs. 

The best method of preparing the drugs for the powder form of 
remedy appears to me to be this : the leaves of the vegetables used 
should be procured in good condition and perfectly fresh ; they should 
then be soaked in a solution of nitre (25 per cent.), and the leaves then 
dried by gentle heat and powdered. I have made use of the various 
neurotics in this manner in asthma, first separately, in order to ascer- 
tain the individual value of the remedy, and then in combination, and 
the experiments have now been carried on for many months, and I am 
disposed to place them in the following order of merit : opium, stra- 
monium, cannabis indica, conium, lobelia. 

The three first on the list appear to be the most potent by fumiga- 
tion, but when administered in the wet method (if I may use the term) 
cannabis indica is so uncertain and so apt to produce delirium, especially 
in women, that I prefer conium, a drug from which I have obtained 
extremely good results when administered by the mouth. 

With belladonna I could not satisfy myself that any good results 
were to be obtained by fumigation, and I consider it far inferior to 
those given above in whatever way it is administered. 

The powder may be used by those patients who are not accustomed 
or object to smoking cigarettes, or it may be added to the tobacco of 
thise who prefer the use of the pipe. 

As regards the composition of the powder, I have had good results 
from gr. ix of stramonium and gr. i of cannabis indica, this being a 
quantity which will cover a shilling, sufficient for one fumigation. 

But if the patient does not object to smoking, I much prefer to 
administer the remedies in the form described in my previous paper, 
namely paper cigarettes impregnated with tinctures so that the dose 
may be accurately apportioned. 

It will be understood that in suggesting remedies which serve to alle- 
viate the spasmodic dyspnoea of asthma I do not consiJer that they 
constitute a mode of treatment calculated to improve the general con- 
dition of the, patent, or that they are more than palliatives of an urgent 



40 



Drug Smoking, 



( Am. Jour. Phamu 
\ Jan., 1880, 



symptom : constitutional treatment by ferruginous tonics and cod-liver 
oil, or it may be by iodide of potassium or arsenic, must be resorted to, 
if it be intended to give the asthmatic patient permanent relief from 
distressing disease. With acute conditions of the disease, with bion- 
chial complications of such a nature as to contra-indicate the use of 
iron, there is probably no treatment better for a majority of cases than 
the use of iodide of potassium with stramonium ; in many cases of like 
character I have derived very good results from the administration of 
hemlock in combination with the hypophosphite of soda, but for the 
prevention of the disease I know no treatment to compare with iron 
and cod-liver oil. 

But for soothing and diminishing the dyspnoea, neurotics may be used 
with great effect, and the following combination is that which, up to 
this time, has given me the best results. 

The same form of cigarette is used as described in my former con- 
tribution on this subject, and the paper is soaked in the following drugs 



according to the recipe here given : 

Extract of opium, . . . • S^' 'if 

Exract of stramonium, . . . gr. 

Tincture of Indian hemp, . . • ^ k 

Tincture of hemlock, . . . '•^L if 

Tincture of lobelia, . . . • ^ if 

Tincture of tobacco, . . . ^9 

Oil of anise, . . . . • ¥ 

Nitre, . . . , . g'"- 4 



Or for a sheet of Swedish paper sufficient to make sixty-four 
cigarettes the formula may be given thus: 

Tincturae tabaci, 
Tinctura? coiiii, 
Tincturas lobeliae, 
TinctuPde cannabis Ind , 
Extract, opii, 
Extract, stramonii, 
Olei anisi, . 
Potassas nitratis, 
Splr. V. r., . 

'T his formula, which is a complex one, has only been obtained from 
repeated experiments, leading step by step to the addition of some 
effective remedy, and to the elimination of less effectual drug«. 

As it is sometimes desirable not to give opium or Indian hemp, I 



3 ii- 
3 ii. 

TTL xxxii. 
gr. i. 
gr. ii. 
V(l viii. 
gr. xvi. 
ad z liss. 



uT/zs^t""^'} Tincture of ^iilaia as an Emulsifying Agent. 41 

have had cigarettes made with stramonium and lobelia only ; so that 
altogether I have three different kinds for use : opium cigarettes, con- 
taining a small quantity of opium and stramonium ; a compound opiated 
cigarette, containing the drugs given in the formula above, and a stra- 
monium cigarette without opium. — Pharm. four.^ Nov. 15, 1879. 



TINCTURE of QUILLAIA as an EMULSIFYING AGENT. 

Henry Collier, Teacher of Pharmacy at Guy's Hospital. 
Read before the British Pharmaceutical Conference. 
I now pass on to a consideration of the use of a tincture of the bark 
of Quillaia saponaria for the preparation of emulsions. The tincture 
which has been employed in the preparation of the various mixtures 
upon the table has been made according to the following formula, which 
is taken from Guy's Hospital Pharmacopoeia: 

Quillaia bark, in coarse powder, . . . 4 oz. 

Rectified spirit of wine, . . .1 pint. 

Digest for three days, and then strain. 

The bark before powdering is carefully freed from all remains of 
outside layer, and the tincture produced is of a pale yellow color. 

Into this bottle I have put some meicury, and shaken it up with tinc- 
ture of quillaia. The result is that the mercury has been reduced to a 
very fine state of division. It has very much the appearance of hyd. c. 
creta, and examined with a lens it is seen to be composed of distinct 
globules of mercury. So long as there is some tincture present this 
■division of the metal remains j if it be dried, it at once runs together 
and appears in its ordinary liquid state. This is a remarkable power 
which tinct. quillalae possesses of destroying the cohesion between the 
globules of mercury, breaking them up and preventing them from unit- 
ing together; and it is this property which renders it so valuable an 
emulsifying agent. 

A true emulsion consists, as is well known, of a number of oily or 
resinous particles floating about in a watery liquid by means of some 
agent which prevents them from cohering. To be perfect, the emul- 
sion should have a milky appearance, and the suspended particles should 
not subside or rise too rapidly. In the British Pharmacopoeia there is 
a preparation containing mercury In a very fine state of division, and 
which is, in fact, an emulsion containing mercury finely divided. The 



42 Tincture of ^illaia as an Emulsifying Agent. \^'^']°r,'I%o'^'^' 

preparation I mean is the Linimentum Hydrargyria which Squire says 
"should be a lead-colored cream, but is curds-and-whey." By using, 
tinct. quillaiae a lead-colored cream may be formed which does not turi> 
to curds-and-whey. The preparation here contains the same propor- 
tion of active ingredients as is ordered in the Pharmacopoeia. If left 
undisturbed for some time, the ung. hydrargyri settles to the bottom, 
but a vigorous shaking blends it again perfectly. The following is the 
formula: 

Lin. camph., . . - . '5' 

Tinct. quillaiae, .... ^iii 

(Liq. amm. fort., o'i 40> ^9- ^^1), . . . 3v 

Ung. hydrarg., . . . . i oz. 

Chloroform is made into an excellent emulsion by means of this 
tincture. 

Chloroform, ..... Tr\^x 

Tinct. quillaiae, . . . . 

Aq. destil., . . . . ad 5i 

Misce. 

Although chloroform is such a heavy liquid, yet it remains suspended 
for some minutes after shaking; it finally settles as a creamy layer at 
the bottom of the bottle. A solution of saponin m water, shaken with 
chloroform, converts it into a thick creamy fluid; the water separates^ 
but the chloroform permanently retains its creamy character. 

Here is a mixture of castor oil, made according to the following; 
formula: 

Ol. ricini, ..... ^ss 

Tinct. quillaiae, .... 

Aq., . . . . . ad gi 

The tincture is first put into the bottle, afterwards the oil, and 
shaken together, then the water is added and again shaken. The 
emulsion thus formed resembles its prototype milk in appearance, and 
like it separates after the lapse of some time into a cream at the top, 
which mixes again upon agitation. Emulsions prepared in a similar 
manner of oleum morrhuae and oleum olivre are of as perfect a char- 
acter. 

Ext. filicis liquid., . . . . • 3i 

Tinct. quillaiae, .... 5ss 

Aq. destil., . . . . ad ^i 

Misce. 



V 



^""jin^'iss^"" } Tincture of ^illaia as an Emulsifying Agent. 43 

This forms an excellent emulsion, and with the addition of syrup, 

zingiberis, ^ss, constitutes the Mistura Filicis Maris of Guy's Hospital. 

Copaibas, . . . • • 

Tinct. quillaiae, . .... S^^s 

Aq. destil , . . . . ad ^^i 

Misce. 

The copaiba in this mixture is perfectly emulsified. 

Here is an example of an essential oil: 

01 terebinth., . .... "I'^x 

Tinct. quillaiae, .... 
Aq destil., . . . . ad 

Misce. 

This formula, with the addition of tinct. limonis, is the mistura 
terebinthinae (Guy's). 

I have found that resinous tinctures require more than their bulk of 

tinct. quillaiae to prevent any separition of resin. 

Tinct. tolut., ..... TTL40 
Tinct. quillaiae, . . . • 3i 

Aq. destil , . . . . ad 51 

Misce. 

The resin deposits after some time, but upon shaking it is easily 
diffused. 

This mixture contains the soluble matter of 12 grains of guaiacum 

resin in every fluidounce, so that it is about the same strength as mist> 

guaiaci., B. P. The following is the formula: 

Resin, guaiaci, . . . . . gr. xii 

Tinct. quillaiae, . . . • 5i 

Aq. destil., . . . . ad .^i 

Dissolve the guaiacum in the tincture, filter, and then mix with the 
water. 

Resin of copaiba is largely used at Guy's Hospital, where it is con- 
sidered a valuable diuretic. It does not appear to me to make so per- 
fect a mixture with tinct. quillaiae as the Hospital formula with pulv. 
tragacanth co. The liquid is not thick enough to prevent the resin 
separating too rapidly. Here are mixtures of copaiba resin made after 
the following formulas: 

Mht. Resina Copaihcs {Guy^s). 

Resin of copaiba, . . , -15 grains 

Rectified spt. of wine, . . . 20 ir.inims 

Compound powder of tragacanth, . .15 grains 

Syrup of ginger, . . . i fl. dr. 

Distilled water to , . . . i fl oz. 

Misce. 



44 



Polar imeter and its Use, 



\m. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1E80. 



The resin and spirit are put into an evaporating dish and blended 
together by heating over a water-bath, then poured into a mortar con- 
taining the pulv. tragacanth. co., previously made into a thick mucilage 
with a little of the water, and rubbed well together, the syrup and the 
remainder of the water being gradually added. 

Reslnae copaibae, . . . . gr. xv 

Tinct. qiiillaige, . . . ' . 

Aq. destillat., . . . . ad 

The resin is dissolved in the tincture, and the water gradually added 
with agitation. 

Bals. Peru , . ... . . rr^xv 

Tinct. quillaise, . . . • ,^i 

Aq. destil., . . . . ad 5! • 

This mixture is open to the same objection — the balsam subsides too 
rapidly. The above quantity of balsam, with gr. xv of pulv. traga- 
canth. CO., gives an excellent result. — Pharm. 'Journ. and Trans.. Sept. 
20, 1879. 

THE POLARIMETER AND ITS USE IN PHARMACY. 

By Charles Symes, Ph.D. 
Read before the British Pharmaceutical Conference. 
For the development and perfecting of the science and practice of pharmacy vari- 
ous instruments and forms of apparatus have, from time to time, been introduced. 
It is not, however, to a new instrument that I am desirous of directing your atten- 
tion, but to one which, although it came into existence some sixty years ago, has not 
in this country and in recent times received the amount of attention which it appears 
to me to merit, nor has it been applied to many purposes for which it seems calcu- 
lated to be of u'^e. 

In its variously modified forms it is known as the polariscope, saccharimeter, polar- 
istrobometer and polarimeter, men of science and manufacturers having progressively 
Introduced such alterations as appeared desirable for the better accomplishment of 
the object aimed at, viz., polarizing a ray of light and accurately measuring the 
amount of rotation produced in that ray when it is passed through an optically active 
'liquid or liquid possessing rotatory power. My chief aim in bringing this subject 
before the members of the Conference is to offer for their consideration some of my 
•experience, and to render familiar, as far as I am capable of so doing, this instru- 
ment which has hitherto been dealt with chiefly in works of a purely scientific char- 
acter, and which has been regarded by the working pharmacist as outside his pro- 
vince, and useful only in the prosecution of abstract science. That too little is 
known of its general application has long been my opinion; but this was brought 
more forcibly to my mind in June of last year, when (in company with Mr. Green- 
ash) I paid a short visit to M. Petit, of Paris, and found him using the instrument of 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1880 



Polar imeter and its Use. 



45 



Laurent practically in his business for determining the purity of certain alkaloids,, 
etc., and was assured by him that the results obtained were as trustworthy as those of 
the most accurate chemical analysis. To accomplish the object already mentioned 
and render the subject thoroughly clear to those who have not previously given any 
attention to it, I may be allowed to say a few words on polarized light. 

A ray of common light, as you will be aware, is assumed to con'<ist of vibrations 
in the ethereal medium or luminiferous ether, occurring in two directions at right 
angles to each other, ?nd by interference the primary planes are constantly shifting. 
If, however, these two vibrations are split up by the absorption, reflection or dis- 
persion of one, or by refraction of both, the remaining portion, or one of the portions 
separated, constitutes a ray of polarized light, and as the phenomenon of interference 
ceases il vibrates in one plane only. If, now, this is made to traverse certain media,, 
the plane no longer remains in this direction, but is deviated either to the right or 
left, and is caused to rotate or assume a spiral form, and it is, as already stated, for 
the measurement of the amount of rotation caused by different fluids when so trav- 
ersed that the polarimeter has been constructed. 

The property possessed by quartz of circularly polarizing a ray of light was known 
to Sebeck and Arago, but it is to Biot, in 1818, that we owe the discovery of the 
property possessed by many fluids of rotating a ray of plane polarized light. He 
states that this occurred to him accidentally whilst examining crystallized laminas,. 
placed in highly refractive media, such as oil of turpentine. He thoroughly investi- 
gated the phenomenon, and laid the foundation of a very important study, his early 
results being obtained by means of an instrument devised by himself, not unlike the 
polariscope attached to the microscope, except that the polarization was obtained by 
reflection from a blackened mirror, and that the analyzer was placed in the centre of 
a graduated disc. When the analyzing prism was so placed as to obscure the 
polarized ray, on interposing a tube containing an active fluid the light was again 
found to pass until the analyzer had been rotated through a certain number of 
degrees, that number being taken as the rotatory power of the fluid; but it wa& 
found difRcult to determine the exact point of maximum darkness, and somewhat 
wide and inaccurate results were obtained. M. Soieil, an instrument maker of Paris, 
next constructed with considerable ingenuity and skill an improved form, by the use 
of which much greater accuracy could be obtained. In it the light first passes- 
through a double refracting prism as analyzer, then through a plate of quartz 3.75, 
mm. thick (subsequently replaced by a double plate), then through the fluid under 
examination, another plate of quartz, the compensator consisting of two wedges of 
quartz, and finally through the analyzer. To this there was added what Soleil called 
a produce of sensible tintSy consisting of a prism, Galileo telescope and quartz plate. 
On one occasion I spent a profitable hour or two in thoroughly examining this 
instrument, taking it to pieces and tracing the tortuous course of a ray of light 
through it. The study was interesting as showing what optical skill can accomplish 
and what complicated means had here been employed to surmount difficulties, which, 
have since been overcome in a more simple manner. The special features in this 
instrument arc first, that the ray of polarized light emerging in a vertical plane froni. 
the prism meets the double plate of quartz, one-half of which rotates to the rights 



46 



Polarimeter and its Use. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1880. 



the Other half to the left, the rotation being sufficiently great (90°) to decompose 
the ray and to produce a rose-violet tint uniformly over the whole field. This is 
known as the sensitive or transition tint, also the tint of passage. Secondly, the 
analyzer is fixed with its axis corresponding to that of the polarizer, the amount of 
rotation produced being measured by compensation, effected by a plate of quartz 
divided into two wedges, and fitted with rack and pinion motion, by which they are 
moved over each other so as to increase or diminish the thickness 5 they are also 
attached to a vernier and scale. When the compensator is at zero the whole of the 
disc is rose-violet, but the Intioductlon of an active fluid causes one-half to become 
red. The compensator Is then moved through a sufficient number of degrees to 
restore uniformity, and the amount of rotation is thus ascertained. Actual degrees 
are not marked in the scale, but the rotation produced by a plate of quartz 1 mm. 
thick, equal to that given by 200 mm. of solution of sucrose (i6*i9 grams in 100 cc. 
of water), being marked on the scale and divided into 100 equal parts. 

The Instrument was specially constructed with a view to its use for sugar solutions 
and is best known as Soleil's saccharimeter, of which there are several modifications, 
«uch as the Soleil-Ventzke, Soleil-Scheibler, etc. 

Accurate as were the results obtained by this means, there were some difficulties, 
«uch as the interference of colored solutions with the sensitive tint, the shortness of 
the scale, etc., which have caused it to be superseded by more siinple forms in which, 
as in Blot's Instrument, the analyzer is made to rotate, and these forms have been 
adopted by two opticians Dubo^cq and Laurent, who may be regarded as the suc- 
cessors of Soleil. 

In i860. Professor JtUett, of Dublin, described to the British Association at 
Oxford, a new analyzing prism, which he had invented, by which greater accuracy 
could be obtained than by any previous arrangement. The report Is as follows : 
^* Professor Jellett described to the section a new anaij zing prism, by which the 
plane of polarization of polarized light may be determined with great precision. 
This instrument consists of a large prism of calc-spar, which is reduced to the 
form of a right prism by grinding off its ends, and sliced lengthwise by a plane, 
nearly, but not quite perpendicular to its principal plane. The parts into which the 
prism is thus divided are joined in reversed positions and a diaphragm with a circu- 
Jar opening is placed at each end. The light which passes through both diaphragms 
produces a circular field, divided by a diametrical slit into two parts, In which the 
planes of polarization are slightly inclined to each other. If then light, which has been 
previously polarized, be transmitted, It will be extinguished in the two parts of the 
field of view in positions which he close together, and the light will become uniform 
an a position midway between these. This position determines the plane in which 
the incident light was polarized with a precision much greater than has been 
otherwise attained. Professor Jellett stated that the different observations did not 
differ from one another by an angle greater than a minute, and that the instrument 
was equally applicable to the case of homogeneous light." 

The first practical application of this invention was in the construction of a 
polarimeter for the Professor by Bryson in that year, and the manufacture is con- 
linued by the same optician at the present time } It is the most simple form with 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
. Jan., i£8o. 



Poiarimeter and its Use. 



47 



•which I am acquainted, efficient and inexpensive ; it is the instrument now before 
you, the one with which my observations have been made, and which I have com- 
pared with those of Wild, Laurent and Duboscq, with very satisfactory results. 
The instruments of the last named maker still retains the double quartz plate of 
Soleil, but dispenses with the compensator, having been fitted with a Jellett's pri^^in 
as analyzjsr on a suggestion made by him in 1869. 

That of Laurent has as its special feature the polarized ray passed through a dia- 
phragm with circular opening, one half of which is covered by a plate of quartz, 
the division of the field by this means giving great precision to the readings ; the 
analyzer is an ordinary Nicoi's prism. By this means the optical work is simplified 
as compared with the old form and the perfection of working is enhanced. Wild's 
polaristrobometer, manufactured by Hermann and Pfister, of Berne, is a special 
form of the instrument. It is somewhat elaborate in construction ; the readings are 
taken at the disappearance from the centre of the field of certain lines or bands 
which cross it ard which are produced by two plates of calc spar crossed at right 
angles to their principal faces. Those who work with this instrument speak of it as 
giving very satisfactory results. In 187a, Professor Jellett, in a paper read before 
the Royal Irish Academy, described a " new optical saccharometer," an ingenious 
arrangement by which the polarized ray is made to traverse a fluid, the rotatory 
power of which is previously determined and which is opposite in character to that 
of the fluid to be examined. In general terms it might be described as an instrument 
by means of which the relative rotatory power of any transparent fluid to that of a 
•standard fluid may be accurately determined. Although delicate in its results it is 
5omewhat]troublesome in working and does not appear to have come into general use. 

Originally, ordinary daylight, or that from an Argand lamp was used ; but on 
discarding the more complicated instrument of Soleil, with its compensator, where- 
by the decomposition of the light due to the unequal refrangibility of the diffeient 
rays was overcome, monochromatic light was adopted. Different operators, how- 
ever, used different colored rays with, as a matter of course, different results ; hence 
it became necessary when stating the rotatory power of a body to indicate by what 
ray the reading was taken, and this still obtains to a large extent; thus, in the 
"Agenda du Chemiste " last year there are four tables giving the rotatory power of 
76 bodies — 12 by the " teinte du passago^'' 7 by the red ray, 10 by the yellow and 20 
without any indication as to the ray, and the remainder indicated by letters corres- 
ponding to certain Fraunhofer lines, as used by the authorities from whom the results 
are quoted. It is true, we have a factor, '767, by which to multiply the values 
obtained by the yellow ray to convert them into those which could be obtained by 
the red, but it has been shown that this is not constant for all bodies. Further, one 
object of a table is to show at a glance without calculation the relative rotatory 
power of different bodies; now this clearly cannot be the case with such tables as 
those referred to. This chaotic state of things is to some extent in process of recti- 
fication, and modem instruments are all constructed with a special view to their use 
with the yellow flame, corresponding to the li;.e D of the spectrum, or, in other 
words, with a Bunsen flame containing a salt of sodium. This gives a grey field 



48 



Polarimeter and its Use. 



( Am. Jour. Phjirm, 

\ Jan., 1880. 



quite as sensitive as the transition tint, and where observations are continued for any 
length of time it is far less fatiguing to the eye of the observer. 

Certain natural crystals possess high rotatory power. Thus a plate of quartz 375 
mm. in thickness gives a rotation of 90°, whilst a column of English, oil of turpen- 
tine, 100 mm. in length, gives only i4°'3o. Some few salts, such as bromate and 
chlorate of sodium, acetourale of sodium, and hyposulphite of lead possess double 
rotatory power 5 but most inorganic salts, and some liquids, such as water, alcohol, 
ether and chloroform, are inactive. The activity in crystals and liquids depends on 
different causes, the former belongs to the domain of physics, the latter to that of 
chemistry, and it is this, viz. : the molecular rotatory power, which we are more 
especially considering. The rotation produced by any given liquid (all else being 
equal) depends on the length of the column j it will be evident therefore that to 
have uniformly correct results the greatest accuracy must be observed in this respect,, 
and that either the same length of tube must always be used or the readings must 
be brought to the same standard by calculation. The usual working length is aoo 
mm., but most operators supply themselves with tubes of 100, 50 and even 25 mm., 
as some of the fluids to be operated on possess so much color that light will not pass 
through a larger column satisfactorily. It is desirable to use the larger tube when- 
ever available, inasmuch as the error will be thereby diminished 5 but whatever be 
the dimensions of the tube used the results should be stated in terms corresponding 
to a column of fluid 100 mm. in length, this now being generally accepted, and \_a\ 
is used to indicate the molecularly rotatory power of such a column. Hesse, how- 
ever (*' Chem, Centr.," 1875, 3^9 > "Jour. Chem. Soc, 1876, 667), in referring to 
the results obtained by De Montgolfier, Weiss and Biot, points out the diff'erence 
obtained by the lay D, the red and transition tints, and concludes that this symbol 
is equivocal, and suggests that it is better to use ao for the rotatory power obtained 
by the yellow ray, as has indeed been the practice for some time in Germany. 

When the transition tint was almost exclusively adopted the sign [a] was used to 
indicate the rotatory power read by it, otherwise it would have been more simple to 
have adopted this sign where the sodium ray was used, and to have used the qualify- 
ing letter only when other rays were employed, which is now rarely done. 

Temperature influences the rotatory power to some extent, is'S^C (6o"F.) being 
that at which readings are usually taken, and it has been found that the rotation 
decreases as the temperature increases, and 'vice 'versa ; but Landolt has shown that 
the diminution is not always uniform at all temperatures for the same body, or equal 
for all bodies. He gives as examples: 

Oil of Turpentine [a]o 36°-6i : diminished rotatory power for an increase of 
i°C.= 004437. 

Oil of Orange ii5''-3i: diminished rotatory power for an increase of i°C.= 

•12371. 

This dimunition being represented graphically, not by a straight, but by a slightly 
curved line. This, I think, would depend entirely on the expansion and rate of 
expansion of the liquid, inasmuch as an increase of temperature would necessarily 
increase the volume and reduce the number of molecules in a column of a given 
length. The slight expansion of the tube would tend in some degree to compensate 



^'^'jiT.'iSjg!'^'} Polarimeter and its Use, 49 

for this, and in most fluids the difference for two or three degrees of temperature is 
so slight that it might be disregarded as being less than the probable error of obser- 
vation. 

Magnetism, also, influences rotation ; indeed, some bodies which are void of this 
property under ordinary circumstances, will under its influence exercise it in a marked 
degree. The discovery of this phenomenon we owe to Faraday ("Phil. Trans.," 
1846, p. i), and it has been further investigated by De La Rive ("Archives des 
Sciences," etc., vol. xxxii, p. 193; "Annales de Chimie," 4th series, vol. xv, p. 575 
" Phil. Mag.," 4th series, vol. xl, p 393). This is, however, a study in itself, and 
those who wish to prosecute it will find abundant matter of interest in the papers 
quoted j suffice it to say, that under the influence of magnetism the same law holds 
good as regards decreased rotation for increased temperature. 

The advantage of having certain commonly occurring liquids, such as those men- 
tioned, void of activity is obvious, as it enables us to make concentrated solutions of 
most solid substances, such as sugar, camphor, the alkaloids, etc., and to select a 
menstruum in which the body is most soluble, since concentrated solutions are most 
desirable, inasmuch as the calculation is made for the solid substances, and any error 
in observation will be increased in proportion to the dilution. Not only so, but it 
has been shown by Landolt ("Deut. Chem. Ges. Ber.," [9], 901-904) that to obtain 
accurate results saturated solutions are absolutely necessary, for as in the case of 
temperature so in dilution, the effect cannot be represented graphically by a straight 
line. In concentrated solutions the divergence is only a few tenths of a degree, and 
the rotatory power of the body remains the same whatever be the (inactive) solvent 
employed ; but observations taken with dilute solutions are utterly worthless. He 
further finds (Liebig's "Annalen," clxxxix, 241-337) that some substances have an 
increased proportional rotation by dilution, whilst others are diminished j turpentine 
and ethyl tartrate always show increase, nicotin and camphor both show diminution, 
and these results are constant with all solvents. 

Organic liquids and solutions are sometimes so much colored that light will not 
pass through even 25 mm. sufliiciently for our purpose. In such cases filtration 
through charcoal is usually resorted to ; this, under ordinary circumstances, removes 
enough of the color to admit of the observation being made, or indeed sometimes 
entirely decolorizes. But this procedure introduces a possible source of error, inas- 
much as it has been shown by Dr. Stammer ("American Chemist," from the Sugar 
Cane, " Pharm. Journ." [3], vol. i, p. 926) that in the case of saccharine solutions the 
char absorbs sugar from the first portion of the liquid, which passes through and so 
reduces the strength and rotatory power. This would doubtless occur equally with 
solutions containing alkaloidal bodies, and possibly some others,- but as the char 
becomes saturated before it loses its decolorizing property, if a sufficient quantity be 
passed through, and the latter portion be taken for examination, the chance of error 
on this point is obviated. 

The great commercial industry in which the polarimeter has been most useful is 
the sugar trade, and as the expenditure of large sums of money is not unfrequently 
dependent on the results so obtained, it is not surprising that the greatest perfection 



4 



50 



Polarimeter and its Use. 



km. Jour Pharir- 
Jan., 1880. 



in construction and working has been sought for its special requirements.^ There 
is, however, good reason to believe that of the other spheres of usefulness as yet 
unknown (in addition to those which are known) some are closely allied, whilst 
•others belong to the domain of pharmacy. By its means (as already stated) the 
purity of the alkaloids can be readily determined j castor oil, croton oil, and doubt- 
less some others of this class possess their specific rotatory powers, whilst the 
majority of essential oils do so in a high degree, Landolt, who has worked largely 
with bodies of a definite and constant chemical constitution, does not appear to 
have as much faith in its application to essential oils on account of some amount of 
variation dependent on soil, climate, etc , and in his recently published memoir he 
devotes but little space and consideration to them. 

Oil of turpentine and other volatile oils were, however, amongst the first liquids 
examined in this way, and connected with which an interesting incident occurred, 
Biot, in announcing his discovery in 18 18, called special attention to the fact that 
whilst in quartz or rock crystal there existed two opposite directions of rotation, in 
oil of turpentine the rotation was in one direction only, viz., from the right to the 
left of the observer, and this was the same in direction, although slightly different in 
degree for all samples examined. This statement remained unchallenged until 1843, 
when Dr Leeson read a paper before the Chemical Society of London, entitled 
Observations on the Circular Polarization of Light by transmission through 
Fluids." In this paper he stated that every sample of oil of turpentine which had 
been examined possessed a right handed rotation coinciding in direction with that 
produced by essence of lemon. These conclusions were so thoroughly opposed to 
those of Biot, that Dr. Pereira undertook to further investigate the subject, and by 
procuring reliable samples of French oil of turpentine from M. Guibourt, of Paris, 
he was enabled to demonstrate the fact that both observers were correct j that the 
French oil rotated to the left, the English or American to the right, and that a mix- 
ture of the two in proper proportions possessed no rotatory power whatever ("Pharm. 
Jour,," [i], vol. v., p. 67), 

My first experience in the use of the polarimeter was in a direction not altogether 
pharmaceutical, but one which nevertheless merits attention from pharmacists, viz., 
in the examination of urine; it is a legitimate branch of our calling and one which 
medical men are usually willing to delegate to us; it possesses considerable interest 
and the remuneration is not influenced by unfair competition on the part of unedu- 
cated outside traders. It was diabetic urine containing in round numbers only 2 
grains sugar per ounce ; subsequently other experiments were made with samples 
containing larger quantities, but my experience led me to the conclusion that this 
method of determination is more troublesome and not more accurate than the cop- 
per test of Fehling or the recent one of Pavy, although its use has been recom- 
mended by Mehu and others. Passing on to essential oils, the work became 
i iteresting, although occasionally disappointing ; for example, essential oil of bitter 
almonds distilled in this country, that from abroad which is often obtained from a 

1 Those who are interested in the various kinds of sugar will do well to peruse an excellent paper by 
Dr. O. Hesse, "The Behavior of Solutions of some Substances to Polarized Light," (" Pharm. Jour.," 3d 
series, vol. vii, pp i8i, 410 and 473.) 



'^""jin^'is^so^""" } Polarimeter and its Use, 5 1 

mixture of peach kernels and almonds, and the artificial, or oil of mirbane, are all 
optically inactive, hence the polarimeter does not furnish us with a means of dis- 
tinguishing between them. Other results were very satisfactory. Thus, finest 
imported otto of rose is levogyrate, giving a rotation of - 3*52°. A common quality 
was found to be dextrogyrate giving -j- 1*50°. Now the lower qualities of otto are 
known to contain varying proportions of oil of geranium ; but on examining the 
only sample of this oil which was then at my disposal and which had been received 
from the south of France, it was found to give - 6-73°. This, then, could not have 
been the article used in adulterating the sample in question ; but subsequently on 
examining the Turkey oil of geranium a solution of the problem was furnished, 
since it gave a rotation of -\- 1-72° and indicated that it constituted the 
bulk of the so-called common otto of rose. It was found too that otto of 
rose distilled in this country possessed an opposite rotatory power to rhat of the 
finest imported, as indicated in the table appended to this paper. On examining 
many samples of oil of lavender it was found that some of the commoner were 
adulterated with turpentine, and there was no difficulty in determining whether this 
had been done in France or England, on account of the different rotatory powers of 
the turpentines in the two countries. Whilst prosecuting this study my attention 
was directed to an excellent paper by Dr. J. H. Gladstone on essential oils ("Jour. 
Chem. Soc," new series, vol. ii, p. i), in which he gives the specific gravity, rotatory 
power and refractive indices of a number of essential oils ; also to a less important 
paper by Dr. Julius Maier, of New York, ** Detection of the Adulteration of 
Essential Oils with Oil of Turpentine" ("Chem. News," vol. xi, p. 301, from the 
**Amer. Jour. Sci.," xxxix, p. 273). Since the publication of these, some oils have come 
into use which were then less known than at the present time, and some others are 
now supplied from different localities j it was therefore thought desirable to go over 
the ground anew and compile a table giving the rotatory power and specific gravity 
of a somewhat larger number. Such a table is appended to this paper, the samples 
of oil operated on being the most reliable I could obtain, except where a second 
quality is mentioned for comparison, and all that were sufficiently colorless to be 
viewed through a column of 200 mm. were so examined. Some oils, such as those 
of hops, cassia, chamomiles, myrtle, etc., could only be read through 100 mm. ; 
whilst some such as patchouli and cajuput, admitted only sufficient light through 50 
mm. All have been calculated to 100 mm. and at a temperature of i5-5°C. Many 
results were obtained which being unimportant are not here recorded, but all tended 
to experience, and as deductions from which might be mentioned that turbidity even 
though very slight, materially interferes with the accuracy and sharpness of the 
readings 5 it is therefore necessary to filter any oils or solutions which are not per- 
fectly bright. Age does not influence to any extent the optical activity of essential 
oils. Oil of cloves, new and colorless, and samples of a light sherry and dark sherry 
color all registered very nearly the same, and samples of English oil of lavender 
less than a year, four years and five years old differed from each other less than one 
degree. 

The modus operandi is exceedingly simple. A correct zero must be first obtained 
thus — one of the tubes being filled with distilled water, the glass disc is slid on so 



52 



Polarimeter and its Use, 



Am. Jour. Pharro. 
Jan., 1880. 



as to exclude air bubbles, and screwed firmly down. It is then placed in position 
and the instrument brought opposite to a sodium ftame 5 the operation must be con- 
ducted in a dark room, or a black covering cloth be used. The analyser is then set 
so that the arrowhead on the vernier points to o on the scale when the whole of the 
disc is at a maximum of obscurity, i.e , both halves equally obscure ; it is necessary 
to take several readings of this and note down the results, taking the mean of the 
observations, and if, as sometimes happens, there is any difficulty in getting an exact 
zero it is convenient to make a note of the error and add or substract this from the 
subsequent readings. 

If now the tube be replaced by one containing an optically active liquid, it will 
be found that the field is entirely illuminated, or that one-half is so whilst the other 
is obscure. The analyzer is then rotated until equal obscurity is regained and the 
number of degrees, minutes or decimal parts of a degree, through which it has been 
moved, as well as the direction, is noted. For each of the following results ten 
readings were taken ; two of these (the highest and the lowest) were struck out, and 
the sum of the others divided by 8 gave the mean reading, or where the 200 mm. 
tube was used, division by 16 gave at once the correct mean for 100 mm. It is, of 
course, necessary from time to time to check the accuracy of the zero, just as a care- 
ful dispenser does the correctness of his scales. 

With .solid substances, a saturated solution being made in water or other suitable 
inactive liquid, the specific rotatory power \a\ is found by dividing the amount of 
observed rotation by the length of the column in decimeters /, by the weight of 
the active body in each unit of liquid w, and by the density of the solution thus 

M = 



For the loan of authentic specimens of some of the following oils I have to 
thank Mr. E. M. Holmes, Curator of the Pharmaceutical Society's Museum. 
Specific Gra'vity and Rotatory Poiver oj Essential Oils 

[a] = ioo mm. 15 -sfPC 

. Pimpinella Anisum 
Illicium Anisatum 
. Ptychotis Ajowan . 

Archangelica officinalis 
. Amygdalus communis . 
Do. 

. Mirbane 

Succinum .... 
. Laurus Nobilis 

Citrus Limetta . 
. Betula alba . 

Abies Balsamea 
. Dicypellium Caryophyllatum 

Elettaria Cardamomum 
. Citrus medica 



(DiL OF 

Anise 
Do. 
Ajowan 
Angelica 
Almond, Eng. 
Do. Foreign . 
Do. Artificial 
Amber 
Bay 

Bergamotte . 
Birch 

Canada Balsam 
Clove Bark 
Cardamoms . 
Cedrat 
Cedar, Commercial 

Do. Red 
Caraway 
Cassia, Pure 

Do., Commercial 



Rot. p. 
i°-oo 
o°-82 
o 

i°-78 
o 
o 
o 

o°-85 



:8°-88 



Juniperus Virginiana 
Carum Carui 

Cinnamomum aromaticum 



Sp. gr. 
0936 + 
©•980 — 
0-919 

0- 897 + 

1- 049 
I -063 
1-152 
0-859 + 
0-904 — 

o-872+3i°'25 
0872+ 2°-i8 

0- 914 — 3o°-07 

1- 052 — 2°-25 
o-976+i4°-59 
0-969 — 3°-oo 
0-968 — i6°-oo 
0-960 — 28 -75 

0- 940 — 20 -68 

1- 053 — i°-oo 

1-021+ 2°-02 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Jan., 1880 



Polar imeter and its Use, 



53 



Oil of 
Cascarilla 
Chio Turpentine 
Cinnamon 

Do. Leaf 
Citron 

Cherry Laurel 
Citronclle 
Cloves, Eng. 

Do. Foreign 
Chamomile, Eng. 

Do. Foreign 
Coriander 
Cummin . 
Cajuput 
Cubebs 
Copaiba, New 

Do. Old . 
Camphor 
Dill 

Elemi . 
Eucalyptus 

Do. 
Erigeron . 
Fennel 
Oeranium, French . 

Do. Turkey 

Do. Indian 

Do. Spanish 
Cinger, Jamaica 

Do 

Do 

•Ginger Grass 
Hyssop .... 
Hops .... 
Horsemint, Amer. . 
Juniper, English . 

Do. Foreign 
Jaborandi 

Lavender, Eng., New 
Do. Do. Old . 
Do. Foreign petal 
Do. Do. spike 

Lemons, best Commercial 
Do. extracted by Spirit 
Do. Distilled 
Do. obtained by Sponge 
(Hanbury) 

Limes .... 

Lignum Aloe . 

Mustard 



Do. 
Myrrh . 
Myrtle 
Myrcia 
Neroli 
Nutmeg 



Artificial 



[a] = ioo mm. i5"56°C. 
Croton Eleuteria 
Pistacia Terebinthus . 
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum 

Do. 
Citrus medica 
Lauro-Cerasus . 
Andropogon Nardus 
Caryophyllus aromaticus 

Do. 

Anthemis Nobilis 
Do. 

Coriandrum sativum . 
Cuminum Cyminum 
Melaleuca minor 
Piper Cubeba 
Copaifera multijuga . 
Do. 

Dryobalanops aromatica 
Anethum graveolens 
Canarium commune . 
Eucalyptus Globulus 
E. Amygdala, odorata 
Erigeron Canadense 
Foeniculum dulce 
Pelargonium species 
Andropogon Schoenan. 
Andropogon . 

(Eng. dist.) . 

Do. 

(Distilled Abroad) 
Andr. Schoenanthus . 
Hyssopus officinalis 
Humulus Lupulus 
Monarda punctata . 
Juniperus communis . 

Pilocarpus pennatifolius 
Lavandula vera 
Do. 

Lavandula Spica 
Citrus Limonum 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Citrus Limetta 
Elaphrium species 
Sinapis nigra . . 
Sulphocyanide of AUyl 
Balsamodendron Myrrha 
Myrtus communis 
Myrcia acris . 
Citrus vulgaris, Flowers 
Myristica officinalis 



Sp. gr. 

o-888-f- 

0- 889 + 

1'025 

i'o6o 
o'9oi -|- 
i'046 
0881 
fo64-f- 

1- 0644- 
0*906 — 
0-9104- 
0-876+ 



Rot. p. 
8 -65 

22°-55 

o 
o 

38°-3i 
o 

o°-8i 
o°-5o 
0-32 
o°-95 
6°-i6 
io°-65 



0-933+ 4-29 
0-924 — i°-52 
0-924 — 29°-07 
0-920— i3°-5o 

0*920 I2°*52 

0*956+ 7°-87 
0-860— 6°-24 
0-867— 3°'65 
o-88i — 36°*3o 
0-912— 42°-33 
o*885 + 72°-4i 
o*998 + 25°-7i 
0-906 — 6°-73 
0-880+ i°-72 
0-896 o 
0-911- 4°-45 

0- 853 — 27°-i5 
0*870 — 52°'25 
0*907 — 65°-oo 

o*95i + 39°*65 

1- 005 — 23°-63 
0-890+ I -42 
0-934 — o -76 
0*882 — 5 -00 
0-855- 
0-879 — 
0-887— 8 
0-903 — 8 
0-876— 5 
0-880+13 
0*856 + 52 

0*848 + 22 



>> *7i 

4 *io 

8 "29 
8 *48 

5 -93 
75 
05 
23 
10 



0*957 + 24 -26 
0-887—43 'So 
0-925— 2 *45 
1*000 o 
1*010 o 
0-989 — 59°-o6 
0-898+18^-79 
0-939+ 6°-59 
0-873+10 -62 

0*988 + 24 *22 



54 



Polar imeter and its Use, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 

\ Jan., 1880. 



Oil of 

Olibanum , 

Origanum Vulgare, true 
Do. Commercial, white 
Do. Commercial, yellow 
Do. Commercial, red . 

Oreodaphne Opifera (from 
Guiana) 

Orange, Sweet 

Orange Bitter, Bigarade 
Do. Bigarade, 

Patchouli, French . 
Do. Penang 

Parsley 
Do. Seed 

Pennyroyal, English 
Do. Foreign 
Do. American 

Pimento 

Peppermint, English 

Do. Foreign 

Do. Japanese 
Petit Grain . 



[a]=:ioo mm. 15 ■56°C. 
Boswellia Frereana 



British 



istilled 



Rhodium . 

Rose Otto (distilled in England) 

Do. Finest Imported 

Do. Common 
Rosemary, English . 

Do. Foreign 

Rue 

Sassafras (English distilled) . 

Do Commercial 
Sandal Wood (Eng. distilled) 

Do. Foreign 
Spearmint, English 
Solidago Odora,Sweet-scented Golden 

Rod 

Savin, English . 

Do. Foreign 
Sweet-flag 

Do Commercial , 
Sage 
Silver-fir 
Scotch-fir 
Tansey 
Thyrne . 

Turpentine, American . 

Do. French . 
Verbena 
Valerian . 
Wintergreen 
Wormwood . , 
Wormseed . 
Ylangylang 
— Phar. Jour, and Trans. ^ Sept. 13, 1879 



Essence de Portugal 



Petroselinum sativum 
Do. 

Mentha Pulegium 

Hedeoma Pulegeioides . 
Eugenia Pimenta 
►Mentha piperita 
Do. 

Mentha Canad.? 

Citrus vulgaris, leaves and 

shoots .... 
Genista Canariensis 



Rosmarinus officinalis 

Ruta graveolens 
Sassafras officinale 

Do. 
Santal. Alb. 

Mentha viridis 



Juniperus Sabina 

Calamus aromat. 

Salvia officinalis 
Abies pectinata . 
Pinus sylvestris 
Tanacetum vulgare 
Thymus vulgare 



Andropogon Citratus 
Valeriana officinalis . 
Gaultheria procumbens 
Artemisia Absinthium 
Chenopodium anthelminticum 



Sp. gr. Rot. 
o"872 — 4 •61 
o'89i — 30 '27 
0*877 — 16 -20 
0-877—23 -74- 
0-876 — 15 -15 

0-9174-27 '^G 
0-848 — 16 -40 
0-856— 2°-3o 
0-850- 3°-io 
0-988- 57°-ia 

0- 970 — 48°-26 

1 - 000 — 8°-9o 
0-945 — 14°-75 

o"9454- 7°*io- 
1*019 — 8°-3o> 
o-9384-29°-82: 
i*036-i- 2°-35 
0-912 — 2i°-23; 
0-924— 7°-49 
0-880— 2i°-8i 



0-900— 
0-931- 
0-854-f 
0-877- 
0-8674 
o-88r — 
0-9524 

0- 886- 

1- 072-f 
i-084-f 
0-9584 
0-986-4- 
0-950— 



■ 4"-i^ 

■IO°-2g. 

2°-5o 

3°-i5 
i°-5o^ 

i6°-47 
4°-47 
3°-6i 
2°-64. 
2°-64. 
2°-36 
8°-29. 

3o°-2& 



0-9124- 1 o°-5 3; 
0-927— 32°-7& 

0-884^ 2°-25 

o-926-fi4°-3i 
o-957-[-I9°-6g' 

0-925-pI2°-23 

0-864— i4°-i8. 
0-886— 9°-78- 
0-923-f 29°-4g 
0-891 — io°*6a 
0*8704- i4°-3a 
0-938— 25°-35 
0-890— 2°-6i 

0- 971 — 31 -50 

1- 162-4 o -81 
o-97i-f i7°-45, 
0-941— 8°-5S 

0-956 — 20°-I0 



^""•jMo"^} Minutes of the College. 55 

MINUTES OF THE COLLEGE. 



Philadelphia, December 29th, 1879. 
A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day at 
the College Hall. Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair j fourteen members in 
attendance. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read, and, on motion, adopted. 

The minutes of the Boatd of Trustees, for the previous three months, were read 
by Thomas S. Wiegand, in the absence of the Secretary of the Board, and, on 
motion, approved. 

Mr, Wiegand stated that the Class of the College, for the present year, numbered 
353 students, which is an increase over all previous years. 

Mr. Wiegand exhibited the certificate of the Paris Exposition, awarding a medal 
to the College for its exhibit of American drugs. It was neatly framed, and will be 
hung in a pkce assigned to it in the museum. 

The silver medal was also exhibited, properly mounted so as to show both sides. 
Ob'versej a laureated head, with the inscription, " Republique Frangaise." Reverse, 
a winged figure holding a tablet inscribed ** College de Pharmacie a Philadelphie." 
" Exposition Universelle Internationale de Paris, 1878." 

The receipt of the medal and certificate is hereby acknowledged with the thanks 
of the College. Then adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



MINUTES OF THE PHAIiMAGEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, December 15th, 1879. 

In the absence of the President, Mr. W. B. Thompson was called to preside 5 
the minutes of the last meeting were read, and, on motion, approved. 

The Actuary read a note from Mr. Jas. F. Magee, lately engaged in manufactur- 
ing chemicals in our city, tendering to the college for the use of the library, or such 
other disposition as might be thought desirable, fifteen volumes of **American 
Journal of Pharmacy," eight of them bound 5 eight bound volumes of "Jahres- 
bericht der Chemie," by Liebig & Kopp ; three volumes of "Chemical News" 
(American reprint) ; one volume "American Chemist 5'' five volumes of the " Pro- 
ceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association." 

On motion, the thanks of the College were directed to be returned to Mr. Magce 
for his acceptable and valuable donation. 

Written communications were called for, and in response Mr. R. F. Fairthorne 
read a paper upon the preparation of spirit of nitrous ether (see page 7), which 
was referred to the Publishing Committee. The paper elicited much remark, and 
the process was regarded by Profs. Maisch and Remington as a very acceptable 
improvement, inasmuch as it would enable the apothecary to prepare an article of 



56 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, {^""jln^'is^o.^""' 

constant demand, and have a preparation of a certain definite strength and character. 
Prof. Maisch hoped that Mr. Fairthorne would extend his experiments so as to 
ascertain if nitrite of amyl might not also be prepared by a process somewhat 
similar, as it has been shown that much of the so-called nitrite of amyl was a mix- 
ture ot many things besides the ether intended ; he also pointed out certain precau- 
tions which might possibly have to be taken in following the process. 

The next paper was by Mr. W. C. Bakes, and read by Prof. Maisch (see page 
9). The subject was Mo/lisine, a substitute for vaselin and cosmolin, etc., as a 
base for ointments. The paper was well received, and, on motion, referred to the 
Publishing Committee. 

Prof. Maisch remarked that last summer he had seen, at Oil City, Pa., the vari- 
ous parts of the process of preparing paraffin and paraffin oils, the former being 
separated from the latter by congealing it in an apparatus for preparing ice by 
ammonia and removing the oil by pressure. He thought that if the oily liquid was 
again exposed to a low temperature and then expressed, a soft paraffin suitable for 
the purposes of the pharmacist might be obtained. Mr. Thompson stated that he 
had in his possession a specimen of a purely natural product, which was perfectly 
transparent, jelly-like and of a dark red color; it was obtained from West Virginia 
The researches on the same subject by Dr. A. W. Miller and Mr. J. L. Lemberger 
were also referred to. 

A paper upon the presence of tannin in gentian root was read by Prof. Maisch (see 
page i), who gave a concise statement of the present state of the discussion, and 
showed, so far as experiment with gentian root as found in our drug market could 
determine it, that the various reactions relied upon to prove that tannin did exist in 
the root, were owing to a pectin compound and gentisic acid, which have somewhat 
similar reactions with those reagents by which tannin is ordinarily recognized. 

Prof. Maisch referred to a prescription calling for sulphate of strychnia, gr. i, to 
be dissolved in water, fjii, which had been submitted to three different persons, who 
found the salt to be not completely soluble in that amount of water. He said that 
in the preparation of strychnia on a large scale he had found the sulphate to be 
rather freely soluble in water, but had never determined its exact solubility in water, 
which was stated by authors to be i in 48 or 50 parts. Prof. Remington observed 
that he had not met with any difficulty in dissolving sulphate of strychnia in a rela- 
tively small amount of water; and a member stated that he kept on hand, for con- 
venience in dispensing, a solution of 8 grains of sulphate of strychnia in a fluidounce 
of water. From these observations it was thought likely that the three samples of 
sulphate of strychnia consisted to a considerable extent of the alkaloid. It was 
stated that the sulphate, after having been deprived of water of crystallization, con- 
tained fully 10 per cent, of its weight of sulphuric acid. 

There being no further business, on motion the meeting adjourned. 

Thos, S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



)lT!'islo^^'^ } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 57 

PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



California College of Pharmacy. — The annual commencement was held at 
Union Hall, San Francisco, on the evening of November 28th, when the following 
gentlemen received the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy : Adolph Sommer, Jas. 
McL. Mathewson, Arthur H. H. Smith, Emile C. Mervy, G. G. Burnett, Louis P. 
Messing, George W. Minor, Frank L. Vreeland. A gold medal was awarded to 
Mr. Sommer, and a microscope, the second prize, to Mr. Mathewson. The vale- 
•dictory address was delivered by Prof. W. M. Searby, Ph.G. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the Pharmaceutical meeting, 
held December 3d, the stem of the araroba tree, a specimen of the bark of the 
white quebracho tree, Aspidosperma quebracho, and of yellow pareira brava, were 
exhibited. The session was occupied with discussions on the inspection of apothe- 
caries' weights and measures as directed by a recent law, and a paper on the volu- 
metric estimation of arsenious acid, by W. A. H. Naylor, was accepted as read. 



Pharmaceutical Society of New South Wales. — The third annual meeting was 
held at Sydney, July nth. The Society has taken steps to secure the passage of an 
amendment to the medical bill pending before the Legislature, and to introduce a 
Pharmacy Act at the next session of this body. The retiring members of the 
council, including the President, F. Senoir, were re-elected. 



The Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand was instituted January 28th, 
1879, has its headquarters at Wellington, with Local Committees in Auckland, 
Christchurch and Dunedin. At the meeting held October 7th the society had 107 
members. A pharmacy bill has been drafted and presented to parliament, and 
endeavors will be made to have chemistry classes instituted and to have portions of 
the eeveral provincial botanical gardens set apart for the systematic culture of all 
plants of importance in medicine. The President is Mr. Chas. D. Barraud. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The Property in a Prescription — In. the November number of the "New 
Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal," we observed an editorial, entitled, " The 
Doctor ^s. the Apothecary," in which substitutions by apothecaries, property in pre- 
scriptions and counter-prescribing are discussed, and the thorough education of the 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Jan., 1880. 



apothecary is advocated. The evils complained of, and a number of others, have 
been repeatedly discussed in this journal, and we are pleased to note that our cotem- 
porary evidently expects increased qualification on the part of the apothecary to 
result in greater advantages to the physician, than the reuniting of dispensing with 
prescribing by the physician, which is occasionally advocated in medical joiirnals. 
At present we wish to call attention only to one of the points mentioned, on which 
we hold radically different views. We clip from the article in question the fol- 
lowing : 

" It is time that the physicians of New Orleans were taking action to protect 
themselves from the impositions of druggists and apothecaries. The knights of the 
mortar and pestle, instead of attending to their legitimate duties, compounding the 
prescriptions of physicians and in good faith repeating these only when especially 
ordered, derive quite a revenue from the sale of repetitions ; thus injustice is done 
the doctors, and the way is paved for weak-minded men and women to become the 
victims of opium, chloral or alcoholic drunkenness. Is it dealing fair with the phy- 
sician for the druggist to fill on demand an old prescription ordered for some partic- 
ular case, but now lauded around and handed about by neighbors who administer 
the remedy in cases of sickness when the diagnosis is the result of no greater skill 
than that possessed by an old woman ? " 

We are convinced that the effort of our cotemporary to prevent the renewal of 
prescriptions without the written order of the prescriber, will share the fate of others 
which have been made before. A custom which is followed, not only in the United 
States, but in all civilized countries, cannot be abrogated by the action of the phar- 
macists and physicians, even if they could be united in the efibrt, unless supported 
by legislative enactments, and we question the success of such a movement, if it 
were really undertaken. The difficulty lies in the fact that the prescription is 
regarded as the projjerty of the patient, who has paid for the advice; and although 
as a rule, it is retained by the apothecary as his guarantee in case of error by the 
prescriber, a copy of it is usually furnished if demanded. In Europe the original 
prescriptions are returned with the medicines. 

The same subject was recently discussed by Mr. A. Kinninmont before the Glas- 
gow Chemists' and Druggists' Association, who considered the prescription to be 
by right the patient's, and as to repeats, he thought that if any patient wished to 
have his prescription renewed again and again, the pharmacist had no right to refuse 
it, although it might prevent some fees from going to the physician. (See " Pharm. 
Jour, and Trans,," 1879, Nov 15th, p. 394.) This address was also referred to by 
the " Medical Press and Circular." Admitting that occasionally the repetition of 
prescriptions works disadvantageously, and that in some cases a high-class pharma- 
cist might very properly refuse to continue an endless repetition of doses, the editor 
declines to encourage for a moment the theory that the right to that repetition is 
possessed by any one but the patient." The writer concludes by saying : "We 
fail to understand upon what principle a patient who has paid his fee for advice and 
a recipe for medicine should be obliged to seek leave from either doctor or dis- 
penser to make unlimited use of the recipe which he has thus purchased, and how- 



Am. Jour. Pharn , 
Jan., 1880 



Editorial. — Obituary. 



59 



ever justifiable It might be for the dispenser to retain the original prescription for 
his own safety, we certainly think he is bound in equity to send to his patient, with 
the medicine, a true copy, so that the patient may please himself as to when and 
where he will have a repetition of it compounded." [Pharm. Jour, and Trans. ^ Nov, 
22, p. 410.) 

We agree with these views as to the right of patients to have a prescription 
renewed, and that the pharmacist cannot legally refuse such renewal if demanded. 
But we are also aware that sometimes harm may be done, if a medicine prescribed 
for one person be ased on another occasion of sickness, or by a different patient. 
The risk of renewal is evidently with the patient, and not with the pharmacist or 
the physician ; but the latter might in a great measure prevent such errors of judgment 
by cautioning their patients as to the danger of an indiscriminate use of a medicine,, 
of the effects of which, in health or disease, they can have no knowledge. 



John Broughton. — Twoyearsago ("Am. Jour. Phar ," 1878, p. 38) we informed 
our readers that the well-known quinologist of the Neilgherries cinchona plantations 
was supposed to have been murdered. We learn from the " Pharmaceutical Jour- 
nal " (London), 1879, Nov. 22, that according to the " Madras Mail" Mr. Brough- 
ton is at present at Colombo. He left Ootacamund somewhat unexpectedly about 
four years ago, and with the exception of some mysterious rumors, nothing wa& 
known as to where he had gone. A ( orrespondent of the " Daily News," referring 
to the statement of the "Madras Mail," remarks that "it is little to the credit of 
the Madras Government that the fate of an officer high in their service should be 
involved in such mystery." 



OBITUARY. 

Antoine Baudoin Poggiale died at Bellevue, near Paris, on the 26th day of 
August last. He was born on the Island of Corsica February 9th, 1808, entered a 
military hospital as a student in pharmacy, and graduated as doctor in medicine in 
1833. From 1837 to 1847 he was Professor of Chemistry at Lille, and subsequently 
chief pharmacist and Professor of Chemistry at the Hospital of Val de Grace at Paris. 
He served as pharmacist with the French army in Africa, and in 1858 was promoted 
to the highest rank in military pharmacy, that of Pharmacist Inspector. Poggiale 
was elected a member of the French Academy in December, 1856, was for several 
years President of the Pharmaceutical Society of Paris, and for a long time one of 
the editors of the "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie." His scientific investiga- 
tions were mostly in chemistry in its application to pharmacy, physiology and 
hygiene. 



6o 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1880, 



CLASS PHILAD'A COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, 1879-80. 



JUNIOR CLASS. 



Matriculants. 
Adams, C. Franklin, 
Aigner, Martin, 
Baker. Ernest Herbert, 
Baugh, Harry Leonard, 
Baur, Charles, 
Behringer, Albert Christian, 
Benton, Wilber Merritt, 
Berube, Louis Napoleon, 
Betts, Samuel Everett, 
Beuter, John, 
Binns, John Pemberton, 
Bird, William Henry, 
Bowman, William Jasper, 
Brady, Harry, 
Brown. Peyton Bradley, 
Brown, Frank Wighton, 
Buck, Charles Edward, 
Bye, Charles Alfred, 
Cahill, James Edward, 
Chapman, Charles Frederick, 
Christman, Charles Daniel, 
Clabaiigh, Alton, 
Clapp, Chambers Brown, 
Cook, Wm. Edmund, 
Cox, Walter Friend, 
Cramer, Walter, 
Cray thorn, Charles John, 
Cressler, David Winfield, 
Culler, Frederick Wallace, 
Davis, John Walheater, 
DeHuy, Bernard Henry, 
Demaree, Wm. Lowther, 
Dorner, Emil August, 
Douglass, Serrill, 
Eberly, Frank Hertzler, 
Engl sh, George Hiliard, 
Ely, Theodore Julius, 
Fahey, John C, 
Faunce, Wm. Henry, 
Faussett, John Dobbins, 
Finney, Wm. Henry, 
Forgy, James, 
-Galbreath. Wm. H , 
■Carver, Charles Krauth, 
Genois, Louis, 
•Gustacker, Michael, 
Goebel, George, Jr.. 
Gorgas, Ceorge Albert, 
Graff, Emil George Hermann, 
Gray, John Franklin, 
Griscom, William, Jr., 
Gute, Frederick William, 
Haessig, Herman, T., 
Hahn, John Henry, 
Halloran, Francis Marion, 
Hallowell, Charles Wesley, 
Hamlin, Benj. Baird, Jr., 
Hannigan, Wm. Thomas, 
Hammell, Walter Gunnell, 
Harper, Harry Winston, 
Harris, Edwin, 
Hart, Joseph, 

Hartman, Chas. Harvey Shanklin, 
Haynes, Thomas Jerdome, 
Herwig, Emil Moser, 
Hinchman, Walter Lippincott, 



Town or County. 

Philadelphia, 

Williamsport, 

Philadelphia, 

Terre Haute, 

Philadelphia, 

Peoria, 

Ramey, 

Wilmington, 

Wheeling, 

Philadelphia, 

Danville, 

Philadelphia, 

Marion, 

Philadelphia, 

Showchegan, 

Hickory Hill, 

Trenton, 

North Fairfield, 

Pennsburg, 

Altoona, 

Howard, 

New Brunswick, 

Lancaster, 

Milwaukee, 

Beverly, 

Chambei'sburg, 

New Lisbon, 

Huntingdon Co., 

Cloverport, 

Newport, 

Philadelphia, 

Bristol, 

Chambersburg, 

Woodbury, 

Girard, 

Schuylkill Falls, 

Philadelphia, 

Trenton, 

Chambersburg, 

McVeytown, 

Chambersburg, 

New Orleans, 

Cleveland, 

Philadelphia, 

Harrisburg, 

Meppen, 

Milton, 

Woodbury, 

Philadelphia, 

Paducah, 

Lock Haven, 

Paducah, 

Philadelphia, 

Harrisburg, 

Unionville, 

Camden, 

Goonville, 

Philadelphia, 

Baltimore, 

Philadelphia, 

Smyrna, 

Philadelphia, 

Haddonfield, 



State. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Ind. 
Pa. 
III. 
Pa. 
Del. 
W. Va. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Cal. 
Pa. 
Ala. 
Pa. 
Me. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Ohio. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Neb. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Wis, 
N.J. 
Pa. 
Ohio. 
Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

La. 

Ohio, 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Germany, 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Ky. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Mo. 

Pa. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Del. 

Pa. 

N.J. 



Preceptor. 

G. M. Carslake.; 
A. W. Miller, M.D. 
Wm. Bell. 

J. T Shinn. 
J- J. Baur. 

Russell & Newbourg. 
Singer & Wheeler. 
W. W. Moorhead. 
A. P. Blomer. 
Logan, List & Co. 
W R. Warner & Co. 
J. B. Moore. 

H. Bowman. 
C, Gmelin. 

C. B. Ash & Co. 
S. W. Brown. 
J. P. Remington. 
Jos. M. Fulton. 
J. D. James. 
C. H. Chapman. 
T. D. Brown. 
S. M. Sellers. 

F. G. Nichols, M.D. 

P. J. L. Carberry, M.D. 
C. A Heinitsh. 
Dr. Axt. 

A. W. Taylor, M.D. 

C. H. Cressler. 
M. T. Nace. 

G. W. Hull. 

D. S. Jones. 

B. M. Eby, 
L. Wolff. 

H. G. Peters. 
M. B. Mosser. 
J. P. Bolton. 

B. C. Ely. 

E. S. Beary, M.D. 
W. H. Pile & Son. 
A. L. Thorn. 

A. J. Miller. 

L. Wolff. 

Chas. Shivers. 

J. H. Harte. 

Peter Cruice. 

Dr. S. C. Blair. 

H. A. Borell. 

H. Mueller. 

E, Krause & Bro. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

J. Wyeth & Bro. 

Thomas R. Coombe. 

E. W. Herrmann. 

C. W. Seary. 

Wm. R. Warner & Co 
C. L. Mitchell. 
Wm. Coulter. 
A. W. Wright. 
Howard & Smith. 
C. W. Harris. 
John Moffet. 
Dr. Urquhart. 

F. F Hamilton. 
E* Herwig. 

J. A. Braddock. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Jan., 1880. 



Catalogue of the Class. 



Matriculants. 
Hoge, Joseph Hughes, 
Hoke, Willis Andrew, 
Holmes, Marshall Calvin, 
Howard, Jeddie, 
Hoyt, Frank Ames, 
Hunterson, Charles Bradford, 
Ihrig, Theodore Edward, 
Jacoby, John Wesley, 
Johnson, Chester, 
Johnson, Frank Lincoln, 
Jones, James Miles, 
Joy, Charles Lineous, 
Kemble, Wm. Wayne, 
Kerr, John Henry, 
Kirby, Charles Pitman, 
Knowlton, George Harry, 
Krauter, Charles Henry, 
Lacy, Wm Reif, 
Landis, Renfrew, 
Lawall, Edgar Jacob, 
Leedom, Charles, 
Liek, Charles Willard, 
Linden, Washington Emil, 
Loehle, John Francis, 
Luerssen, Frank. 
Lyman, David Christopher, 
Lyon, Lucien Eugene Rosamond, 
Madden, Ferdinand Sharp, 
Manheimer, Edward A., 
Manz, Constanz, 
May, Charles Henry, 
Mayer, William Christian, 
McAlister, Alexander, 
Mecannqn, Clifford, 
Mengle, Charles William, 
Merrick, Edwin Augustus, 
Metzger. J. B., 
Meyer, Frank Benjamin, 
Miller, Wm. Watson, 
Morgan, Frank E., 
Morris, Lemuel lorwerth, 
Morrisson, John J., 
Morton, William John, 
Mount, Harry S., 
Muldoon, Edward Joseph, 
Murray, Harry, 
Nagel, Arther Christian, 
JMairn, Thomas Shields, 
Nelf, Jacob William, 
Pape, William Frederick, 
Parsons, William Norton, 
Pechin, Jesse Walton, 
Pennock, Levis E., 
Perry, Mason George, 
Petty, John Watson, 
Purdy, John Henry, 
Querner. Ernst Amandus, 
Ralph, Irene Dupont Hendrickson, 
Reading, Hiram Craven, 
Reed, David Reynolds, 
Risk, James Boyd, 
Rixstine, Ambrose Jefferson, 
Rogers, Caleb Forest, 
Bogers, Frrnklin Pierce, 
Roland, George Weidler, 
Rowe, Charles Edward, 
San*ee, Elmer Valentine, 
Schadt, Ali^n Moses, 
Schroeder, George Adolphus, 
Scott, Joseph Harry, 
Seiberlich, AlbeJt, 
Shaw, Allen. 
Shepler, Wilbur Seymour, 
Shewell, Charles Tripler, 
Shengle, Samuel Howard, 
Slocum, Frank Leroy, 



Town or County. 
Philadelphia, 
Martinsburg, 
Trenton, 
Philadelphia, 
Norwalk, 
Camden, 
Pittsburg, 
West Chester, 
Oxford, 
Lambertville, 
Reading, 
Ilion, 
Tideoute, 
Philadelphia, 
Salem, 
Manchester, 
Bridgeton, 
Reading, 
Lambertville, 
Catasauqua, 
Newtown, 
Clyde, 
Cleveland, 
Lebanon, 
Philadelphia, 
Richmond, 
Columbia, 
Camden, 
Indianapolis, 
Lyons, 
Piqua, 

Philadelphia, 

Camden, 

Wilmington, 

New Castle, 

Philadelphia, 

Williamsport, 

Renselaer, 

Philadelphia, 

Concord, 

Eureka, 

AUentown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Easton, 

Washington, 

Philadelphia, 

Dayton, 

Philadelphia, 

Montgomery Co., 

Oxford, 

Canastota, 

Moundsville, 

Philadelphia, 

Pristol, 

Hatboro, 

Wilmington, 

Baltimore. 

Chester Co., 

Philadelphia, 

Beverly, 

Lewisburgh, 

Tarboro, 

Nazareth, 

AUentown 

Cleveland, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Quakertown, 

Monongahela City, 

Philadelphia, 

Springfield, 

Fort Atkinson, 



State, 
Pa. 

W. Va. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Conn. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. Y. 

Pa. 

N Y. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

N. H. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. Y. 

Ohio. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ky 

S. C. 

N. J. 

Md. 

Iowa. 

Ohio, 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Del. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ind. 

Pa. 

N. H. 

Kas. 

England. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

D.C. 

Pa. 

Ohio. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N. Y. 

N. C. 

W. Va. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Del. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

N. C. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ohio, 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa 

Pa. 

Wis. 



Preceptor. 
Prof. De Ghent. 
J. L. W. Baker. 
H. Schaffer. 
C. G. Frowert 
Geo I. McKelway. 
W. R. Wilson. 
J. G. Baker. 
Thos. G. Pierce. 
L. Dembinski. 
Emmor H. Lee. 
J. H. Stein. 
Ugden & Downs. 
C. Kemble. 
Adam Frank M.D, 
Eakin & Ballinger. 
Jas Bowker. 

A. M. Wilson. 
Remington & Sayre. 
S. K. Slifer. 

J. S Lawall. 

B. M. Magill. 
J. E. Smith. 
H. C. Busch. 
V. H. Allwein. 
Dr C. Gmelin. 
Wm. G. White. 
Davidson & Clark. 
J. D McFeiran. 

E. L. Aughinbaugh. 
L. Manz. 
Conrad May. 
H. E. Wendel. 
R. Shoemaker & Co. 
Z. James Bell. 
Dr. J. McKinley. 
Wm. H. Pile & Son. 
Dr. A. B. Finney. 
W.J. Imes. 
John M Thomas, 
Munro Bond. 
Olney & Morris. 
E. P. Camp. 
S. S. Bunting. 
Hansell & Bro. 
Roger Keys, M.D. 

B. M. Bethel. 

T. H. Potts & Co. 
G. I. McKelway. 
A. L. Helmbold. 
J. W. Dougherty. 
A. W. Parsons. 
J. G. Wells. 
Geo Cooke. 

G. O.Perry. 
W. C. Porter. 
S. P. Wright. 

E. Querner, M.D. 

H. Pursell, M.D. 
T. E. Conard, M.D. 
R. H. DeBeust. 
Risk & Bro. 

J.T. White. 
Thomas Phillips. 
H. C. VanMeter. 

C. C. Hughes. 
H. C. Archibald. 
R. F. Babp. 
Wm. H. Rinker. 
A. Mayell. 

W. E. Krewson. 

G. G. Frowert, M.D. 
R. J. Linderman, M.D. 

Chas. Ouram. 

H. C. Watt. 

R. b. White & Co. 



62 



Catalogue of the Class, 



Am Jour. Phann. 
Jan., 1880. 



Matriculants. 
Smith, Edward W., 
Spengler John George, 
Stahler, Eugene Abraham, 
Stallman, Harry Reader, 
Stephens, Everard Potter, 
Stout, John Harvey, 
Strater, Henry Herman, 
Swope, James Wills, 
Taylor, John Dalzell, 
Terry, Reavis Johnston. 
Test, Henry Smith, 
Thornton, Henry, 
Traub, Charles Godfrey, 
Tyree, Josiah S., 
Vzrden, Edwin, 
Walker, George Allen, 
Warner, Wm. Richard, Jr., 
Weaver, Henry Bacon, 
Weaver, Frank Craven, 
Weiss, Cnristian, 
Wevili, George Edward, 
Wilcox, William 
Williams, Wm. Clark, 
Wilgus, Wm. Alcott, 
Wilson, Samuel EstOH, 
Wilson, Matthew James, 
Winn, Philip James, Jr., 
Worthington, Isaac Wilson, 
Young, W. Chalfant, 
Zeitler, Edward Alfonzo, 



Town or County. State. Preceptor. 

Williamsport, Pa. P. W. Bentley. 

Dayton, Ohio. H. A. Post. 

Norristown, Pa. Wm. Stahler. 

Chestnut Hill, Pa. T. L. Buckman 

Wilmington, Del. N. B. Danforth. 

Milton, Pa. A.- W. Test. 

Cleveland, Ohio. Vaupel & Moore. 

Bendersville, Pa. H. C Blair's Sons. 

Vineland. N. J. John Bley. 

Birmingham. Ala. S.W.Gillespie. 

York, Pa. I. J. Gaahame. 

Philadelphia, Pa. D. L. Stackhouse. 

Indianapolis, Ind. G. F. Traub. 

Staunton, Va. W. R. lyree. 

Wilmington, Del, H. E. Ashmead. 

Yardville, N. J. A. L. Thorn. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Wm. R. Warner. 

Mauricetown, N. J. H. C- Blair's Sons. 

Philadelphia, Pa. R. Shoemaker & Co. 

Philadelphia, Pa. . M J. Cummings, M.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa. A. W. Dnvall. 

St. Clair, Pa. H. P. Carr, M.D, 

Frenchtown, N.J. S. Levin Dilks. 

Philadelphia, Pa. I. Frank Wilgus 

Terrell, Texas. 

Philadelphia, Pa. A. Wilson 

Fluvianna Co Va. 

Warrington & Trimble. 

New Lisbon. Ohio. King & Young. 

Md. H.H.Hopkins, 



SENIOR CLASS. 



Agthe, John Frederick Oscar, 
Atkinson. Edgai Harrington, 
Ballantine, Charles Hamilton, 
Barrington, Richard Calcott, 
Basset, Fenwick Hazeltine, 
Beale, Charles, 
Belleville. Allen Leslie, 
Bellows, Charles Edward, 
Bennett, Alexander Eiwell, 
Beringer, George Mahlon, 
Bidwell, Edwin Hugh, 
Boysen, Edward George, 
Boysen, Lewis Colloredo, 
Brakeley, Philip Fine Howell, 
Brooks, Mitchell Baxter, 
Buchanan, Andrew, 
Burdick, Edwin Raughley. 
Carslake, Wm. H., 
Carl, Charles Blair, 
Clark, Harry Scott, 
Clark, Robert, Jr., 
Clymer, Chas. Wesley, 
Collier, Lewis Clay, 
Collins, ']"homas S., 
Colton, George Havens, 
Courtney, Samuel Walter. 
Dahis, George Emil, 
Daniel, Adam Clarion. 
Danner, Wm. Edward, 
Davis, Frank Clifford, 
Davis, Charles Sumner, 
Detzer, August Jacob, 
Diehl, Benjamin Harper, 
Dockstader, William Crossett, 
Drueding, Frank Frederick, 
Elkins, Charles William, 
Evans, George Bryan, 
Famous, Parker Hooven, 
Ferdinand, George Adam, 
Fisher, George Washington, 
Freeman, Oliver John, 
Fristy, Frank, 



Salem, 
Dover, 
Philadelphia, 
Mount Holly, 
Salem, 

Philadelphia, 

Delaware City, 

Bridgeton, 

Mount Holly, 

Philadelphia, 

Vineland, 

Buffalo, 

Buff.Hlo, 

Bordentown, 

Philadelphia, 

Milford, 

Alleniown, 

Greencastle, 

Lancaster Co., 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Kenton, 

Absocom, 

Springfield, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Lykens 

Bethlehem, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Fort Wayne, 

Quakertown, 

Dover, 

Cloppenbug, 

Philadelphia, 

Colmar, 

Dublin, 

Dubuque, 

Calawissa, 

Allentown, 

Atchison, 



N. C. 

Dei. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

N.J. 

Pa 

Del. 

N.J. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

N.J 

N. Y. 

N. Y. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Del. 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa 

Ohio. 

N.J. 

Mass. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Ind. 

Pa. 

Del. 

Germany. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Md. 

Iowa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Kas. 



Wm. Simpson. 

D. F. Burton. 

E. J. Davidson 
Louis Miller. 
Jas. T. Shinn. 
Edmond Beale, M.D. 
H. B. Lippincott. 
Wm. Noison, M.D. 
Twining & Schiedt. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
H. C. Walker. 

Dr, O, Boysen. 
Dr. O. Boysen. 
L Thomas. 

C. P. Elfreth. 

D. J. Laughlin. 

Adam Carl. 
Chas. H. Clark. 

E. J. Davidson. 
Barker, Moore & Mein. 
Dr. J. A. Rogers. 

D. S. Ferguson. 

H. & J. Brewer. 

C. M. Schellinger, M.D. 

P. M. Kelly. 

A. G. Stanley. 

J. Wyeth A Co. 

R. Shoemaker & Co. 

McKeown,Bower, Ellis & Co. 

H. Fisher. 
B F. Johnson. 
Drueding Bros. 
L. F. Segrest. 
G. I. McKelway. 
James W. Harry, 
T. W. Ruete. 
Thomas Hunter, M.D, 
VanBuskirk & Apple. 
Johnson & Sherer. 



A.m. Jour. Pliarm 
Jan., 1880. 



Catalogue of the Class, 



63 



Matriculants. 
Fri'ih, Gustgr Adolph, 
Fry, Daniel Joshua, 
Gadd, Samuel Westley, 
Galbreath. Thomas Mullin, 
Garman, Franklin Samuel, 
Gibson, Robert, Jr., 
Goldsmith, George Washington, 
Gossling. Thomas Richard, 
Grime, Robert Thomas, 
Halloweiljjas Alexander Davis, 
Hano, Simon L'mis, 
Harker, Frank Scott, 
Harrison, Francis Edward, 
Hartzell, Alfred Kerr, 
Hayes, George Washington, 
Hayhu rst, Susan, 
Hertsch, Bernhard August, 
Hoell, Conrad Gabriel, 
Hofifa, John Wilson, 
Holden, Louis Henry, 
Holzhauer, Wm Christian, 
Jackson, George Henry, 
Jacoby, Wni. Oscar, 
Jenks. Wm. Earl, 
Jost, Washington William, 
Kelly, Irving Washington, 
Kern, James Pecor, 
Kerr, Stirling Jr., 
Keys, Thomas Franklin, 
Killingbeck, Wm. John, 
Klemet, John, 
Kohlerman, John William, 
Lafean, Albert Henry, - 
Lantz, William Henry, 
Latin, George, 
Lavenson, Isaac, 
JLeith, Clinton Hess, 
Lewis, Arthur Everett, 
Lins, John A., 
Loos, Frederick, Jr , 
Love, John Henry, 
Luethe, Amandus Julius, 
McCambridge, John Edmund, 
McClintock, Wm. Charles, 
McFeeters, Andrew James, 
Madison, Joseph Summerfield, 
Mascher, William, 
JMaier, John, 
Marshall, Alfred Stanger, 
Marshall, Rush Porter, 
Matthias, Joseph Ingles, 
Milby, Arthur Robinson, 
I^Iiller, William Leland, 
Miller, William Moses, 
Miller, Samuel Warn, 
Millington, Joseph Thomas, 
Moser, John Hendricks, 
Muhlenburg, Harry Melchior, 
Murray, Bernard James, 
Myers, Charles William, 
O'Daniel, Andrew Allison, 
Ochse, George Henry, 
Ogram, Thomas Edwin, 
Opdyke, William Maxwell, 
Owen, Horace Hildebrand, 
Paxson, One Henry, Jr., 
Pechin, Wm. Joseph, 
Pennypacker, Nathan, 
Peters, Henry Eugene, 
Pettit, Louis Clark, 
Poley, Linnaus S , 
Reeve, Walter Sharpless, 
Reifuss, Emil Gustav, 
Reynolds, John Brewster, 
Rinek, Charles A., 
Roberts, Charles Haines, 



Town or County. 
Philadelphia, 
Vineland, 

Dublin, 

Lykens, 

Wheeling. 

Philadelphir. 

Frankford, 

JeffersonvUie, 

Trinity Co., 

Philadephia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Allentown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Camden, 

Harrisburg, 

Alleghany City, 

New Castle, 

Mahanoy City, 

Quakertown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Pemberton, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia 

Camden, 

Philadelphia, 

Wilmington, 

York, 

Bethlehem, 

Dayton, 

Pottsville, 

Philadelphia, 

Scranton, 

Philadelphia, 

Chestnut Hill, 

Philadelphia, 

Milwaukee, 

Philadelphia, 

Ardmore, 

Philadelphia, 

Dunmore, 

Philadelphia, 

Bridesburg, 

Princess Anne, 

Philadelphia, 

Frederica, 

St. Louis, 

Bridgeton, 

Marietta, 

St. Clair, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

New Oxford, 

Oxford, 

Philadelphia, 

Media, 

Philadelphia, 

York, 

Atg'en, 

Philadelphia, 

Cambria, 

Allentown, 

New Lisbon, 

Norristown, 

Medford, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Atlantic City, 



State. 

Pa. 

N.J. 

England. 

Md. 

Pa. 

W. Va. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Cal. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Saxony. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Wis. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Del. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Ohio. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Wis. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa- 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Md. 
Pa. 
Del. 
Mo. 
N. J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Ohio. 
Pa. 
N.J. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
N.J. 



Preceptor . 
C. D. S. Fruh. 
S. Gerhard 
S. Creadick, M.D. 
H. C. Bfair's Sons. 
J. Garman. 
Logan. List & Co. 
Wm. Weber. 
J. P. Bolton. 
J. P. Bolton. 
Henry Blithe. 
H. B. L'ppincott. 
Remington & Sayre. 
A. H. Bolton 
Dr. H. R. Hartzell & Co. 
Frank P. Lins. 
Women's Hospital. 
R. B. Pierce. 
T. J. Rowand, M D. 
C. L. Mitchell. 
E. Holden & Co. 
Aug. Von Trott. 
A. L. Lumb. 
R. L Jacoby. 
W. J. Jenks. 
Wm. B. Webb. 

H. A. Borell. 
Jcnes & Shaw. 
C. M. Morrell. 
Roger Keys, M. D. 

Wm. Klemet. 

A. Nebeker, M. D. 

Remington & Sayre. 

E. H. Luckenback. 
Sachs <fe Pruden. 
J. C. Hughes. 

J. O. Eberhard. 
J. Wyeth & Bro. 
Frank P. Lins. 

C. L. Mitchell. 
Hance Bros. & White. 
Aug. Von Trott. 
Wm. R. Warner & Co. 

I. W. Lutz 

Wm. R. Warner & Co. 
J. A. C. Hanly, M. D. 

J. K. Knorr, Jr., M. D. 
James Van Court. 
M. Kratz 

Barker, Moore & Mein. 
Dr. B. Whiteley. 
H. C. Blair's Sons. 

H. A. Jordan 
Hugh Campbell. 
A. B. Wenrich. 
John Bley. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
G. V Eddy. 

D. H. Schmidt. 
J. F. Hayes. 

C. A. Werckshagen. 

G. I. McKelway. 
W. Opdyke. 

I. H. Kay 

J. A. Parker. 

F. C. Clemson. 
Warrington & Trimble. 
L. W. Adams. 

King & Young. 
Dr. F. B. Poley. 

H. P. Thorn. 
A. R. Lawson. 

H. Duffield, M. D. 
Howard Patterson, M. D. 
Wm. Wright. 



64 



Catalogue of the Class, 



Am. Jour. Pharro^ 
Jan., 1880. 



Matriculants. 
Roche, Edward Manning, Jr., 
Ross, George Redsecker, 
Salfrank, Charles William, 
Saylor, Albert Reese, 
Schindein, Harry, 
Schimminger, George William, 
Shelly, Jacob, 
Sherk, Harry Huber, 
Short, William Huntley, 
Shidl, Silas Henry. 
Slough, Charles Edward, 
S medley, Harry Leedom, 
Smith, George Farrar, 
Smith, William Harrold, 
Smith, Edward Newton, 
Sombart, John Edward, 
Speakman, William E, 
Stamp. James Edward, 
Stathem, Beach Jones, 
Steltzer, Lewis Joseph, 
Stout. Charles Pettit, 
Strunk. Samuel William, 
Swayne, Walter Scott, 
Tag, William, 
Talbot, Stephen Liversidge, 
Thornley, William James, 
Titcomb. Joseph Alexander, 
Toplis, William George, 
Van Allen. Herman, 
Wallace, William Sampson, 
Wallis, Edward, 
Warner, Frank Stephen, 
Warrington, Edward, 
Webster, George C, 
White, James Addison, 
Whiteside, Wm. Elder, 
Williams, George Eli, 
Winebrenner, George Byron, 
Yeakle, John, 
Voung, Preston Reuben, 
Zaun, Henry, 
Zeller, Chas. Frederick. 
Zimmerman, Mason, Woodward, 



Town or County. 
Philadelphia, 
Lebanon, 
Philadelphia, 
Berks Co , 
Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia, 
Mechanicsburg, 
Lebanon, 
Ardmore, 
Mansfield, 
Allentown, 
Media, 
Fayctteville, 
Philadelphia, 
Thompsonville, 
Boonville, 
Woodbury, 
Wilmington, 

Philadelphia, 

Florence Heights 

Quakertown, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Boston, 

Norristown, 

Columbia, 

Germantown, 

Ionia, 

Newark, 

Philadelphia, 

Newark, 

Moorestown, 

Concordville, 

Mt. Vernon, 

Philadelphia, 

Eimira, 

Frederick, 

Norristown, 

Bethlehem, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 



State. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa. 
Pa 

Ohio. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Tenn. 

Pa. 

Conn. 

Mo. 

N. J. 

Del. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

N. J. 

Pa. 

Pa 

Pa. 

Mass. 

Pa. 

Tenn. 

Pa. 

Mich. 

Ohio. 

Pa. 

Ohio, 

N.J. 

Pa. 

Ohio, 

Pa. 

N. Y. 

Md. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 

Pa. 



Preceptor. 
E. M. Roche. 
Dr. Geo. Ross & Go. 
I. B. Turner. 
R. Oppermann. 
C. L. Mitchell. 
J. W. Dallam & Co. 
J. Wyeth & Bro. 
J. A. Armstrong, M. D. 
S. F. Stadelman. 
T. R Combe. 
J R Landis. 

Jones & Shaw & B.S.Smedle^b 

C. W Smith 

Jos. P Remington. 

W. A. Campbell. 

E. Roeschel. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

J. J. Gallagher & Co. 

Dr. J. M. Higgins. 

H. P.John 

Leidy Seipel. 

Wm M. Bowen. 

Jones & Shaw. 

L. P. Reiman. 

J. P. Remington. 

William Stabler. 

Titcomb & Towler. 

William Conner. 

Gundrum Bros. 

Hugh Campbell. 

Dr Wallis 

G. D. Blomer. 

C. W. Warrington. 

W. Procter, Jr., Co. 

Baker Bros. 

W. J. S. Whiteside. 

Alonzo Robbins. 

Wm. Bell 

Atwood Yeakle. 

Dr. G. Schlosser. 

W. W. Moorehead.. 

J. P. Remington. 

P. Niskey. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, 1880. 



The APOTHECARY'S APPRENTICE FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

By Robert Shoemaker. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting January 20. 

It was in the year 1831 the writer entered one of the best known 
apothecary " shops " (so-called then) — at that day — in this city, as an 
apprentice. Looking back to that time, and comparing the duties of 
the apprentice then with what they are now, one almost wishes he had 
been born 50 years later. The store was large for that day, situated on 
the corner of two of our principal streets, having three large " bulk 
windows — with a show bottle for each pane of glass, making 24 bot- 
tles to each window. 

The morning work began with taking down the shutters from these 
windows and two double doors, making the fire (if in cold weather), 
sweeping the store, cleaning and filling, with sperm oil (no gas in those 
days), a number of lamps, which were suspended from the ceiling. 
The shop was opened at 6 o'clock A. M. the year round, and this 
daily routine of work was to be finished before breakfast. 

After breakfast (the work having been laid out the day before) 
began the preparation of medicines — as powdering (for, with a single 
exception, every powder was prepared by ourselves), the preparation of 
tinctures, pills, ointment, etc. Gum nipples were unknown then — - 
heifer's teats trimmed out (and preserved in alcohol until wanted), tied 
over the mouth of an 8 ounce bottle, constituted the nursing bottle of 
the time. These were prepared in quantities for our own sale and for 
other apothecaries ; how well I remember the bottle containing them 
standing right by the side of another containing clyster pipes — these to 
be attached to a bladder when required for use. 

Thanks to Goodyear for the abolishment of these " implements." 

I have said there was one drug we did not powder — not because it 
was difficult of reduction — but because my good preceptor saw fit to 

5 



66 The Apothecary's Apprentice Fifty Tears Ago. {""Verxs^so""- 

patronize (with this one article) a worthy old character named John 
Price, who, in a frame shanty on Callowhill street, had, what he called, 
a drug mill. In this building old friend Price had erected some rude 
machinery, which was set in motion by a mule. The sole attendant, 
the proprietor, received such easily powdered drugs as were confided to 
his care through an 8 by lo aparture from an outside vestibule. None 
were allowed a nearer approach than this to the wonderfully con- 
structed powdering apparatus within. Of rhubarb we would have 
returned, in due t'lme^ about two-thirds in powder — the remaining one- 
third in a separate package labelled crumbs." 

In that well remembered old iron mortar, so firmly seated on a stout 
post descending throug the cellar to the earth, all else was powdered. 
Ipecac, gamboge, sanguinaria and cantharides (this last moistened with 
alcohol) arise to my mind (and nostrils too) as among the particularly 
obnoxious articles I was obliged to reduce to a fine powder. Those 
old boxed silk sieves were provokingly fine. I often thought a coarse 
material might have answered the purpose, but " Needles " had his 
orders. 

My dear old preceptor, one of the best of men, was a firm believer 
in those lines of Watts : 

Satan finds some mischief still 
For idle hands to do." 

Consequently the " embryos " were kept ever at work. Once in a 
fortnight all the bottles in the " shop," together with the windows 
were to be washed. But, lest Satan might steal a chance to reveal that 

mischief," a large marble mortar, of 2 or 3 gallons capacity, was 
stationed in one corner, firmly fixed in the open top of a keg with a 
pestle of wood, having a long handle, passing through a support at the 
top, and in said mortar were always the ingredients for either mercurial 
ointment or blue mass — and that old seat by the side of that mortar 
was never empty, except when more important duties claimed our 
attention. What does the modern student in pharmacy know about 
the luxury of killing mercury ? 

Talk of a cat having 40 lives, why 40 times 40 will not suffice for 
the extinguishment of mercury ; rub ! rub ! ! rub ! ! ! day after day and 
yet the labor continues. Thankful may the modern apprentice be that 
ihis work is now done by machinery. 

But you will ask, what time for study ?" I will tell you. After 



'^"'Fcris^Bo"™'} ^^he Apothecary s Apprentice Fifty l^ears Ago. 67 

lamp light, between the calls of customers, we had the privilege of 
reading " Cox's Dispensatory," " Turner's Chemistry," " Ure's 
Chemical Dictionary," and, once in a quarter, the welcome " Journal 
of Pharmacy." 

It is not to be wondered that, after the labors of the day, one found 
it difficult to keep awake throughout the long winter evenings. And I 
well remember how I sat, with book in one hand and a pound weight 
in the other, so that the dropping ^to the floor of the weight, in case of 
my being overcome with drowsiness, might arouse me. 

We did a large prescription business (for that day) and in looking 
over the well-preserved books, containing the prescriptions from the 
year 1830 to 1855, "^7 n^ind is sadly impressed with the fact that, so 
far as I know, not one of the well-known physicians in this city, in 
1832, is now in practice, and, I believe, all but two or three have 
passed away. Those old formulas are interesting to behold. Sugar- 
coated pills, fluid extracts, highly colored, deliciously flavored elixirs, 
and a host of other medicaments were all in the womb of the future 
when these doses were prescribed. Infusions were much in vogue, 
larger pills and greater doses were swallowed in those days. 

Allow me to present one or two prescriptions, taken at random, from 
"Book 1832 : " 

R Pulv. rhei, 

Pil. rufi, . . . . . dd 3ss 

Sapo., ..... grs. viii 

01. carui, ..... gtt. iii 
M. ft. pil xii. 

What would our fastidious patrons of the present time, who object to 
an elegantly gelatin or sugar coated pill of two grains, say to these six 
grain fellows, as they lift them from their bed of Pulv. Glycyrrhizae I 
Take another : 

R Sulph. magnesia, .... Zni 



Calomel, . . . . , . ^i 

Tart. Antim, . . . . . gr. i 

M. ft. pulv. viii. 

And two days after, for the same patient : 

R Sennae, ..... ^vi 

Mannae, . . . , . ^\\\ 

Sem. foenic, . . . . 

Cream tartar, . . . . 3i 



Sig. : Infuse in one-half pint of water two hours, and take a wine-glass full at a 
dose. 



68 The Apothecary s Apprentice Fifty Tears Ago. { ^"•/eZ'iss'""' 

But enough, I give these specimens to show, by contrast with the 
present time, what great improvements have been made in the science 
of pharmacy. Generally, doses were large and nauseous. ""Child- 
ren," then, " did not cry for more." 

A popular anthelmintic, fifty years ago, was: Rad. spigeliae, ^i ; 
sem. chenopodii, 3ii ; sennae, 5ss ; infuse, etc. Another was cow- 
hage, given in molasses. Now we have santonine and other active 
principles, so combined with sugar and aromatics, in the form of con- 
fections, as to make the remedy a coveted " Bonne Bouche," and 
^' children do cry for more." 

In the summer of 1832 we had the first and most awful visitation 
of Asiatic cholera Philadelphia has ever experienced. Then it was 
that apothecaries had as much as they could well do, night and day. 
Many of my readers remember the camphor bags and Burgundy pitch; 
plasters ; the first worn in the bosom, suspended by a string around 
the neck, and the latter over the abdomen. 

I have said we had no sugar-coated pills, or fluid extracts ; neither 
had we machine spread plasters. Apprentices then did have some 
advantages over those of the present time, their opportunities for learn- 
ing the art of manufacturing were greater. 

" The manufacturing pharmaceutist " was unknown. Apothecaries 
(wholesale dealers alone were called "druggists") made their own pre- 
parations, and all plasters were spread by hand, as wanted (adhesive 
plaster, on cloth, excepted). 

The experience of 1832, therefore, made many perfect in the 
spreading of plasters. Ten by twelve and ten by fourteen inches were 
not unusual sizes. Well do [ remember one nervous old gentleman,, 
who, to ward off an attack of the dreaded disease, in addition to his 
camphor pouch, ordered a whole lamb-skin to be spread with Burgundy 
pitch, sprinkled with powdered camphor. The order was executed, 
the large plaster carried to his house by the writer and duly applied, 
covering; well the stomach and abdomen. The next morning a mes- 
senger came to say that Mr. W. could not arise from his bed and dress, 
as the plaster had slipped down, and he required help. The removal 
of that plaster was a more diflicult task than had been its preparation. 
It may be well to remark that the old gentleman escaped an attack of 
cholera, and lived many years to proclaim the virtues of camphor and 
Burgundy pitch as a preventive of Asiatic cholera. 



'^"'FeCissIf.'^"^} ^ome American Species of Artemisia. 69 

My experience, at this time, in the preparation of plasters, was of 
great service to me in after years, as it led me to contrive a plan (suc- 
ceeded, hou^ever, by the invention of another) which enabled me to 
produce plasters superior to any spread by hand. From 1838 to 1850 
I manufactured large quantities, enjoying almost a monopoly of the 
business. In some weeks, I find, we spread as many as 5,000 plasters. 
But now, with improved machinery, ^the preparation of plasters, porous 
and others, has become an important industry. I have no means of 
learning the number produced annually, but from the great and con- 
stantly increasing demand it must be enormous. 



l^OTE ON SOME AMERICAN SPECIES OF ARTEMISIA. 

By John M. Maisch. 

Nearly eight years ago("Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1872, p. 196 and 295) 
I called the attention to Arteinisia Ludov'ic'iana^ Nuttall, which was 
recommended as a hair tonic and as a febrifuge, for both purposes to be 
used in the state of infusion. From the interesting paper by Dr. E. 
Palmer {Ibld.^ 1878, p. 590) we learn that the Pah-Utes use strong 
tea of the same plant to assist childbirth, and wads of the fresh plant 
£0 stop hemorrhage from the nose ; even the fruit is employed by these 
Indians, ground line, made into a mush and eaten. The species which 
belongs to the section Abrotanum^ which has the flower-heads heter- 
ogamous, but all florets fertile, is found in Wisconsin and Illinois and 
westward to California and Arizona. 

Recently I obtained a specimen of a plant sent from Arkansas, near 
the banks of the Mississippi, where it was stated to have made its 
appearance after a freshet in 1876, having been previously unknown in 
that section. Although accompanied with but few leaves, the plant 
was recognized as Artemisia dracunculoides^ Pursh, and this was verified 
by comparing it with the specimens in the College herbarium. The 
plant is said to produce irritation when bruised, and a tea of it to be 
diaphoretic. Dr. Palmer reports the fruit to be used by the Pah-Utes as 
food in the same manner as the preceding species. The plant grows 
in western Illinois and westward, is common throughout Nevada, and 
extends southward to Arizona, west of the Sierras to California and 
northward to Oregon. It grows from 2 to 4 or 5 feet high, is some- 



yc Some American Species of Artemisia, 

what woody at the base, glabrous or somewhat pubescent when youngs 
has linear, entire leaves, the lower ones being occasionally threecleft, 
and an ample paniculate inflorescence, consisting of very numerous 
heads, which are about one-tenth inch in diameter. The herb has an 
agreeable, wormwood-like odor, which is not very strong ; its taste is 
bitter, but by far less so than wormwood. The plant belongs to the 
section Dracunculus ^' vfh'xch has tl;ie flowerheads heterogamous, but only 
the pistillate florets on the margin are fertile. 

To the same section belongs Artemisia filifolia^ Torrey, which is 
known m the west as southern ivood. The plant grows to the height of 
2 or 3 feet, has slender virgate branches and dense leafy panicles of 
very small, three- to five-flowered tomentose heads, in which only the 
two pistillate florets are fertile, while the rest are perfect but sterile. 
The leaves are filiform, revolute on the margin, the lower ones fre- 
quently threecleft ; they are whitish tomentose, but when old become 
nearly smooth. According to Dr. Palmer the Pah-Utes use a decoc- 
tion of it against swellings and bruises, and, by distillation, a very pene- 
trating volatile oil may be obtained which is useful in liniments. 

Of greater importance than the species named appear to be those 
which, in the States bordering on the Rocky Mountains, are called 
sage-bushes or sage-brushes. They belong to the section Seriphidimny 
are shrubby, have few-flowered heads and grow in arid localities. Two 
of the sage-bushes, J, arbuscula^ Nuttall, and A. trifida^ Nutt., are 
dwarfy, about 6 inches or the latter sometimes i8 inches high. But 
the more important, A. tridentata^ Nutt., attains a height of 5016 feet^ 
has a ragged, fibrous bark, numerous spreading branches and crowded 
tomentose-canescent leaves, about an inch long, cuneate-oblong and 
with three short and obtuse teeth at the apex. It is a pale green shrub, and 
has a strong aromatic smell. Prof. Serene Watson states that it covers 
hundieds of square miles in the plains and on the foothills of Nevada 
and Utah, and extends from Oregon to Arizona and Sonora, and as 
far east as the mountains of Colorado. According to Dr. Palmer, the 
Pah-Utes use a strong tea of this plant for headache, colds and for 
worms. By distillation a pungent volatile oil may be obtained from it. 



"""^FebirXt'"'} Coloring Principle of Frasera Walteri, 71 

The COLORING PRINCIPLE of FRASERA W ALTERI, Mich. 

By J. U. Lloyd. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January 20. 
In 1840 Mr. J. W. Douglass examined the root of this plant (Ameri- 
can Columbo), discovering a yellow crystalline substance. This he 
obtained in very small amount, and impure, from which reason he 
could not determine its nature with satisfaction, the conclusion being 
that the substance was a mixture of gallic acid and a yellow coloring 
principle ("Am. Jour. Ph.," vol. xii. p. 177). Mr.W. R. Higinbothom 
again investigated the constituents of this root (1857), obtained the 
vellow principle, but failed to purify it, ascribing to it " a bitter and 
nauseous taste," and stating that it was " partially soluble in chloro- 
form " (''Am. J. Ph.," vol. xxxiv, p. 23). In 1868 Mr. F. W. 
Thomas submitted the root of this plant to a chemical examination, 
preparing the coloring principle and ascribing to it a bitter taste and 
acid reaction. " These crystals, when laid on moist litmus paper^ 
reddened it decidedly " ("Am. J. Ph.," vol. xl, p. 310). 

In 1873 Mr. G. W. Kennedy obtained, by a complex manipulation^ 
yellow crystals. These possessed acid properties, and were supposed 
by Mr. Kennedy to be gentisic acid (gentianin or gentianic acid)» 
("Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc.," 1873.) From a review of the published 
articles upon this subject it may be readily supposed that the coloring 
matter of the root is the acid obtained by Mr. Kennedy, and, arguing 
therefrom, we may well infer that the preceding examinations resulted 
in the discovery of this same substance in a more or less pure state 
where reference is made to the yellow coloring matter, more especially as 
two of the gentlemen ascribe to it acid properties. In connection with the 
subject, permit me to call attention to the specimens of crystals accom-^ 
panying this paper, and the experiment instituted for the purpose of 
determining more carefully the nature of a substance previously obtained 
by the writer from the root of Frasera Walteri. 

Carefully-selected root of Frasera Walteri was coarsely powdered and 
dried by exposure to a current of warm air (ioo°F.) in a drying room. 
Of this powder ten avoirdupois pounds were taken and submitted to 
percolation in a narrow cylindrical percolator, thus obtaining all prac- 
tical contact between menstruum and powder. The menstruum, 
employed was warnj alcohol, s.g. '835, the operation being conducted 
in a warm room. The first five pints of percolate were reserved^, 



72 The Coloring Principle of Eraser a Walteri, {"^""f^b^is^so"" 

filtered, then submitted to a temperature ranging from o°F. to — lO^F. 
for the period of thirty-six hours, at the end of which the sides and 
bottom of the vessel were studded with a crystalh'ne deposit consisting 
of two distinct classes of crystals, one class hard and transparent, the 
other needle-like and yellow. 

The transparent were sweetish, contaminated with bitterness, soluble 
in water, slightly in alcohol, insoluble in ether. After trituration with 
repeated portions of alcohol (to remove grape sugar and adhering bitter 
principles) they were dissolved in water. The solution was purely sweet, 
refused to be affected by Fehling's solution and gave no reaction with 
tests for the alkaloids. Upon exposing the solution in a watch crystal 
to a current of air, I25°F., crystals of the shape of cane sugar were 
deposited. These were charred by concentrated sulphuric acid. This 
substance was cane sugar. (See specimen.) 

1 he second class of crystals were in beautiful lemon-yellow tufts 
radiating in silky needles from a common centre. They were bitter 
when tirst separated from the mother solution and acid to litmus paper, 
both of these characteristics depending upon the presence ot adhering 
impurities. They were washed repeatedly in cold alcohol, in which 
they dissolved but slightly, then with warm water until free from tugar. 
As thus obtained (see specimen A)^ they were lemon-yellow, odorless, 
tasteless. They were insoluble in cold water, but tinged boiling water 
slightly straw color. They dissolved slightly in cold alcohol, freely in 
boiling alcohol, very freely in cold ether, cold chloroform and cold 
carbon disulphide, more being dissolved by each menstruum which 
followed that preceding. The crystals were neutral to moistened lit- 
mus paper, red or blue, and all of the solutions failed to affect either 
colored paper. When the crystals were boiled with water, the addition 
of ferrous sulphate and ferrous chloride failed in both cases to produce 
a precipitate or alter the color of either crystal or solution towards blue 
or green. 

With nitric acid the crystals dissolve, forming a deep-red solution 
without evolution of nitric oxide. With sulphuric acid they form a deep 
orange-red solution. With hydrochloric acid in the cold, no apparent 
change ; upon boiling, the acid becomes straw-colored, while the crys- 
tals seemingly remain unaltered. They refused to unite with either of 
the aforementioned acids when dilute. 

Upon boiling the purified crystals some time with dilute sul- 



^■"pJ^b^iSo^"^} ^^^^ Coloring Principle of Frasera Walteri, 73 

phuric acid, a yellow oily substance rose upon the surface and the 
crystals disappeared. Upon cooling, this substance solidified to a waxy 
consistence and sunk to the bottom of the tube. The supernatant 
colorless liquid was filtered, neutralized with carbonate of calcium, 
filtered again and the filtrate tested with Fehling's solution ; no pre- 
cipitate. 

The crystals change cold ammonia water to yellow, but do not neu- 
tralize it. With cold concentrated solution of caustic potash or caustic 
soda no change is apparent ; upon boiling, the crystals turn orange-red. 
Dilute solution of caustic potash turns yellow, but is not neutralized. 
Upon heating them with caustic potash, no evolution of ammonia 
resulted. 

All attempts to obtain the reaction of an alkaloid or an acid with the 
ordinary reagents from any solution of the crystals resulted in failure. 
These crystals are those of an indifferent organic body differing 
from any heretofore examined by the writer. The process em- 
ployed in obtaining it is so simple as to forbid the idea that the crys- 
tals are a product of manipulation and the result of a splitting up of 
some natural compound, which might result when excessive or long- 
continued heat is resorted to, or the use of chemicals. It may be safelv 
accepted that this substance is ^, perhaps the^ principal coloring matter 
of the root. 

Reasoning from the foregoing, and comparing the process employed 
bv mvself with those of preceding investigators, I think it may safely 
be supposed that the same substance, in a more or less impure state, 
was previously obtained. To the first investigator, Mr. Douglass, may 
well be ascribed the credit of the discovery, since he concluded the 
substance obtained by himself to be a yellow coloring principle mixed 
with gallic acid. Again, others state that as obtained by themselves it 
was partially soluble in chloroform, and we may well infer the insoluble 
matter to have been impurities. 

Adhering to the crude crystalline masses of mixed crystals I founds 
as might be supposed, a small amount of grape sugar. Accompanying 
this paper I send an ample quantity of the mixed crystalline matters 
obtained by myself. They have been washed with cold alcohol to 
separate the adhering bitter substance. Also a supply of the purified 
yellow crystalline substance [A). 



^4 Oxidation of Ferrous Salts at Low Temperatures, \ ^""VebTiss^^""' 

THE OXIDATION OF FERROUS SALTS AT LOW 
TEMPERATURES. 

By F. L. Slocum. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting January zo: 

There appeared in this journal for March, 1879, page 141, a new 
process for the preparation of solution of perchloride of iron, without the 
aid of heat, by adding the acid solution of ferrous chloride to the requi- 
site quantity of nitric acid. 

In the Journal for December, 1879, page 587, is a verification of the 
successful application of this process, and a like happy result is reported 
with Monsel's solution, by the same procedure. 

At the request of Prof. Maisch, and under his directions, 1 made 
numerous experiments with the following results : 

Liquor Ferri Perchloridi. — The acid solution of the ferrous chloride 
and the nitric acid had a temperature of 78°F., the temperature of the 
room \ on slowly adding the acid ferrous chloride to the nitric acid the 
temperature rose to I20°F. Oxidation was quite energetic, and nitrous 
fumes were given off constantly without foaming. When about two- 
thirds of the ferrous chloride was oxidized the temperature had receded 
to I05°F., and oxidation was hardly perceptible, and when the whole 
of the ferrous chloride had been added, which required about fifteen 
minutes' time, the temperature of the solution had receded to 85 ^F. 
After standing a while the solution acquired a color similar to the 
officinal liquor, but owing to the great range of temperature it passed 
through in oxidizing, several nitrogen oxides were formed and remained, 
contaminating the solution ; complete oxidation was not effected, and 
it is next to impossible to free the solution from nitrogen compounds. 

After making numerous experiments, each time using a little higher 
temperature to begin with and a slight modification of the process, the 
following was found to be a very practicable process, and the lowest 
temperature that could be used to get at correct results : 

Mix the nitric and reserved hydrochloric acid in an evaporaring or 
suitable basin, heat them to a temperature of I40°F., and filter into 
the mixed acids the solution of ferrous chloride previously heated to 
i8o°F.; stir the solution while the liquids are mixing ; oxidation takes 
place gradually and completely, the temperature rising to i6o^F. or 
i65°F. There is no accumulation and sudden expulsion of nitrous 
fumes causing foaming, as in the officinal process. The result is an 



"""FirisS"" } Syrup of Bromide of Zinc, 7 5 

acid solution of ferric chloride answering to the requirements of the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

Liquor Ferri Subsulphatis. — A saturated aqueous solution of the fer- 
rous sulphate was made, and to it the sulphuric acid was added \ this 
solution was gradually added to the requisite quantity of nitric acid, 
both the acid solution of ferrous sulphate and the nitric acid being at 
76°F, ; on mixing, the solution acquired a temperature of 116'^F., and 
only partial oxidation ensued, leaving a dense black liquid which, on 
standing two days, acquired a color similar to the officinal liquor, but 
contained both ferrous and ferric sulphate with nitric acid. 

Several experiments were made, using each time an increase in tem- 
perature, until the following process was found to give a satisfactory 
result : 

Mix the nitric and sulphuric acids (using a slight excess of nitric 
acid), heat them to I40°F. ; make a hot saturated aqueous solution of 
ferrous sulphate (if necessary a few drops of sulphuric acid may be 
added), and when at a temperature of i8o°F. or igo^F. filter it into 
the heated acids ; oxidation takes place quietly and completely, the 
nitrous fumes being given off gradually from first to the close of the 
operation. After oxidation is completed the solution should be kept 
at i4o°F. for a few minutes, to remove all traces of nitrous fumes. 
The result is a solution of ferric sulphate, with a slight trace of nitric 
acid. 

The particular advantage of these formulas is that there is no accu- 
mulation of nitrous fumes, followed by their sudden expulsion at the end 
of the oxidation, causing foaming and making the use of capacious 
dishes a necessity. But the oxidation and liberation of the nitrous 
fumes takes place at the same time, from the first gradually to the close 
of the operation, of course the low temperature required is also a 
marked advantage. 



SYRUP OF BROMIDE OF ZINC. 

By L. Lyons. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting January 20, 

The processes for the preparation of the bromide of zinc given io 
the chemical text-books are based upon either the direct combination 
of zinc with bromine, or the metal is dissolved in an aqueous solution 
of hydrobromic acid. 



76 



Syrup of Bromide of Zinc, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1880. 



The disadvantages of manipulating with free bromine are obvious. 
In the second process the hydrobromic acid solution is not easily obtained 
by all pharmacists, nor are they all supplied with the conveniences for 
making the acid. 

For these reasons experiments were performed in the College Labor- 
atory with the view of obtaining a formula whereby pharmacists could 
make, from materials always on hand, a solution of bromide of zinc 
for the purpose of making the syrup of bromide of zinc. 

The following process depends upon the double decomposition of 
bromide of potassium and sulphate of zinc. 

The quantities used were taken according to the proportion existing 
between the molecular weights of the salts, which is about 5 to 6, or 
2 molecules of bromide of potassium (238) to i of crystallized sul- 
phate of zinc (287). 2KBr+ZnSO,-=ZnBr2+K.SO,. 

Experiment I. 35 grains of potassium bromide and 42 grains of crys- 
tallized sulphate of zinc were triturated in a mortar, and after the mix- 
ture had become liquid alcohol was added to dissolve the resulting 
ZnBr^. The solution was then filtered from the crystalline precipitate; 
the zinc was precipitated by sulphhydrate of ammonium, filtered, the 
filtrate evaporated to dryness, and a residue was obtained which was 
found to be bromide of potassium. The precipitate obtained by alco- 
hol was washed with alcohol, and then contained the sulphates of both 
cnetals, but was free from bromide. 

Experiment II. 100 grains of potassium bromide and 120 grains of 
crystallized sulphate of zinc were dissolved separately in a small quan- 
tity of water, and the solutions mixed while hot. When the liquor 
was cold, twice the bulk of alcohol was added, the precipitate removed 
by filtration, and the filtrate treated the same as in experiment I. In 
this also, was found a large percentage of bromide of potassium. 

These experiments were repeated, and with the same results. 

It necessarily followed that either the process or the manipulation 
was faulty. 

Iodide of zinc in the presence of any of the iodides of the alkaline 
metals forms a double salt. 

As iodine and bromine act similarly in combining, the conclusion is 
that in the above experiments the double salt, KBrZnBr2, was formed. 
In order to decompose this double salt, a larger quantity of zinc sul- 
phate must be used. The quantity was doubled, as follows: 



"""fIS^'i'sso''" • } ^y^^f of Bromide of Zinc, 7 7 

Experiment III. 1 00 grains of potassium bromide and 240 grains of 
crystallized sulphate of zinc. The same process as 11 was followed. 
The residue, after treatment with sulphhdyate of ammonium, was very 
minute — a trace of potassium salt. 

A solution of bromide of zinc, made by acting with bromine upon 
the metal, was filtered through paper and evaporated to dryness. It 
gave a dark grey colored mass, whereas a portion of the same solution,, 
filtered through asbestos and evaporated, gave a perfectly white mass. 
The coloration in the former case is evidently due to organic matter, 
showing the analogy of the bromide with chloride of zinc, which also 
dissolves organic matter, showing the analogy of the bromide with 
chloride of xinc, which also dissolves organic matter. Even the alco- 
holic solution of bromide of zinc, filtered through asbestos, will yield 
a dark colored salt on evaporation. 

Perhaps the most convenient preparation for the administration of 
bromide of zinc would be a syrup of definite strength. A syrup con- 
taining 10 per cent, of dry bromide of zinc was made by using the 
solution from experiment III, and evaporating the alcohol. The 
amount of dry bromide was calculated, and found to be 92 grains. 
Water was added to make the whole weigh 414 grains, and afterwards 
506 grains of sugar, which was dissolved without the aid of heat. The 
proportions used are as follows : 

92 grains ZnBr^, . . . .10 parts 

322 grains water, . . '35 

506 grains sugar, . , . '55 

920 grains. 100 parts. 

Formula for making i,000 parts of Syrupus Zinci Bromidi. 
Take of Bromide of potassium, . .106 parts 

Crystallized sulphate of zinc, . 255 

Dissolve the salts separately in the least quantity of water, and mix 
while hot. Allow the mixture to stand until cold, then add twice the 
bulk of alcohol; stir it well and filter. Evaporate the filtrate until the 
alcohol is gone, then add enough distilled water to make the solution 
weigh 450 parts; transfer to a bottle and add sugar, 550 parts. Dis- 
solve without heat. 

The syrup is transparent and nearly colorless. It is inodorous and 
has an astringent and somewhat metallic taste. It can be given in 
combination with most tinctures and syrups. An agreeable prepara- 
tion is made by combining it with orange-flower water. 



78 



Tincture of Kino. 



Am Jour. Phann. 
Feb., 1880. 



TINCTURE OF KINO. 

By G. W. Kennedy, Ph.G. 

In submitting the results of numerous experiments I am highly grati- 
iied to state that a tincture can be made which will not gelatinize, and 
hope that those pharmacists, who have occasionally been annoyed by 
the change alluded to, will try the modified process, and have no cause 
in the future to complain. 

There is scarcely a pharmacist, in whose locality the tincture is used, 
that has not been annoyed with several of the astringent tinctures, and 
more particularly with the tincture of kino. The process of the pres- 
ent Pharmacopoeia is a decided improvement over that of i860; but 
gelatinization occurs sometimes shortly after preparing the tincture, 
and its instability is the reason why some physicians have abandoned its 
use. 

Several remedies have been proposed from time to time to prevent 
gelatinization and consequent loss of astringency. Against one of 
these, glycerin, I have very little to say, since a tincture, when made 
with a menstruum consisting of 2 parts water, i part alcohol and i 
part glycerin, kept apparently unchanged until the beginning of the 
ninth month, when all at once, as it were, it became a semi-solid mass. 

Alkalies have been recommended, but they change the tannin and 
destroy the astringency, and a similiar effect has carbonate of magne- 
sium. Half a pint of tincture was carefully prepared according to the 
method recommended in " American Journal of Pharmacy," 1873, 
page 260, and had but a slight astringent taste, and was scarcely darkened 
in color on the addition of salts of iron. 

It is true that a stronger alcoholic menstruum, as recommended 
by some writers, exhausts kino more rapidly and satisfactorily 
than perhaps any other solvent, and the tincture, as thus prepared, so 
long as the alcoholic strength is preserved, I believe will not gelatinize, 
but if the preparation is insecurely kept evaporation of the alcohol 
takes place and the tincture gelatinizes. It must also be remembered 
that medicinally it is not always desirable to administer a preparation 
containing so much alcohol. 

The formula which I recommend is not altogether original with me, 
similar ones being in use in Philadelphia and perhaps elsewhere. In 
my hands it has given perfect satisfaction in preserving the tincture. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 38B0. 



Tincture of Kino. 



79 



Five pints each of each tincture of kino and of catechu were made in 
June, 1878 ; at this date there is no precipitation or gelatinization of 
what is left, about a pint in each bottle, and the preparations are just as 
reliable to-day as they were then. 

Therapeutically, there can be no objection to the use of a small 
quantity of logwood entering the preparation, as it has likewise astrin- 
gent properties. 

The formula is as follows : Take of kino three troyounces, logwood 
half a troyounce, diluted alcohol a sufficient quantity. Reduce the 
kino and logwood to coarse powder, and prepare in the usual way by 
percolation. 

Pott snjt lie, F^., January, 1880. 

Additional Remarks by the Editor.- — At the last meeting of 
theaBritish Pharmaceutical Conference, Mr. B. H. Bamford read a 
paper on the same subject, recording his observation with a tincture 
which had been purchased from a London drug house between 1862 
and 1864, and since that time had been kept in a partly filled bottle 
covered with blue paper, and dusted and shaken every morning ; 
although over fifteen years old the tincture did not gelatinize, and the 
remedv proposed against the trouble was daily agitation and a cover of 
blue paper. 

From the subsequent discussion we make a few brief abstracts. Mr. 
Martindale was of opinion that much depended on the age, and in the 
opinion of Mr. Umney on the source of the kino used. Mr. T. F. 
Abraham had never seen the tincture gelatinize during fifteen years ; 
Mr. Preston had used the tincture for seventeen, and Mr. Hasselby for 
twenty-five years, and both noticed only one case of gelatinization. 
Only one instance was also observed by Mr. Robbins and by Dr. 
Symes. Messrs. Ellinor and Savage had known the tincture prepared 
by one establishment to gelatinize, and made by others to remain 
liquid ; the latter had been exposed to the light. The use of glycerin 
for its preservation was also alluded to, but it remained to be proved 
whether the addition affected prejudicially the astringency of the tinc- 
ture. 

These are the observations. As to the remedy, it was the opinion of 
the President, Mr. Schacht, that it lay not so much in the management 
of the preparation as in the selection of the material of which it was 



8o 



Tincture of Chloride of Iron. 



A.m. Jour, Pharna. 

Feb., 1880. 



composed ; and Mr. Ellinor stated that kino which tinged the saliva 
was the best kind, and it never gelatinized as far as his experience 
went. None of the speakers expressed any faith in the remedy pro- 
posed by Mr. Bamford. 

Although kino has been repeatedly the subject of chemical investi- 
gation, the conditions under which the tincture is occasionally trans- 
formed into a jelly have not been determined ; but we believe it is gen- 
erally admitted that a watery menstruum favors and alcohol prevents 
or retards the change. Most of the European Pharmacopoeias use 
alcohol of about '835 specific gravity •, the French Codex directs 6c 
per cent, alcohol. It seems to us that the only admissible remedy is 
the alcoholic strength of the menstruum, until, by comparative experi- 
ments with kino of well determined origin or properties, the effective- 
ness of other proposed remedies has been demonstrated. 

TINCTURE OF CHLORIDE OF IRON. 

By G. H. Chas. Klie. 

The Pharmacopoeia has the tincture prepared from one part of solu- 
tion of chloride of iron and three parts of alcohol. The solution of 
chloride of iron is prepared by dissolving iron wire in hydrochloric acid 
and oxidizing the iron by the addition of sufficient nitric acid. The 
Pharmacopoeia directs putting the acid and iron wire together into 
a flask and letting the mixture stand until effervescence ceases, then 
heating to the boiling point, decanting, filtering, etc. Warmth or heat 
will in most instances dissolve and, under proper conditions, keep in 
solution more of a given salt than what will be dissolved at ordinary 
temperature. So in this instance, although the mixture, when reaction 
has thoroughly set in, gets warm, the more concentrated the solution 
becomes the more the reaction will diminish, and, as a consequence, 
warmth will decrease, until finally the whole cools off and effervescence 
ceases. If the mixture is now heated to the boiling boint, effervescence 
re-begins, and if allowed to go on, it may take an hour or two before 
it ceases, showing that by heating considerably more iron has passed 
into solution. According to the wording of the Pharmacopoeia, it 
appears as if the heating to the boiling point, decantation, filtration, 
etc., were to follow close upon one another. If it read, " Place the 
mixture on a vapor or water bath until effervescence ceases, decant., 
filter," etc., a solution of chlorideof lime havingfull strength would result. 



Feb^rifso!'"' } Tincture of Chloride of Iron. 8 1 

However, if one has prepared the solution repeatedly, and has taken 
the trouble to test the same each time, the defect of the formula and 
how it is overcome will soon become apparent. 

The writer of this, being curious as to the quality of tincture of iron 
sold here, procured twenty-five samples from the same number of 
apothecaries located in all parts of the city. These samples were 
tested, as the Pharmacopoeia directs, under solution of chloride of iron, 
viz. : When diluted with water, it affords no precipitate with chloride 
of barium or ferridcyanide of potassium. When a crystal of sulphate 
of iron is added to a little of the solution, and afterwards a few drops 
of sulphuric acid, a black color is not produced near the crystal. Two 
fluidrachms of the solution (or one fluidounce of the tincture) treated 
with ammonia in excess yield a precipitate of sesquioxide of iron, or 
ferric oxide, which, when washed, dried and ignited, weighs 28*25 
grains. The external characteristics of the tincture were noted also. 
The result is given in the folfowing table : 



of ig- 1 


■Bp 




odor, \ 




inide 
sium. 




f Sul-« 
firon 
Sul- 
Acid. 1 


ample. 

uantity 
nitedSi 
oxide 
in I fl. 
tinctun 


_o 
"o 


thereal 


hloride 
Barium 








CO O" 


Grs. 


U 


\A 


U 








I 


22-8 


light yellow-brown 


slight 


faint precip. 


no precip. 


no 


black color 


2 


2825 


light red-brown 


none 


U if 


<( (( 


<( 


(( 


3 


24-8 


light yellow 


slight 


a <( 


blue 


(( 


<( 


4 


18-4 


light red-brown 


(( 


(( i( 


no " 


(t 


ii 


5 


20' 


red brown 


modrt. 


copio's" 


blue « 






6 


26-8 


light yellow 


none 


>( (t 


IC n 


(s 




7 


12-8 


(< 


>< 


no " 


it (i 


it 


i( 


8 


24- 


n 


slight 


(< (C 


<( (( 


a 


a 


9 


24- 


a 


none 










10 


4-8 


brown-red 


strong 


faint precip. 


no precip. 


black color 


1 1 


20- 


it 


none 










12 


22-8 


light yellow 


slight 


faint precip. 


blue precip. 


no 


black color 


13 


26- 


(( 


trace 


<( (( 




(< 




14 


28- 


(( 


marked 










15 


28-25 


black-green 


none 


faint precip. 


blue precip. 


no 


black color 


16 


28- 


light yellow 


slight 








17 
18 


30- 
28-25 


brown-yellow 
light yellow 


(( 

marked 










19 


24- 


brown-yellow 


modrt. 










20 


21* 


dark brown 


none 


precipitate 


blue precip. 


no 


black color 


21 


28-25 


black-brown 




faint precip. 


no " 


it 


it 


22 


i8- 


light yellow 


faint 


v'ryltl. « 


(< it 


black color 


23 


16-8 




trace 


no 


ti a 


no 


black color 


24 


20-4 


brown-yellow 


marked 


faint ** 


blue " 


(t 


« 


25 


27-6 




faint 


small ** 


no " 


It 





82 



Tincture of Chloride of Iron. 



Am, lour. Pharm, 

Feb., i83o. 



Four tinctures, or i6 per cent, of the samples, have the right 
strength one is too strong ; four tinctures, or i6 per cent., almost 
reach the standard, and the balance, or 64 per cent., average from 4*8 
to 25 grains ; average strength, 14*73 grains, or 67-88 per cent. 

What is the reason that, taken strictly, only 16 per cent, of the 
apothecaries dispense a full-strength preparation One may infer that 
either, if the solution was prepared by the apothecary himself, the 
defect in the formula was not detected and avoided, or, if purchased, 
the preparation was made by some one who was in the same predica- 
ment, or who paid no attention whatever to the Pharmacopoeia. How- 
ever, since the apothecary stands between the manufacturer and the 
prescribing physician, he ought to demand a preparation from the former 
which, if tested by the latter or himself, would meet the requirements 
of the PharmacopcEia. If this course were strictly followed, the dis- 
pensing of an officinal tincture would soon become the rule, and not the 
surprising exception, as at present. Another exceedingly humiliating 
inference might be drawn from the perusal of the above table, namely, 
that the average apothecary will freely dispense a preparation which he 
may either lack the ability to prepare as it ought to be prepared, or he 
may be too indolent to do it, consequently will, without compunction 
or considering the responsibility resting upon himself, dispense a pre- 
paration prepared by others which he is too lazy even to test. He takes 
for granted that because he purchases from an apparently honest and 
reliable wholesale house, and because the general external characteris- 
tics of the tincture are present, therefore the preparation must necessa- 
rily be full strength. It isn't safe ; in fact, the strength of tincture of 
iron cannot be judged by the general external characteristics. 

The tincture of chloride of iron is a preparation which figures fre- 
quently in physicians' prescriptions, and great reliance is placed upon it 
in some very grave affections of the human system. Furthermore, it 
is almost as frequently sold over the counter as paregoric or essence of 
peppermint. The very least, therefore, that the apothecary can do is 
to dispense a tincture which will contain the amount of iron intended 
by the Pharmacopoeia. 

In earlier editions of the Pharmacopoeia the tincture was prepared by 
dissolving, with the aid of a gentle heat, one-half pound of the so-called 
subcarbonate of iron in a pint of hydrochloric acid and adding three 
pints of alcohol. This formula did not give universal satisfaction, on 



'^'"'FibTx^sJ""'} Chemical Notes, 83 

.account of the variability of the product. Undoubtedly this variability 
was not the result of the insolubility of the subcarbonate alone, but 
may, more or less, have been the result of defective manipulation — as^ 
for instance, the non- or improper application of heat to effect solution. 
The vi^riter of this well remembers a very expeditious and easy method 
followed by several apothecaries of this city ; but the resulting tincture 
does not reach the standard of the Pharmacopceia by 50 per cent. It 
is : Place the subcarbonate of iron in a bottle of sufficient size, pour 
on the hydrochloric acid, shake frequently until effervescence ceases, 
add the alcohol and filter. This finishes the tincture. An ounce of 
the tincture made in this manner treated with ammonia in excess, and 
the precipitate washed, dried and ignited, was found to weigh I2*8 grs. 
Lo-welly N. St. LouiSy January, 1880. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler. 

Inorganic Chemistry. — Volatility of Platinum. — Victor Meyer 
notices the recent statements of F. Seelheim as to the volatility of plati- 
num (this Journal, current volume, p. 18), and shows that they have no 
applicability to his results on the vapor-density of chlorine at high tem- 
.peratures. In these experiments the decomposition of the platinous 
■chloride left the platinum in the form of a small stick of coherent 
platinum sponge of exactly the shape of the little glass bulb used for 
the platinous chloride. Moreover, the weight of the platinum left was 
almost absolutely the weight required by calculation of the co.mposi- 
tion of the platinous chloride. Again, the results gotten where iodine 
was used were just as anomalous as those gotten with chlorine, and of 
course the iodine was used from the beginning as pure iodine. So the 
Victor Meyer results remain as yet unexplained, the author giving no 
further information and expressing no views as to the reason of the 
variance from normal density. — Ber, der Chem. Ges.^ xii, p. 2202. 

Crystallization of Carbon. — At a meeting of the Glasgow Philosophi- 
cal Society, on Wednesday, Dec. 24th, 1879, Mr. James Mactear 
stated that he had obtained transparent crystals of the form and refrac- 
tive power of diamonds. They resisted acids, alkalies and the intense 
heat of the blow-pipe, and scratched glass. Prof. Maskelyne (Dec. 
31) found these crystals not to scratch either topaz or sapphire, not to 



84 



Chemical Notes. 



^m. Jour. Pharia^ 
Feb., 1880. 



burn in a stream of oxygen, but to dissolve in hydro-fluoric acid, show- 
ing them to be a silica compound, the correctness of which conclusion^ 
was subsequently acknowledged by Mr. Mactear. — Chem. News. 

Production of Ozone ^ Test for Manganese and Cause of Hydrogen Explo- 
sions. — At the meeting of the German Scientific Association for 1879,, 
held at Baden-Baden, Sept. 19th to 23d, Prof. Bottger made some 
observations upon the above subjects. He had observed that if, instead 
of covering small sticks of phosphorus half their length with water,, 
solutions of potassium bichromate were used, ozone was much more 
readily obtained. Also that the red coloration of chemically-pure fused, 
potassium chlorate caused by traces of manganese compounds was ani 
extremely delicate test for manganese. The frequent explosions which 
take place in the preparation of hydrogen by the action of sodium upon 
water he thought might be explained by the assumption of the forma- 
tion of a sodium peroxide, which, in liberating oxygen, formed an* 
explosive mixture with the hydrogen. — Ber] Chem. Ges.^ xii, p. 2187. 

On a Hydride of Silicium. — J. Ogier has submitted pure silicon 
hydride to the action of the electric discharge. After a time pure 
hydrogen only remains, while a yellow coating is formed in the interior 
of the tubes. This on analysis proves to be a body of the composition 
Si2H3, a subhydride of silicon, corresponding to C2H3, crotonylene.. 
When moderately heated in air it burns, throwing oft" small sparks. It 
is inflammable in chlorine when cold ; when heated cautiously in an 
atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen, it evolves siliciuretted hydro- 
gen. He has also studied the action of the electric discharge upon 
arsenijiretted hydrogen ; it also forms a solid hydride, AS2H, correspond- 
ing to the solid phosphide of hydrogen, P^H. — Comptes Rendus^ Dec. 
22, 1879. 

Organic Chemistry. — On Solid Hydrocyayiic Acid. — Messrs. Les« 
coeur and Rigaut have made some studies upon the solid products 
which separated from hydrocyanic acid solution. They remark tha^t 
pure hydrocyanic acid can be preserved very long, and it is usually the 
presenc eof ammonium cyanide and water, which changes it into the 
solid black substance called azulmin. A trace of potassium cyanide 
brings about this decomposition even in the absence of water. The 
black mass is ordinarily amorphous, but often permeated with more or 
less transparent crystals, which can be extracted with boiling benzol. 
In this way are obtained colorless, lustrous crystals, which easily become 



c^m. Jour. Pharm. 
Et eb., i8So. 



Chemical Notes. 



85 



brown and decompose, are dissolved by alcohol or boiling water readily^ 
although very slightly in cold water. Their composition is CNH. The 
body dissolves readily in acids ; with hydrochloric acid it yields a black 
hygroscopic mass, which probably possesses the composition (CNH).> 
3HC1,3H20 The solid hydrocyanic acid changes under the influence 
-of the air and moisture into new products containing azulmin. If this 
latter be treated with warm alcohol, a dirty-red amorphous powder is 
extracted, which is only slightly soluble in water, but dissolves in 
alcohol with a red color, and has the formula (CNHjgH^O. — Ibid.^ 
Aug. 4, 1879. 

Presence of Cumol in Pennsylvania Petroleum. — Engler made the inter- 
esting statement to the German Scientific Association, at Baden-Baden, 
•that about 0*2 per cent, of cumol is contained in this petroleum, and 
that this small amount would rievertheless make about 1,400,000 kilo- 
grams of cumol yearly imported into Germany. Petroleum naphtha 
contained at least this amount, also, of cumol. The determination of 
this hydrocarbon was made as tribromcumol, of which specimens in 
needles, one to two inches in length, were shown. — Ber. der Chem. 
>Ges.^ xii, p. 2187. 

On Glycyrrhizin. — Habermann has published the results of a detailed 
tinvestigation of this subject. By repeated recrystallization of the com- 
mercial glycyrrhizinum ammoniacale out of glacial acetic acid and strong 
alcohol, he obtained the acid ammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid, 
•C^jHggNOig.NH^, in slightly colored crystalline plates. This salt is 
very easily soluble in boiling water, insoluble in ether, slightly soluble 
'Only in absolute alcohol or alcohol of more than 90 per cent, in 
strength. It is left, on evaporation of its aqueous or weak alcoholic 
solution, as an amorphous brittle mass. Small amounts of alkalies 
increase its solubility in water in an extraordinary degree. The salts 
of the heavy metals produce voluminous precipitates in its aqueous 
solutions. Ordinary nitric acid dissolves it, yielding a colorless solution, 
but when heated a copious evolution of gas ensues and resinous flocks 
separate out. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it with orange-red 
color, from which solution water precipitates colorless flocks. It pos- 
sesses an intensely sweet taste with the characteristic after-taste, which, 
however, d'isajipears more and more as it is purified. The glycyrrhizic 
acid itself is a tribasic acid. The neutral ammonium glycyrrhizate is 
a clear-brown amorphous mass of unpleasantly sweet taste, easily solu- 



86 



Chemical Notes, 



( Am Jour. Pharra. 

1 Feb., i85o: 



ble in water and weak alcohol, insoluble in absolute alcohol. The- 
neutral potassium salt is a yellowish-white, loose, amorphous mass 
the acid potassium salt, C^^Hg2NOjgK, forms small crystalline grains of 
an intensely sweet taste, and behaves with reagents like the acid ammo- 
nium salt. The lead salt is an amorphous precipitate. The free acid 
prepared from the lead salt is amorphous, decomposes already at loo^ 
and reduces Fehling's solution rapidly. — Jnn. Ch. und Phar.^ ^97 y 
p. 105. 

Contributions to the Knowledge of ^inamin. — -Oudemans has studied 
this alkaloid discovered by Hesse in the Cinchona succiruhra. Hesse- 
had given the composition at first as C20H26N2O0, but later changed: 
this to CjgH2^N202. Oudemans' analysis of the free base appeared to 
substantiate the first formula, but the iodine determinations in the well- 
crvstallized iodhydrate corresponded better w^ith the second formula, so 
the matter is left uncertain. The following reactions appear to be 
characteristic of quinamin: 

If a drop of the solution of a quinamin salt be carefully added tc^ 
concentrated sulphuric acid, which contains a small amount of nitric 
acid, there is produced a chestnut-brown color at the point of contact 
if the solution be concentrated, orange colored in case the solution be 
more dilute, and, on continued dilution with water, at first a purple- 
color and then a faint rose-red color. 

If one writes upon paper with a not too concentrated solution of 
quinamin, in a slight excess of sulphuric acid, and lays the paper with 
the written side down upon a watch crystal, in which have been placed' 
a little sulphuric acid and a few crystals of potassium chlorate, the- 
writing becomes brownish or olive colored. On taking the paper away 
ihe written characters gradually become rose colored. — Ber. der Chern.. 
Ges.^ xii, p. 2101. 

On Pilocarpina. — Alex. Poehl delivered an address upon this alkaloid/ 
at the Baden-Baden Meeting of the German Scientific Association. 
The pilocarpine remains unaltered, even after two days' heating witb 
hydrochloric acid or with baryta water. On the contrary, the distillate 
gotten by heating the alkaloid with caustic soda solution contains a 
body probably identical with coniae. The paper contains, besides,., 
notices on the detection of pilocarpine when mixed with ^her poisons, 
on the color reaction with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid, 
and the spectrum thus obtained, and finally on the method of its quanr- 



^'^Fir.^sso^'"'" } Gleanings from the German Journals, Sy 

titative determination with phosphomolybdic acid in the presence or tree 
hydrochloric acid. — Ibid,^ p. 2185. 

Technical Chemistry. — On the Preparation of Potassium Carbonate 
by the Action of Trimethylarnin. — In order to apply to the potash manu- 
facture a reaction analogous to that involved in the well-known ammonia- 
soda process of making sodium carbonate, the Croix Stock Company, 
of. Croix, France, have patented the use of irymethylamin. A mix- 
ture of I part potassium chloride and 4 parts of the trimethylamin of 
commerce is saturated with carbonic acid gas. There is formed at hrst 
carbonate and bicarbonate of trymethylamin, which reacting with^the 
potassium chloride forms easily soluble trymethylarnin hvdrochlorate 
and potassium bicarbonate, which remains insoluble under these con 
ditions. The reaction takes place at ordinary temperatures, although 
cold, pressure and stirring facilitate it. In 3 to 4 hours, pure potas- 
sium chloride can readily be converted into a product containing 97 to 
99'5 per cent, of potassium carbonate, the bicarbonate hrst formed 
having been converted into neutral salt, according to the ordinary 
methods. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis VON Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

Blaud's Ferruginous Pills.— A good pill mass, of a green color 
and remaining soft, so as to be readily formed into pills, and allowing 
other substances, usually given in connection with iron, like qainia, 
morphia, etc., to be mixed with it, is prepared by I. Pitschke from car- 
bonate of potassium and sulphate of iron, each 2 parts, made into a 
pillular mass with one part of an excipient consisting of carbonate of 
magnesium, glycerin and grape sugar \ i\ parts of this mass contain i 
part iron sulphate. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Dec. 3, 1879, p. 750. 

A New Test for Free Mineral Acids in Vinegar, particularly 
well adapted for testing so-called brandy vinegar, is suggested by Hager, 
and consists in adding to 20 cc. (— 20 grams) vinegar, contained in a 
previously-weighed shallow glass evaporating dish, 4 cc. liquor ammo- 
niae, and exposing the mixture to a temperature above 70°C. On evapo- 
ration, pure vinegar will leave only a light or dark-brown spot, while if 
tartaric or a mineral acid is present, a crystalline residue remains, and, 
if largely adulterated, a sufficient quantity will remain for the quan- 



88 Gleanings from the German Journals, {^'"fICiS^"""' 

tkative determination of the acid. — Pharm, Centralh,^ Dec. 4, 1879, 
p. 450. 

Alkargene, or Cacodylic Acid.— AsH(C2H3)204 was declared to 
be an entirely innocent compound by its discoverer, Bunsen, and by 
others, although it contains so much arsenic. Lebahn contradicted 
their statement, and is now corroborated by H. Schulz, whose recent 
investigations proved that the acid, both when taken internally and 
when injected, is very poisonous. — Ztschr. d. Allg. Oest. Jpoth. Ver,^ 
Dec. 10, 1879, p. 528, fr. Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges. 

Borocitrate of Magnesium is a white powder having an acid taste 
but no odor, and is considered by Dr. Koehler a very valuable thera- 
peutic agent in the treatment of stone and gravel in the bladder and 
kidneys and for bladder catarrh. It is usually given in the form of a 
mixture of magnesium borocitriate 40 grams, powdered sugar 80 grams 
and oil of lemon i drop, a dessert-spoonful of which is administered 
three times daily in half a tumblerful of wa.ter.— Pharm. Post, Dec. 
16, 1879, P- 374' A7/>i. JVochenschr. 

Solvents of Gun Cotton. — Bardy enumerates the usual mixture of 
alcohol and ether, acetone, methylic alcohol and glacial acetic acid. 
The solving power of the mixture of alcohol and ether is too well 
known to require further mention. 

Acetone is soluble in water in every proportion, and is ons of the best 
solvents of the cotton. If the solution is poured into water, the 
acetone immediately combines with the latter, while the cotton is pre- 
cipitated in distinct large white flakes, which can be readily washed 
and dried, when 3 grams occupy the space of almost 200 centimeters 

Methylic alcohol likewise mixes with water in every proportion and 
dissolves the cotton readily, yielding a somewhat cloud y solution, which, 
if poured quickly into water, precipitates the cotton as a compact gela- 
tinous mass ; if poured in a very thin stream into cold water, a very 
vo-uminous mass results, 25 grams of which occupy the space of 2 
liters ; when dried, this mass resembles horn in appearance, is semi- 
transparent and amber-colored, and dissolves readily in the mixture of 
alcohol and ether. ^ 

Glacial acetic acid readily dissolves gun cotton, the solution possessing 
the same behavior as that in acetone towards water ; on drying, every 
trace of acetic acid is volatilized. — Phann. Ztschr. f. RussL^ Nov. i, 
1879, p. 659, f r. Polyt. Notizbl. 



■'^'"Flrxs^so"'"'-} Gleanings from the German Journals. 89 

A Tincture of the Root of Baptisia Tinctoria (see "Am. Jour. 
Phar.," 1862, p. 310, and Dec, 1879, p. 577), was used with ver]/ 
good success by Johnson in the treatment of seven cases of typhoid 
fever, three of which were very severe, in the dose of i to 5 drops 
every one to four hours in connection with cool lotions, milk and stimu- 
lants ; it almost entirely prevented delirium and diarrhoea, diminishing 
the heat and soon affecting a cure. The root has a sickening taste, 
causes vomiting and diarrhoea when taken fresh, and was formerly used, 
as Dr. Rosenthal informs us, as an antiseptic remedy in scarlet and 
typhoid fever, and also as a substitute for quinia. — Pharm. Centralh,, 
Nov. 20, 1879, p. 438. 

The Seeds of Simaba Cedron, Cedron tree, N. O. Simarubeae, 
indigenous to New Granada, resemble almonds in appearance and are 
known as " Cedron." They are prescribed by the physicians of New 
Granada as a fever medicine, and are also used internally and externally/ 
as an antidote for the bite of poisonous animals. The natives of New 
Granada and Central America never venture into the forests unless 
supplied with a few of the seeds, which are cut into thin transverse 
sections, and these are applied to the wounds. Fever patients cut the 
seeds into pieces the size of a pea, which they swallow gradually. 
Hager attributes their efficiency to quassiin, the bitter principle of quas- 
sia, a large percentage of which he supposes is contained in them. The 
seeds of other species, like S. ferruginea, St. Hil. (Picrodendron cal- 
unga, Martius), are probably collected in Brazil as " Cedron." — Ibid,^ 
Nov. 20, 1879, p. 435. 

Eugenia cheken, N. O. Myrtaceae, indigenous to the forests of 
Chili, is recommended by Augusto Borchers, at Valparaiso, as a new 
valuable drug. The inhalations of the vapors rising from its aqueous 
infusion are stated to be very efficacious in the treatment of diphtheritis, 
bronchitis and laryngitis, while the aqueous infusion and the extract of 
the plant were successfully employed in the treatment of indigesti 
dyspepsia and all bowel and kidney complaints. — Ber. d. Deutch. Ch 
Ges,^ xii, 1789, p. 21 1 1. 

Mikania Guaco, HBK., was first recommended by an Indian to 
Mutis (1788) as a prophylactic for snake bite ; soon after its juice and 
a tincture of it were used for intermittent fever, rheumatism, gout, 
cramps, hydrophobia, syphilis, old sores, and cholera; it was soon, 
however, almost forgotten until Dr. G. van Schmitt, a Dutch physi- 



on, 
■Jem. 



90 Gleanings from the German Journals. [ ^""'Feb^risgtr"^ 

cian, recently revived its use by employing it, in connection with other 
substances, for cancer, claiming wonderful curative properties for it,, 
which, however, are considered doubtful by Hager. The leaves and 
stems of the plant are ysually used in the West Indies, and have an 
unpleasant, aromatic, bitter taste ; the leaves and stems of Mikania 
saturejaefolia, Willd., are considered equally efficacious. — Pharm. Cen- 
iralh,^ Nov. 20, 1879, p. 438. 

The Efficacy of Koosso resides, according to Professor Arena, not 
in koossin but altogether in the green, slightly bitter resin, which is 
soluble in alcohol and ether. It is contained in the fresh powder, but 
on exposure to air turns yellow and loses its bitterness and medicinal 
efficacy. — Pharm. Ztschr. f. Russl.^ Nov. i, 1879, p. 655, from Jllg, 
Med. Centr. Ztg. 

Morphia tartrate has been recommended by Erskine Stuart as a 
morphia salt particularly suitable for hypodermic injections, because 
more concentrated solutions can be obtained of it than of the muriate 
or acetate. It is very soluble in water and alcohol, forms neutral, wart- 
like crystals consisting of needles, and is made by disolving 10 grams 
crystallized morphia and 2*5 grams (or sufficient) tartaric acid in 40 
grams hot distilled water, and evaporating in a moderately warm place. 
— Pharm. Centralh..^ Nov. 20, 1879, P- 434- 

Characteristic Tests for Papaverina and Codeia. — I. Papaverlna. 
— S. Tattersall heats the substance to be tested with a few drops of 
sulphuric acid until dissolved, adds a small piece of arseniate of sodium 
and heats again over a small flame ; the solution soon turns wine-red,, 
and finally, us soon as sulphuric acid vapors begin to escape, dark 
blueish-violet , this color is very permanent. After cooling, about 10 
cc. of water are added ; the now orange-colored liquid is poured 
into a bottle, diluted, and caustic soda added until slightly alkaline,, 
when the liquid turns very dark — almost black. Other alkaloids — like 
strychnia, brucia, morphia, salicin, atropia, narcotia, narceia, digitalin, 
picrotoxin, curarin, colchicia and cantharidin — turn light-orange or 
dirty-ye]low on the addition of alkalies. 

II. Codeia.^ heated with sulphuric acid and NagAsO^, yields a dark 
blue coloration — much darker than that produced by ferric chloride 
under the same circumstances. On the addition of water and alkalies 
ji turns orange, which is a characteristic reaction of this alkaloid. — 
Pharm. Ztschr. f. Russl.^ Dec. 11, 1879, p. 721, fr. Chem. CentralbL 



^"^Feh'/Is^^"^ } Gleanings from the German Journals. 9 1 

Scillain, was isolated from Urginea scilla^ Steinh., by E. v. Jarmer- 
sted as an amorphous white powder. It is a glycoside ; does not con- 
tain nitrogen ; is scarcely soluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol 
yields sugar when boiled with dilute acid, and acts sufficiently poisonous 
in the dose of i or 2 milligrams to kill dogs and cats. — Ber. d. Deutsch. 
Chem. Ges.^ xii, 1879, p. 2165, fr. Arch, f, exper. Pathol, u. Pharmakol. 

Emetia. — Podwissotzki obtained from ipecacuanha J to i per cent, 
of pure emetia, in fine tabular crystals, on the slow evaporation of ethe- 
rial or alcoholic solution. Emetia is soluble in about 100 parts of water, 
more readily soluble in ether, chloroform and fats ; has a strong alka- 
line reaction ; forms salts with acids, which were not obtained in 
crystals ; melts at 62 to 65^0. ; is precipitated from solutions of its- 
salts by alkalies and alkaline carbonates in an amorphous state, and 
somewhat resembles colchicia in its therapeutical action. — IhicL fr. Ibid. 

Elais guineensis. — According to H. Soyaux, the weil-knowD 
botanist of the German Expedition to Southwestern Africa (1873— 
1876), the oil-palm is indigenous to all parts of Western Africa, and 
is the most attractive specimen of African vegetation. It is known to 
the native negroes as "m-ba," and to the Portuguese as ^'palmeira de 
azeite.'* An idea of its usefulness may be approximately formed when 
it is considered that a tree yields annually one gallon of palm-oil. Thi^ 
fat is orange-yellow, a little softer than green soap, and is obtained bv 
subjecting the fruit to a fermentation by burying it for about 30 days 
in the ground, then removing the fleshy portion, which has become 
comparatively loose by this time from the hard kernels, melting, remov- 
ing the coarse impurities, and cooling. It is then packed and sent to 
the European factories, where the oil is again melted in large kettles, 
allowed to settle, and the pure oil is decanted. According to Livins:- 
stone, the oil is obtained by boiling the fruit, contusing in a mortar, 
treating with water, and separating the supernatant oily layer. Other 
authors state that the fruit is contused before boiling. The seeds of 
the oil-palm are as hard as horn, have a grayish-blue semi-transparenc 
color, the size of a hazelnut, contain also a large percentage of fat, 
which is expressed in Europe, and are exported from all ports which 
export palm-oil, in bags woven from the split leaves of the Hvphaenvi 
palm; they are known to. the Portuguese as coconotte." — Pharni.. 
Handelshl.^ Dec. 17, 1879, p. 51. 



5 2 Preparations of White ^ebracho Bark, {^'^t^^;^^^"^' 

Adulteration of Codliver Oil. — A Dutch journal contains an 
account on codliver oil adulterations. The oil is stated to be frequently 
adulterated in Norway with the oil of the liver of Scymnus borealis, a 
xish belonging to the shark family, found in large numbers in the 
Arctic Ocean, the northern portion of the North Sea and along the 
west coast of Norway. The largest of these fishes yield \\ to 2 
casks of Hver, the oil of which is fully as bright and clear as codliver oil, 
contains little stearin, is cheaper, almost equally as efficacious, but has a 
rerv disagreeable taste. The fat of the marine mammalia is also fre- 
quently used for sophistication, but rarely in Norway. It contains 
\ erv little fatty acid, and is with difficulty digested. — Ibid.^ Dec. 3, 
1879, p. 49. 

Production of Codliver Oil in Norway in 1879. — (p^or produc- 
tion in 1878 see ^'Amer. Journ. Pharm.," April, 1879, p. 194.) L. 
Monrad Krohn reports that the catching of codfish and the preparation 
of the oil give employment to a larger number of fishermen every 
year; that the total quantity of medicinal oil exported from Bergen in 
1879 was about 3,600 hectoliters (=3,100 casks) white oil prepared by 
steam-, $5,000 hectoliters (=13,000 casks) yellow medicinal oil, and 
6,000 hectoliters (=5,000 casks) browish-yellow oil. The white oil is 
prepared with constantly increasing care. The brownish-yellow oil is 
exported for medicinal purposes principally to Belgium and Holland. — 
J^;V/., p. 50. 

Production of Iodine in Norway, — 150 kilos of first-class iodine, 
the first manufactured at a new laboratory at Bergen, was recently 
exported to Germany. L. Monrad Krohn expresses the opinion that 
Korway, with its extensive sea coasts, rich in laminarian species, will 
undoubtedly soon produce an immense quantity of iodine. — Ibid. 



PREPARATIONS OF WHITE QUEBRACHO BARK, 
(Aspidosperma Quebracho). 

By Dr. Burgos. 

The following extract from a thesis by the author appears in the 
Revista Farmaceutica " (Buenos Ayres), for November. 
Powder of Quebracho Blancho. — Possesses all the physical and organ- 
oleptic properties of cinchona powder ; in color it is intermediate 
between the red and yellow barks. It is prepared in the same manner 



^%{Z,mo^''''} Preparations of White ^ebracho Bark, 93, 

and can be used for the same purposes, pharmaceutically, as an anti- 
septic alone or mixed with wood charcoal, or as an ingredient in denti- 
frice powders, electuaries, etc. 

lufmion. — The infusion is similar to sherry in color, clear and trans- 
parent. It has a bitter taste, analogous in every respect to that of an 
infusion of cinchona, but more pronounced. It is prepared with the 
same proportions as the decoction. 

Decoction, — Quebracho bark, bruised, i part ; water, 20 parts. Dr,. 
Mantegazza prepares it in the proportions of i to 12 or 18. The 
decoction is more intense in color than the infusion, and if it be con-, 
centrated so as to reduce it to one-third it acquires a color as deep as 
that of port wine. It remains clear whilst kept at an elevated tem- 
perature, but as it cools it deposits an abundant precipitate. A few- 
drops of sulphuric acid restore partially its transparency by dissolving 
the alkaloid it contains. If added to a solution of sulphate of iron at 
very large quantity of greenish-grey precipitate is produced. With 
ammonia it undergoes no alteration. 

The decoction is used as a tonic and febrifuge and it is the form in 
which quebracho is administered in the provinces where paludal fevers 
prevail. 

Digestion. — Made with sulphuric or acetic acid in the proportions 
indicated for the preparation of the alkaloid according to Fraude's 
method. At the end of four to six days it is as intense in color as the 
concentrated decoction and has a much more bitter taste, as it contains 
much alkaloid in solution. 

It can also be prepared for internal use with a smaller quantity of 
sulphuric acid. 

Tincture. — Quebracho bark, bruised, i part j alcohol, 56°, 5 parts. 
Macerate during eight days and filter. (This formula corresponds to 
the tincture of cinchona of the Codex). 

Compound Tincture. — Quebracho bark, bruised, 2 parts \ orange peel, 
I part 5 alcohol, 56°, 15 parts. 

Wine. — Quebracho bark, bruised, i part j alcohol, 56°, 2 parts; 
white wine, San Juan or Mendoza, 16 parts. Leave the alcohol in 
contact with the bark during twenty-four hours, then add the wine, 
macerate for eight days and filter. The use of one or other of these 
wines is recommended because they contain little tannin and possess a 
special aroma that communicates an agreeable flavor to the preparation. 



■94 Ervum Ervilia, the Bitter Vetch. { ^""'FiTis^o.^'''"' 

An Elixir^ very pleasant to the palate, is made by adding sugar to 
this preparation. 

Extracts. — Both the aqueous and alcoholic extracts may be prepared 
by the ordinary processes. 

Syrup. — Quebracho bark, 3 parts ; water, 32 parts; sugar, 16 parts. 
Boil the bark with the water, filter and evaporate down to the fourth 
.part, add the sugar and make the syrup secundum artem. 

Preparations with the Alkaloid. — Aspidospermin or quebrachin is insol- 
uble in glycerin. It dissolves readily in fats and fixed oils, and may be 
■hicorporated with codliver oil in larger proportion than quinia. The 
following ts a suitable formula : 

Codliver oil, 100 parts ; aspidospermin, 6 to 8 parts ; dissolve with 
the aid of heat. It is easy to conceive the usefulness of such a prepa- 
ration as this, in which the special properties of the oil are joined with 
rthose of the alkaloid, and which in small doses acts as an eupeptic. — 
Phar. Jour, and Trans. Dec. 20, 1879. 



NOTE ON ERVUM ERVILIA, THE BITTER VETCH. 

By William Southall, F.L.S. 

In the Journal for April, 1873, given the result of a trial at the 
Birmingham County Court, as follows: 

'^An action has recently been brought to recover damages alleged to 
have been sustained by the death of fifteen pigs, caused by eating 
adulterated meal supplied by the defendant. Evidence was given that 
the stomachs of the dead pigs presented symptoms of irritant poison- 
ing. Y)v. Hill, the borough analyst, said that he had analyzed a por- 
tion of the meal, and had been unable to detect any trace of poison, 
but that there was some sand present, to which, perhaps, the inflam- 
mation was due. For the defence, chemical evidence was given by 
experts that the meal contained no poison. The judge decided in 
favor of the defendant, expressing an opinion that the deaths resulted 
from the improper manner in which the food was given." — Birmingham 
Gazette. 

This trial occupied two days, and twenty-four witnesses were called. 
My firm was employed by one of the several parties interested to 
analyze the meal, but, the result being negative as regarded the ordi- 
nary poisons, was not called upon to give exidence. The hypothesis 



"""■FeK^'iso^'"' } Ervum Ervilia, the Bitter Vetch. 95 

relating to the proper cooking of the meal was raised by my ingenious 
friend, the late Alfred Bird, who suggested that the meal being mixed 
with cold water, lumps of starchy coagulate were formed, which were 
totally indigestible, and so caused death ; whereas, had the meal been 
properly cooked with hot water, it would have been soluble, and no 
harm would have resulted. In this view he was followed by a pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and by a professional chemist. The manifest 
effect of the food was severe vomiting, followed by speedy death. The 
judge delivered an elaborate judgment, in which he said, he laid no 
claim to practical knowledge in feeding pigs, but he adopted the view, 
and gave a verdict for the defendant. It will presently be seen that 
this view was in the direction of the truth, but was quite erroneous. 

Being interested in the subject, and desirous of solving the obscurity 
in which it was left by the trial, I procured some of the seeds of which 
the so-called pea meal was made, and found that they had been called 
Egyptian peas, but that they were really very much smaller than peas, 
and that the correct name was Rovi seed, a cargo of which Ijiad been 
imported from Turkey. These I sowed in my garden ; they sprang up, 
flowered and bore fruit, and proved to be the Ervum ervilia^ or bitter 
vetch. I sent a specimen to Prof. Oliver, at Kew, who confirmed the 
name. The mystery was now made clear, as these seeds are known 
to be poisonous. 

Since that period, I have heard of several cases of pigs being poisoned, 
but could not obtain the seeds of which the meal they were fed upon 
was made. During the last summer, however, a number of pigs were 
poisoned at Stratford-on-Avon, and on examining the seed I found it 
to be about half Rovi-seed and the remainder a black tare, or vetch, a 
much larger seed. It therefore seemed to me desirable that a state- 
ment of these facts should be published for the sake of the pigs, and, 
possibly, for that of men. 

The seed of Ervum ervilia is about the same size, and almost 
exactly the same rufous -brown color as that of the Egyptian lentils 
{Ervum lens)^ and when the testa is removed they are both of an orange- 
pinkish color, but the former is not so bright as the latter. The seeds 
of E. ervilia are not, however, lenticular, but are obtusely triangular, 
and this serves to distinguish them from lentils, for which popular food 
they might be an unpleasant substitute. 

Modern writers do not take much notice of E. ervilia; it is by sev- 



96 



Ervum Ervilia^ the Bitter Vetch. 



.\m. Jour. Pharrr. 
Feb., i82o. 



eral simply mentioned as poisonous. Lindley, in his " Vegetable King- 
dom,"^ says that the seed mixed with flour produces weakness of the 
extremities, and render horses almost paralytic. J. C. Loudon^ 
attributes these same qualities to Lathyrus sativus^ but his figure of Z. 
sativus is that of L. aphaca^ so there may be some confusion with both 
writers. Sir John Hill, whose "Herbal" is dated 1756, dismisses it as 
a plant having no properties worthy of notice; but if we go back 
another hundred years we find it to be an article of the Materia Medica,. 
and that it had the credit of curing the Emperor Augustus, "whose 
griefe it is probable was a toughe flegme condensate in the lungs, and 
and hard to be avoyded and spit forth.'* 

In those well-known books, Gerarde's " Herball and Parkinson's 
" Theater of Plantes,"^ the bitter vetch and its virtues are fully des- 
cribed, and the same engraving does service in both. The name given 
is Orobus receptus herbariorum ; and it is curious to observe how the 
properties attributed to it by Galen and the older writers are quoted in 
every J^ook of this and of anterior date, except Celsus, that I have 
consulted. After the old fashion it is said to be hot in the first degree 
and dry in the second. Gerarde says that " men do altogether abstain 
from the bitter vetch, for it hath a very unpleasant taste and naughty 
juice ; but kine in Asia and in most other countries do eat thereof, 
being made sweet by steeping in water." It is directed to be given as 
a medicine with honey as an electuary. 

In the " Commentaries of Matthiolus upon Dioscorides,"^ a book 
of about the same date, we find that there was then considerable con- 
troversy as to the true identity of Orobus, Ervum and Ervilia, and 
which of the plants known to the ancients were meant by those names. 
He quotes Galen, " Boves apud nos ut apud alios plerasque gentes Ervo in 
aqua edulcato pascuntur ; hominum cibis prorsus hoc semen damnatur^ est 
enim insuavissimum^ et pravi succi^ In Bauhinus' great work, " His- 
toria Plantarum," the difficulty is still further worked out, one sug- 
gestion being that Ervilia must be the same as Phaseolus^ the kidney. 

^ Lindley's " Vegetable Kingdom,'' 1853, p. 548. 
'^Loudon's "Encyclopedia of Plants," 1836, p. 620. 
^"The Herball," J. Gerarde, 1636, p. 1225. 

Theatrum Botanicum," J. Parkinson, 1640, p. 1079. 
^ P. A. Matthioli, " Opera, ' 1674, p. 343. 
*Bauhini, etc , " Historia Plantarum," 1651, torn, ii, p. 296. 



""""FiCs^so""' } Ervum Ervilia, tke Bitter Vetch. 97 

bean, because that is the only legume of which men eat the pods and 
seeds together. It is even suggested that it may be Dolichos. He says- 
that Brasevolus believes Ervilia to be the legitimate Ervum, but the 
more general testimony appears to be that it was a different plant, known 
to the Greeks as Ochros. One species of Orobus is spoken of as Orobus 
semine obtuso triangulo^^ and this answers well to our bitter vetch. 

An inceresting clue to the name Ervum is given. "^«o^ verh 
Erbum Avicennce [Orobon Graci appellant nos Ervum)." I may say that 
it appears to me that the name Rovi is also clearly derived and 
descended from Orobus, it being probably grown on some shores of 
the Greek Archipelago. Whilst this note has been passing through 
the press my attention has been called to the "Gardeners' Chronicle" 
of December 13, where it is mentioned that Dr. Whittmack recently- 
exhibited some carbonized leguminous seeds, disinterred in the ruins of 
Troy by Dr. Schliemann, which, on careful examination, proved to be 
the seeds of Ervum ervilia. 

A hundred years further back than Bauhinus, we meet with a men- 
tion of Ervum in the works of our first English botanist of repute,^ 
William Turner, 155 1, printed in black letter, with beautiful plates. 
He says: "Bitter fiche burdeneth the hede mych, the same eaten 
troubleth the belly. It draweth out bloude by the water. This pulse 
well sodden maketh oxen fatt. Ervum helpeth a ma to pis well. The 
same maketh a man haue a good colour." He is exercised as to the 
identity of the plant; scolds Fuchsius for misleading him, and gives for 
his engravings a species of Lathyrus.^ which he calls Orobus Sylvestre. 

We now get back to the ancients. I have not Galen to refer to. 
Celsus^ mentions both Lenticula and Ervum, and his editor. Dr. 
Milligan notes the first to be Ervi lentis^ L., varietas major^ the second 
Ervum lens., L.; but if the Latin "Ervum" be the same as the Greek 
"Orobus," this would be incorrect. Pliny ,^ writing soon after, men- 
tions the twenty virtues ascribed to it, including its curing the bite of 
serpents — and of men — and also adds that if sown in March it is inju- 
rious to oxen, if in autumn it produces headache, but if sown in early 
spring it produces no bad results; but Pliny does not discriminate his 
facts. Dr. Bostock, his editor (Bohn's edition), says in a note that the 

New Herball," W. Turner, 1551, sheet p. iii. 
'-'"A. Com. Celsi Medicinas," etc., 1831, p. 197. 

Natural History of Pliny," Bohn, 1856, vol. iv, pp. 51-451. 

7 



Ervum Ervilia, the Bitter Fetch. { Fib^ifso"" 

blade is said to be poisonous to pigs, and that the farina of E. ervilia is 
much advertised as a food ; but Revalenta is now supposed to be the 
farina of Ervum lens. 

Having now traced the history of the Rovi seed of the Archipelago 
op to the Orobus of the ancient Greeks, let me return to its poisonous 
properties. The ancients and those accustomed to use it knew that 
these could be eliminated or destroyed, by soaking in water, as is the 
case with other vegetable products which are poisonous in their natural 
condition, but which are made wholesome by water, by heat, or by 
both combined. This property may reside in the testa, which is the 
most bitter part, so that when decorticated, the seeds would be whole- 
some, but I am not aware if this be the case or not. 

It has been stated that sheep may feed on the Rovi seed. On the 
other hand, pigs, notwithstanding they are such gross feeders, have 
delicate stomachs; it is said they cannot eat even haricot beens with 
impunity. They are probably modified by the artificial life they lead. 
Darwin ^ says that white sheep and pigs are injured by certain plants, 
whilst dark colored individuals escape. In Florida, the squatter selects 
the black members of a litter, as they only have a good chance of liv- 
ing — as the pigs eat the paint root (Lachnanthes)^ which colors their 
bones pink, and causes the hoofs of all but the black varieties to drop off. 

At the trial it was stated that one of the witnesses offered the meal 
to some pigs who declined to partake of it j he kept them without food 
all day, and offered it again, but they still declined. Whether these 
pigs were black or not was not stated, but it would appear that their 
original aptitude for discernment in the selection of proper food had 
not been destroyed by their artificial mode of living — whatever their 
original physical capacity might have been. Light colored pigs certainly 
have a much more objectionable appearance than black ; their skin is 
too much the color of the noble biped to look correct. One witness 
stated that she had given the meal to her pigs without harm, but that 
she had only given a small proportion with other food and had first well 
steeped it in accordance with the ancient custom. 

I fear this subject has been treated too much at length, but it is cer- 
tainly one of importance to the porcine world, and if an occasional 
cargo of Rovi seed is imported we do not know where it may find its 
way. — Phar. Jour, and Trans, ^ Dec. 20, 1879. 



^Darwin's " Origin of Species," 1869, p. 13. 



"^""'Ferrifso""' } Composition of some Volatile Oils, 99 

COMPOSITION OF SOME VOLATILE OILS. 

By Bruylants. 

Oil of marjoram^ obtained by distilling the flowery tops of Origanum 
Marjorana in a current of steam, is a yellowish liquid, when freshly 
prepared (sp. gr. O'Qii at 15°), but becomes brown on standing. It 
has a pungent smell and a hot, peppery and slightly bitter taste. It is 
a dextrorotatory, and has an acid reaction. When distilled, it begins to 
boil at 185°, but the temperature rapidly rises to 200°, and remains 
constant between 215 to 220°, a resinous mass being left in the retort. 

By repeatedly fractioning the oil which passes over at 185-190°, a 
portion is obtained, boiling between 160-162°, consisting principally of 
a terpene. 

The fraction boiling at 215-220° yields no portion having a constant 
boiling point, nor does it deposit crystals when cooled to — 25°. Its 
vapor density and analysis correspond with either laurel camphor or 
borneol. When distilled with phosphoric anhydride, it yields a mix- 
ture of cymene and terpene (b. p, 160-170°). When treated with 
acetic anhydride, it forms a compound (b. p. 230-235°), which with 
alcoholic potash yields terpene and potassic acetate. Chromic mixture 
oxidizes it with the formation of acetic and formic acids and laurel 
camphor. 

Oil of marjoram is therefore composed of a dextrorotatory hydro- 
carbon, 5 per cent. ; a rnixture of dextrorotatory camphor and borneol, 
S5 per cent, j resin, 10 per cent. 

Oil of lavender when freshly prepared is a colorless liquid, which 
becomes yellow on standing ; it smells of lavender, and its taste is hot, 
camphorous and slightly bitter. It is laevorotatory, has an acid reac- 
tion, and sp. gr. 0*875 at 15°. It begins to boil at 185°, the tempera- 
ture quickly rises to 190°, and the greater portion distils over between 
195-215°. The first portion of the distillate consists of a mixture of 
acetic and formic acids, but contains no valeric acid. By repeated 
fractionation, a laevorotatory terpene (b. p. 162°) is separated, capable 
of forming a crystalline hydrochloride. The essence also contains a 
mixture of camphor and borneol ; this mixture forms an acetate (b. p. 
230°), which is decomposed by potash, yielding a terpene and potassium 
acetate. When it is distilled with phosphoric anhydride, a hydrocarbon 
is obtained, consisting for the most part of terpene, and containing also 



lOO Behavior of Cymene in the Animal Organism, {^'^'^t^l'Jzo^'^' 

some cymene. Essence of lavender consists of terpene, 25 borneol 
(|) and camphor (|-), 65 ; resin, 10 per cent. 

Oil of Spike. — This oil, obtained from Lavandula spica latifolia^ 
is a colorless liquid, which in time thickens and darkens in color. n^It has 
an acid reaction, and sp. gr. 0*9081 at 15°. Its odor resembles that of 
lavender. Its composition is almost identical with that of essence of 
lavender, but, as it contains more hydrocarbon, it begins to boil at 
170-175°. It is laevorotatory. Its composition is as follows : Ter- 
pene, 35 ; borneol and camphor, 55 ; resin, 10 per cent. — jlour. Chem.. 
Soc.^ Jan, 1880, p. 50. 



BEHAVIOR OF CYMENE IN THE ANIMAL ORGANISM. 

By Jacobsen. 

As cymene has been prepared from normal propyl iodide and para- 
bromotoluene, and as the author has shown that the hydrocarbon pro- 
duced from parabromocumene and methyl iodide is not cymene,'but ar^ 
isomeride, no doubt would remain regarding the constitution of cymene 
were it not for two reactions. The first of these, noticed by Kraut 
and confirmed by the author, is that cymene is produced by the action 
of zinc dust on cymyl alcohol, and the second is the oxidation of 
cymene in the organism to cuminic acid, observed by Nencki and 
Ziegler. Both of these results are unfavorable to the theory that 
cymene contains a normal propyl group. In the present paper, the 
author gives an account of a repetition of Nencki and Ziegler's experi- 
ments. 

The cymene was administered to a dog, and its urine, after evapora- 
tion, was acidified and shaken with ether. After distillating off the 
ether, the residue gave a copious precipitate with hydrochloric acid, 
which was found for the most part to consist of cuminuric acid^ 
C12H15NO3. The filtrate from this precipitate gave a distillate con- 
taining a little paraxyiylic acid, showing that the cymene administered 
to the dog had contained a little pseudocumene. 

Cuminuric acid melts at 168°, and volatilizes without decomposition.. 
It is almost insoluble in cold, but comparatively easily soluble in warm 
water ; it dissolves with the greatest readiness in alcohol ether, how- 



^^'^FcC^ljg!"''} Behavior of Cymene in the Animal Organism. \o\ 

ever, dissolves it with difficulty. From water it crystallizes — (i), on 
addition of an acid, in nacreous scales, and (2) on slow evaporation, in 
large iridescent rhombic plates, without water of crystallization, and 
from alcohol, on evaporation, in radiated crystals. 

The W/Wz W/, Ba(Ci2Hi^N03)2.H20, dissolves with some difficulty, 
and crystallizes from its hot solution in long right-angled plates or in 
flat needles, arranged in a fan-shaped form. The calcium salt^ Cz.(C^f{^^ 
N03)2.3H20, crystallizes in thin needles, and is also soluble with diffi- 
culty. The ammonium and potassium salts are very easily soluble, and 
crystallize in needles. The two latter salts give precipitates with salts 
of zinc, manganese, cadmium, magnesium, ferrous and ferric salts, 
copper, lead and silver; with mercuric chloride, it gives no precipitate, 
and with mercuric nitrate, a flocculent insoluble precipitate. 

This cuminuric acid probably differs from that which Cahours pre- 
pared from cuminic chloride and glycolyl silver. 

In order further to confirm the relations of this acid, it was decom- 
iposed by heating with hydrochloric acid ; it split up into glycocine and 
cuminic acid, melting at 1 16-1 17°, and agreeing in all its properties 
with that described by others. It thus appears that cuminic acid is 
really a product of oxidation of cymene in the animal organism, but to 
remove all doubt, and further to connect cuminic and cuminuric acids, 
the latter acid was synthetically prepared from cymyl alcohol and gly- 
cocol silver. The product was identical in all respects with that sepa- 
rated from the urine. 

If, then, there is conclusive proof that cumene contains normal 
propyl, and that cuminic acid contains isopropyl, then the preparation 
of cumene from cymyl alcohol with zinc dust involves the transform- 
ation j of ^isopropyl into normal propyl, and, on the other hand, the 
formation of cuminic acid from cymene implies the opposite change. 

In conclusion, the author draws attention to the fact that in his 
experiments the chief product was cuminuric acid, whilst in those of 
Nencki^ and Ziegler cuminic acid was formed. He also found the 
latter acid, but in very small amount. — Jour. Chem. Jan. 1879, fr. 
Jour. Phar. [4], xxx, ps. 30-35, 1 39-141. 



I02 Preservation of Animal and Vegetable Tissues, {^"^-^e^^Jz^"^' 

THE PRESERVATION OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE 

TISSUES. 

Mr. Wickersheimer, anatomical preparator at the University of Ber- 
lin, has discovered a preserving fluid, by means of which dead animals 
may be preserved in contact with air without losing their natural appear- 
ance, softness and flexibility. Human corpses have by its means been 
kept for months, retaining during this time the flexibility of the joints 
and an almost lifelike color. The lungs of different animals which 
have been immersed in the liquid may be dried, resembling then a 
shrunken dark-brown body, which, by means of bellows, may be inflated 
as during life-time, and acquire then a fresh red color, closely resem- 
bling a fresh lung in appearance. Even old skeletons of various fishes 
which had been prepared with the cartilages belonging to them, had 
their natural flexibility restored after being immersed in the liquid for 
some time. 

The liquid is also adapted to the preservation of small animals, and 
of fungi, algae, flowers, fruits and other parts of vegetables. 

The formula for preparing this liquid has been purchased by the 
Prussian government and published by order of the minister of educa- 
tion. The directions are as follows : 

100 grams of alum, 25 grams of sodium chloride, 12 grams potas- 
sium nitrate, 60 grams potassium carbonate (Potasche) and 10 grams 
arsenious acid are dissolved in 3000 grams (3 liters) of boiling water 
the solution is allowed to cool, filtered and to every 10 liters of the 
neutral colorless and inodorous liquid are added 4 liters of glycerin and 
I liter of methylic alcohol. 

Anatomical preparations and animals which are to be kept in the dry 
state are immersed in the liquid, according to their size, for from 6 to 12 
days, and afterwards dried simply by exposure to the air. The tendons^ 
muscles, etc., remain soft and flexible, so that all natural movements 
may be readily made. Hollow organs like lungs, entrails, etc., are 
filled with the liquid before immersion, and subsequently inflated and 
dried. Smaller animals, like crabs, beetles, lizards, frogs, etc., also 
vegetables of which the natural colors are to be preserved, are kept in 
the liquid. Corpses and animal carcasses may be preserved by injec- 
tion, for which purpose from i J to 5 liters are required ; on cutting the 
flesh then, even after years, it has the same appearance as that of recent 
corpses. The epidermis of injected bodies gradually becomes some- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 

Feb., 1880. / 



Aleurone. 



what brown, but even this may be prevented by rubbing the skin with 
the solution, and keeping the body as air tight as possible. For embalm- 
ing injection is to be combined with immersion, and to be followed by 
wrapping the corpse in cloths moistened with the liquid and by placing; 
it in well closed receptacles. — Die Gartenlauhe^ Nos. 22 and 50, andl 
Phar. Ztg.^ Oct. 29. 

At a recent meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Wm. Barbeck directed attention to Wickersheimer's pre- 
serving fluid, and communicated the above formula. An interesting 
discussion arose, in which Messrs. Leidy, Roberts, Potts and Kingsley 
participated. 

Dr. Leidy stated that the liquid which had been used by Dr. Horner 
and himself for years in the University for the preparation of anatomical 
subjects was almost identically the same as the Berlin mixture described 
by Mr. Barbeck. It was simply a modification of the fluid used in the 
West for the preservation of hams, arsenious acid being substituted for 
the starch of that mixture. Its use in the University had been attended 
with the most satisfactory results. In this liquid, we have been informed^ 
methylic alcohol is always omitted, carbonate of potassium is consid- 
erably reduced in quantity, being merely suflicient for dissolving 
the arsenious acid, glycerin is added only for some special purposes, and 
the other ingredients are employed in somewhat different proportions 
from those given above. J. M. M, 



ALEURONE. 

Aleurone has recently become the object of a certain amount of 
interest, and was not long since the subject of a question at one of the 
University examinations. Nothing, however, has yet been published 
respecting it in this journal, and very little in this country. The fol- 
lowing notes, compiled from various works, have been supplied by Mr. 
Marshall Leigh : 

Aleurone grains were discovered by Hartig in 1855 ; their import- 
ance, however, was not generally acknowledged until Dr. PfefFer pub- 
lished his researches in 1872 [Jahrb. f. wiss, Bot.^ 1872). These 
researches are still the standard work in Germany, and contain a larger 
amount of reliable information than any other. 

The reservoirs of ripe seeds, the endosperm and cotyledons, always 



£04 



Aleurone, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 1880, 



contain aleurone together with starch and oily matter. If the seeds 
contain much starch, as in the chestnut, the aleurone grains occupy the 
interstices and consist of minute granules ; in oily seeds, however, the 
granules are found in the place of starch. 

Their formation commences when the seeds have attained their last 
condition of ripeness and the funiculus become sapless ; the seed loses 
water by evaporation, the mucilaginous mass in its interior gradually 
becoming firmer, and the grains of aleurone separate from the turbid 
■matrix. 

The origin of the grains is therefore simply a dissociation which 
arises from loss of water ; on germination, the cells absorb moisture, 
and the aleurone grain again unites with the matrix. 

The matrix surrounding the grain may be considered as the proto- 
plasmic mass of the cell, in which water is replaced, on drying, by oil 
or starch. 

The use of aleurone is to act as a reservoir of protein, in the same 
way as starch and oil globules are reservoirs of hydrocarbons, the pro- 
tein being the source from which the protoplasm of the young plant is 
formed upon germination. 

Occasionally the grains are seen to have a crystalline appearance, 
due to their enclosing crystals of oxalate of calcium ; more frequently, 
however, they contain non- crystalline and clustered granules of a double 
phosphate of calcium and magnesium mechaiiicallv enveloped during 
the contraction of the protein. 

Aleurone grains are absolutely insoluble in alcohol, ether, benzol or 
chloroform ; they are mostly soluble in water, and can by that means 
be separated from the enclosed crystals or globoids. 

Their chemical composition has recently been made the subject of 
observation by several chemists. In 1872,^ Ritthausen exhausted the 
seeds by alkaline ^solutions and demonstrated the presence of vegetable 
caseins, such as legumin and conglutin. 

In 1877,^ Weyl published some observations which tended to show 
that the proteids existed as globulins, and that the caseins extracted by 
E-itthausen were the products of alteration caused by his alkaline solu- 
tions. 

^ "Die Eiwelss-Korper cler Getreidearten," 1872. 
- " Zeitschr. fiir Physiol. Chemie," 1877. 



"^'"peCi'ssor'"'} Migration of Plants from Europe to America, 105 

Mr. Sidney Vines ^ has lately contributed an article to the Royal 
Society which in many respects confirms Weyl's observations. 

An extract of the seeds of blue lupin (Lupinus varius) in common 
salt was found to contain two proteids belonging to the group of globu- 
lins and hitherto known to occur only in animals: myosin, a constitu- 
ent of dead muscle, and vitellin, a constituent of the yolk of egg ; these 
two substances, vegetable myosin and vegetable vitellin, were found to 
have exactly similar reactions to the animal substances of the same 
name. 

An aqueous extract of the seeds contained another proteid having all 
the properties of peptone, and agreeing very nearly with the a peptone 
of Meissner, or hemialbumose of Kuhne,^ an easily decomposable pep- 
tone formed by the action of gastric juice on proteids. — Phar. four, and 
Trans. ,^ Nov. 22, 1879. 



The MIGRATION of PLANTS from EUROPE to AMERICA, 
with an ATTEMPT to EXPLAIN CERTAIN PHENOM- 
ENA CONNECTED THEREWITH. 

By Prof. E. W. Claypole, B.A., B.SC. (London), of Antioch College, Ohio. 
Paper read before the Montreal Horticultural Society, 1877. 

Underneath the great wave of human emigration from the so-called Old to the 
so-called New World, underneath the noisy, busy surface tide that has swept west- 
ward from the shores of Europe to those of America during the last two hundred 
years, there has existed another and a less conspicuous wave, another and a less 
prominent tide of emigration. Westward in its direction, like the former, it has 
silently accomplished results that seldom strike the superficial eye, but yet are scarcely 
less in magnitude than those which have followed the advent of the white man to 
the shores of America. 

I allude to that slow and noiseless immigration of European plants which has 
been going on for many years, and which probably commenced when the fiist Euro- 
pean vessel touched our shores. Side by side with the displacement of the red man 
by the white man has gone on the displacement of the red man's vegetable compan- 
ions by plants which accompanied the white man from his trans- Atlantic home. 
Not more completely have the children of the Pilgrim Fathers made themselves at 
home on the banks of the Charles and the Neponset, not more completely have the 
successors of Champlain and Jacques Cartier established themselves along the St. 
Lawrence, not more completely have the decendants of the aristocratic colonists of 
Maryland and Virginia appropriated the shores of the Chesapeake, than have the 

' " Proc. Roy. Society," December 19, 1878. 

- *' Verhandl. d. Nat. Med Vereins zu Heidelberg," 1876. 



io6 Migration of Plants from Europe to America, {^"^y^S^'J^o''''' 

homely weeds of England and France made themselves at home in the New World y 
established themselves on its soil, appropriated its fields, its gardens and its waysides. 
Nor have the older States alone been seized by these European invaders. The 
stream has flowed beyond them, and as no village or hamlet in the West is without 
its population of European descent, so too it is never without its plant population of 
European weeds. To the American, born and reared among them, these things 
have none of the significance which they possess to him who comes across the 
Atlantic, conversant with the flora of Europe, and anticipating a complete change 
of plant life as well as of place and scene after voyaging 3,000 miles. And yet I 
scarcely know which strikes the thoughtful stranger most, the resemblance or the 
difference between the Old which he has left or the New to which he has come. 
Differences, of course, there are, many and great, but in the face of the fact that 
the new country with its millions of inhabitants is using the same language and laws 
and customs as the old country he has so lately left, they are less striking. The 
same is true of the American flora. The writer will never forget the impression 
made on his own mind when soon after landing in America he set to work upon the 
botany of his new home. The summer, with its floral treasures, had gone by and 
the brilliant New England foliage told that winter was rapidly approaching. In the 
woods and shrubberies th'e falling leaves revealed new types of tree-life mingled with 
old forms well known in England. But on the ground, in the fields, along the way- 
sides and fences were many well-known plants. Old acquaintances, friends and foes 
both, which he had years before learned to know — sometimes to cherish and often 
to uproot — when a boy in the old country. So far was the flora from being totally 
new that sometimes he was puzzled to know whether, on a given space, there were 
more strange or familiar forms around him. This result was quite unexpected and 
opened before him a new and very interesting field of observation and investigation, 
which has continued ever since to occupy at intervals his attention. The fact here 
mentioned — this migration of European plants into America — became all the more 
striking when, after a longer residence in this country, and a further study of its 
flora, he looked back to his earlier botanical studies in Europe and observed that 
this vegetable migration is almost entirely in one direction. In the midst of this 
rich flora, aliens by origin, but naturalized by the letters patent of time, he looked 
back to his old home and tried, but almost in vain, to recall American forms of 
plant life naturalized there. Scarcely a solitary specimen could be found to which 
the Old World, always chary of conferring its citinzenship upon foreigners, could 
be said to have given the rights to home. Whence comes this striking difference ? 
Why is the Western World so hospitable and the Eastern so inhospitable to vege- 
table strangers ? Is it that these western strangers do not claim naturalization ? Da 
they feel their inability to'make way against the crowded life of the East, and, there- 
fore, fail in the intenser struggle for existence which marks newer and more highly 
developed Europe? The full answer to this question is at present impossible, and 
the writer desires this paper to be considered merely suggestive. Facts must be 
gathered before "conclusions can be drawn. The field is so vast and the need of 
patient and continuous observation so great that many years may pass ere a solution 



"^""rlb^'isso.^"" } Migration of Plants from Europe to America. 



o 



of the problem can be reached. " The harvest is plenteous but the laborers are 
few." 

A few illustrations will show the kind of facts to which this paper is intended to 
call attention, and the writer's purpose will be fully served if its perusal should 
incite any who are familiar with European botany to note the occurrence of Euro- 
pean species in different localities, and especially if it should lead any to inquire as 
to the cause which prevents the naturalization of others that can only be raised here 
under cultivation. 

The careful observer will notice foreign plants in all stages of naturalization. 
Some are at present only cultivated in fields or gardens, others have escaped from 
the domain of the plough and the spade, and are maintaining a precarious existence 
among conditions not altogether congenial, and are liable to extermination at any 
time, by an unfavorable season. Others have a stronger hold and occupy the fence- 
corner or the wayside, while a number, bolder and hardier, have emerged from these 
sheltering nooks, and have begun an independent career among the indigenous 
vegetation, hoping, often in vain, to hold their own against the aborigines of the 
land. Not a few, more hardy still, or more adaptable in their nature, have altogether 
cut themselves loose from the cultivated field and the domain of man, have ven- 
tured out into open conflict with the denizens of the soil, and emerged victorious 
from the struggle. By crowding upon them, by stifling them, by appropriating 
their food, they have succeeded in ousting their antagonists, the rightful heirs, as by 
similar practices the white man has ousted the red man from his ancestral land, and 
hpth now occupy the country often to the exlcusion of all save the hardiest of the 
native tribes. 

For example, the Scarlet Poppy [Papa<ver dubium)y a weed so common in England 
that many a wheat field appears one sheet of glowing red when it is in full flower,, 
must have come over to America many times in seed wheat, and is occasionally met 
with here in the fields, especially in Wisconsin and other northwestern States. Yet 
outside of these, it has never to our knowledge succeeded in propagating itself. It 
is quite scarce in America. The Giant Elecampane [Inula helenium), the Hoise- 
heal and Scabwort of the leech, so renowned among the old herbalists as a remedy 
in complaints of the chest, is but scantily diffused. The writer has met with it in 
the east near Boston and in the Island of Montreal, and it is abundant in the west 
in some parts of Ohio and Indiana. 

The English Groundsel [Senecio 'vulgaris), a favorite with the keepers of canary 
birds, but by no means in equal liking of the English gardener, has failed to estab- 
lish itself in America. A few specimens may occasionally be met with near gar- 
dens, but it shows here none of that reproductive power that makes it in England- 
one of the earliest weeds in the spring, and the latest in the fall. 

The Salsify, or Vegetable Oyster [Tragopogon porrif alius) ^ a native of the Medi- 
terranean region, but established in a few places in the south of England, whence it 
was probably imported, is most likely of late introduction, and still on trial, not 
having found a place in Professor Gray's " Manual of the American Flora." The 
writer has only found it once near St. Catharine's, in Ontario, in considerable quan- 
tities, flowering and apparently bringing its seed to perfection. 



fio8 Migration of Plants from Europe to America. { ^""-/eCisso."""'' 

The Henbane, a dangerous narcotic [Hyoscyamus niger)^ is sparingly diffused in 
some places. It may be found in tolerable abundance on Fletcher's Field, near 
Montreal, showing the same predilection as in England for dunghills and heaps of 
old bricks und mortar. 

The Thorn Apple [Datura stramonium)^ a native of Asia and Europe, where it 
extends as far north as Sweden, is scantily met with in England, having escaped 
from gardens, where it prefers similar spots to those chosen by the Henbane. But 
it has been introduced into this country where, under a new name, "Jamestown 
(Jimson) Weed," it is only too well known. The American name seems to indicate 
that it was introduced or first noticed as a nuisance in the neighborhood of James- 
town, Virginia. 

The Common Hemp [Cannabis satinja), so valued for its fibre, a native of the 
Caucasus and of the mountains of Northern India, only known in Western Europe 
in cultivation, and doubtless early brought here for economic purposes, has run 
completely wild, and may now be found in waste land near human dwellings, from 
the streets of Montreal and Boston to the west of Ohio, and probably farther still. 

The Grape Hyacinth [Muscari botryoides), znd the Star of Bethlehem (Orw/V/'O- 
galum umbellatum)^ both common English garden flowers, may be occasionally 
found in the vicinity of Montreal, as if longing, yet fearing, to strike for freedom 
from the control of man in their new country. 

The Corn Cockle (^Lychnis gitkago), so mischievous in English wheat fields, is 
tolerably common here in similar places, but has not succeeded in establishing itself 
outside of the protection of man. The same may, in the northern districts, be said 
of the common Red Clover [Trifolium pratense). In spite of its deep tap root and 
rank growth, it is unable to bear the cold, and an occasional severe winter will exter- 
minate it if unprotected, even in cultivated fields. Its near relative, however, the 
White Clover [Trifolium repens) was introduced in early days, and called by the 
Indians, " White Man's Foot." Longfellow sings in the story of Hiawatha : 
" Wheresoe'er they tread, beneath them 
Springs a flower unknown among us — 
Springs the White Man's Foot in blossom." 
This is much more hardy and seldom yields except to the severest frosts. It over- 
runs field and wayside, fence-corner and common, holding its own against even the 
aborigines, and strangling them out by its tangled perennial roots. Early in the 
spring it secures such headway that larger and coarser plants are compelled to give 
way. Its flowers afford the honey bee so rich a harvest that its seeds are surely fer- 
tilized, and this double method c f reproduction by root and by seed gives it such an 
advantage in the struggle for existence that it has spread rapidly over the country, 
and many an American common is as white with its flowers as is an English lawn 
with daisies. It is worthy of notice that similar results have attended the introduc- 
tion of this plant into New Zealand. There also it has run wild, and is said to be 
pushing out some of the native species, among others the hard and stiff New Zea- 
land flax [Phormium tenax)^ which is said to be unable to hold its ground against the 
strangling roots of the White Clover. 

The English Buttercup [Ranunculus acris), beloved of English children and poets, 
especially of the school of Wordsworth, has overrun the northeast, and the writer 



^"'fICis^so!''"' } Migration of Plants from Europe to America, 109 

has met with it even in the Canadian backwoods, where only a trail through the 
bush existed, carried doubtless in the hay taken thither to feed the horses and oxen 
of the lumbermen when driving logs in a Canadian winter. 

The Barberry [Berberis 'vulgaris), with its graceful drooping stems and pendant 
racemes of bright yellow flowers and scarlet fruit, followed the pilgrims to Plymouth 
Rock, and like them has struck its roots deep in the bleak hill of New England, 
until now it is far more common in the neighborhood of Boston than in any part of 
England with which the writer is acquainted. 

Every one who has owned or worked a garden in America has made the acquain- 
tance of the ubiquitous Purslane [Portulaca oleracea), so fondly mentioned by the 
author of *' My Summer in a Garden " as " pusley," one of his pets which stuck to 
him so closely that he could not get rid of it. This, the only valuable (start not, 
American gardener, it is even so) plant of its order, is cultivated as a salad and pot- 
herb 5 but, transplanted into our soil and under our skies, it has squatted on the land 
until nothing save constant watchfulness and hoe can prev€nt its complete monopoly 
of the garden. It occupies here the place of the sow-thistle in England. Both 
break off at the surface of the ground as soon as an attempt is made to pull them , 
up, and when the gardener's back is turned both send out a new crop of leaves, 
flowers and seed, to punish him for his assault. The writer would like to suggest to 
the Horticultural Society of Montreal the desirability of offering a prize for the best 
illustrated essay on the means of turning this European immigrant to account in the 
Canadian and American kitchens. Possibly the surest way of getting rid of it 
would be to make it useful. Useful plants are seldom so abundant as to be a nuis- 
ance. 

The Common Water Cress [Nasturtium 'vulgare) — when, how, and by whom 
introduced we know not — is now so abundant in some places that one is almost 
tempted to look upon it as a native. Many of the streams of N;w York and of 
southwestern Ohio are as thickly set with it as are any of the water-courses in old 
England. 

The Common Parsnip {Pastinaca sativa) has run wild in America in fence-cor- 
ners and along railway banks near Montreal aud other places. 

The Hemlock [Conium maculatum), of Socratic infamy, has taken possession of 
certain spots, as it does in Europe. The writer has seen acres of It along the banks 
of the White River at Richmond, in Indiana. 

The Ox-Eye Daisy, or White Weed of New York [Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 
mum), has crossed the Atlantic with hay-seed and so completely monopolized many 
of the meadows in the Eastern States that they more resemble snowfields than hay- 
fields when the plant is in blossom. It is slowly spreading west and south, and last 
summer the writer found it in Ohio close to the State line of Indiana, appearing In 
full vigor and of large size. 

The Tansy [Tanacetum vulgare), valued by herbalists as a tonic, is not uncom- 
mon. The crimped variety [crispum] grows near Montreal. 

The Chicory [Cichorium intybus), with its stiff" stem and lovely but evanescent 
azure blue flowers, wild in England and well known to manufacturers of coffee (the 
genuine article !) is now one of the wild flowers of the Island of Montreal. 



I lo Migration of Plants from Europe to America, { ^'"FiCisso^''"^ 

The Great Mullein, or Flannel plant [Verbascum thapsus)^ common in waste 
ground In Europe and Asia, is more common here than in England in similar situa- 
tions, but never so far as the writer is aware on ground that is truly wild. 

The Yellow Toadflax, or "butter and eggs" [Linarta 'vulgaris)^ has been intro- 
duced with crops, and now shows its two-tinted blossoms in gardens and on way- 
sides, and once in is with difficulty eradicated. 

The Catmint or Catnip [Nepeta cataria)^ a native of England and southern 
Europe, is now as common in America. The Burdock [Arctium lappa) is another 
importation from the Old World, " who left his country for his country's good," 
and has proved like many others who did the same no blessing to his adopted land. 
Moreover, he has left so many of his kith and kin behind him that his absence is not 
noticed. Every boy knows the hooked burs or seed vessels of this plant, which 
cling so closely to the clothes of men, the fleeces of sheep, and the manes of horses 
that its rapid extension is inevitable. 

The Great Celandine [Chelidonium majus), with its bright yellow flowers and 
orange juice, may be found on the eastern seaboard and near dwellings in the inland 
States. 

The Shepherd's Purse [Capsella bursa pastoris), a common weed in England, is 
common in Canada and the States 

The Bladder Campion [Silene inflata) spreads its white petals by the roadside, 
while its little congener, the Mouse Ear [Cerastium 'vuigatum), grows ensconced, as 
in Europe, in gardens and in fields 

Our list is long enovigh, but a few remain too common to be completely omitted. 
Every street and road in many parts of the country is covered with a soft sumn-.er- 
green carpet of the little insignificant Knot-grass [Polygonum aojiculare). It forms 
a substitute for grass where grass cannot find a foothold and keeps its ground in 
defiance of dust and traffic and heat. 

Not a few of the European grasses, too, imported for meadows, have escaped from 
cultivation and succeeded in establishing themselves more or less firmly as occupants 
of the soil. The little Annual Meadow Grass [Poa annua), the Timothy [Phleum 
pratrense), the Fox-tail [Alopecurus pratensis), the Redtop [Agrostis ^ulgarir), the 
White Bent [Agrostis alba) have become perfectly wild in different places. The 
Cocksfoot [Dactylis glomerata), the Couch or Quick grass [Triticum repens) have 
been less successful. The former apparently dislikes the hot sun of America, 
though it does well in the shade. The so-called Blue Grass, more properly the June 
Grass [Poa pratensis), of the famous Kentucky pastures, has almost monopolized 
the ground in many places, and the Chess or Cheat [Bromus secalinus) constantly 
cheats the American farmer into a more than Darwinian belief in the transformation 
of species, not, by the way, upward, but downward. The Purple Finger Grass 
[Panicum sanguineum), an immigrant from Southern Europe, found but not native in 
•England, may be gathered by the wayside in the Eastern and Middle States. Finally, 
in some parts of the country the hay betrays to the European by its scent the pres- 
ence of the Sweet Spring Grass [Anthoxanthum odoratum), so well known as giving 
much of the finest of the fragrance to an English hayfield. 

In thus noting instances of vegetable immigration from Europe to America, 



^"' Feb.ri88o"°''} Migration of Plants from Europe to America. 1 1 1 

another side of the question must not be overlooked. Many common English 
plants have totally failed to secure a foothold here. The seed of the English daisy 
must have come over in almost every case of grass-seed that has been imported; 
yet it has not become naturalized in America The only instance with which the 
writer is acquainted of its lasting for several years in a lawn, as in England, occurred 
in the immediate vicinity of Montreal, and was communicated to him by a friend in 
that city. It would therefore appear that the heat of summer rather than the cold 
of winter is the barrier to the establishment in the New World of the "wee modest 
crimson-tipped flower," so familiar to every British eye. Equally " conspicuous by 
their absence" are the Primrose and the Cowslip, the flowers of childhood in the 
old country. Many other instances of this kind might be adduced, but the con- 
verse side of the problem now claims attention. 

It is singular that while so many European species have forced their way into 
possession of the American soil, the cases of counter migration are exceedingly 
few^ — so few that they may be counted on the fingers. It appears as if some invis- 
ible barrier existed preventing passage eastward, though allowing it westward. One 
or two species may be named which, as exceptions, bring the general truth of this 
statement into stronger light. The Canadian Fleabane [Erigeron Canadensis)^ a 
native of North America, "is now established in nearly all temperate and hot coun- 
tries, and occasionally appears so in England." ^ The Annual Fleabane [Erigeron 
annuus), though not in England, has become wild in some parts of Europe. Add 
to these two the so-called " Water Thyme" {Elodea Canadensis)^ and we have all 
the conspicuous examples with which the writer is acquainted of the eastward migra- 
tion of American plants to Europe and their naturalization there The last named 
plant was first observed about 1847 in the northern and midland counties of Eng- 
land and the south of Scotland, in Yorkshire, Leicestershire and near Berwick and 
Edinburgh. 2 How it was introduced is not known. Thence it spread until in 
about ten years many of the slower streams were almost clogged with it, and the 
writer well recollects that it was then difficult to row on the upper and middle 
Thames in consequence of the accumulation of this weed. Fears were even enter- 
tained that it would form a serious impediment to inland navigation. But in a 
short time the evil diminished, and after a few years, though still present, the quan- 
tity in the rivers became insignificant, and no inconvenience is now caused by its 
presence. 

Such facts naturally suggest the question: Why are these things so.? What 
invisible door bars the passage of the American flora to Europe, but admits the free 
passage of the European flora to America? One reply will naturally occur. Seed 
is mainly brought from Europe to America, and thereby a favorable chance is 
afforded for introducing the seeds of European weeds. This is so ; and to this 
cause, doubtless, is due the immense number of introduced plants. But, if Euro- 
pean seed is largely brought to America, American crops go much more largely to 
Europe; and it would be absurd to suppose that any crop gathered from the half- 
cleared and weedy fields of this country could be sent thither without, at the same 
time sending in abundance the seeds of our native weeds. All the ill weeds that 



Bentham's " Handbook of the British Flora." 



2 Bid. 



1 1 2 Migration of Plants from Europe to America, { ^""rlCis^a'''"'' 

grow in Canada or the States must, ere now, have been many times exported to the 
mother country. Yet they do not appear. It may be replied that the greater pari 
of the corn crops are destined for the mill and not for the land, and that in this way 
their chances of propagation are largely diminished. Making all due allowance for 
this, should we not look for a rank crop of American weeds springing up around 
the mills from the cleanings and the waste ? Yet such is not the case. With all 
the millions of bushels, moreover, that go to England for feeding purposes, and are 
never ground, there is the same result. The weeds no more take root and run wild 
than do the wheat and maize among which they cross the Atlantic. And when, in 
addition to this, we consider that there has been for two centuries an organized and 
regular introduction of American wild plants into European botanic and flower 
gardens, might we not reasonably expect to see at least a few of them, or of others 
which must have accidentally accompanied them, spreading outside of the limits of 
these gardens, and becoming naturalized in Europe ? Yet nothing of the kind has 
occurred. Neither the rank and abundant Ragweed [Ambrosia)^ nor the widely dif- 
fused Golden Rods [Solidago]^ nor the Protean Asters {Aster), nor the wayside 
Pepper Grasses [Lepidium), nor the prolific Sumachs [Rhus), nor the clinging Burr- 
marigolds [Bidens), nor the ubiquitous and striking Milkweeds [Asclepias), have 
succeeded in naturalizing themselves in England. Even where a genus contains 
species on both sides of the Atlantic, as is the case with the Houndstongue [Cyno- 
glossum), we find that the English species — the common Houndstongue [C. njul- 
gare) — has migrated westward, and become so common near Montreal and almost 
everywhere in the Eastern and Midland States that Professor Gray can term it "a 
familiar and troublesome weed " j while at the same time, the common American 
species, or Beggar-lice Houndstongue (C. Morisont), which the same writer brands 
as "a common and vile weed, ' is completely unknown in England, 

Some may be inclined to urge that the comparatively cool English summer may 
not afford sufficient heat to perfect and ripen the seed, which the fiercer sun and 
continental climate of Eastern America can easily mature. This may account for 
the inability of some American species to sustain themselves in England, but it is 
evidently far from sufficient to solve the whole problem. Many of these plants can 
perpetuate themselves in the short, cool summer of New England and Lower Can- 
ada, and we might therefore reasonably expect, even if want of summer heat 
excluded them from England, that they would find a congenial climate somewhere 
in the warmer countries of Southern Europe. But not in England only, but through- 
out Europe, the absence of American species is remarkable. Difference of climate 
seems insufficient as the only or the chief factor in the solution of the problem, and 
we are compelled to look farther. 

Nor can it be urged as an objection that European weeds alone have come in. 
Without at present defining a weed, the reply is obvious that American weeds have 
not gained a foothold in Europe. It is not to be anticipated that large, conspicu- 
ous and slow-growing plants, such as forest trees, or highly developed and cultivated 
forms, such as garden- flowers, will often run wild. The former require too long a 
time to grow and propagate themselves, and are subject to too many dangers, while 
the latter are only maintained at their high standing by constant and careful culti- 



^""Fch^mT"' \ Migration of Plants from Europe to America, i t 3 

vation. It is only, therefore, among the smaller and more insignificant plants that 
the facts here detailed can be looked for, and accordingly of such our list altogether 
consists. It may be that the' forest trees of Europe, or some of them, will one day 
grow wild here. But the life of a tree is so long, and its growth so slow, that the 
experiment cannot be said to have been yet made. So far from planting and prop- 
agating European trees, men are bent in most parts of the country upon destroying 
their own. The present generation has not outgrown that insane hatred ot trees 
which possessed the past, and was perhaps an almost unavoidable result ot the seve- 
rity of their struggle with the primeval forest. Timber is still contemptuously 
termed "lumber." No respect is felt for it, and consequently no European tree, if 
trying to run wild, would stand much chance of life during the attempt. A high 
authority on forest trees in this country has informed the writer that in his experi- 
ence some European species have grown better than the American species ot the 
same genus— that the English beech and larch, for example, surpassed the native 
beech and the tamarack. Time alone can prove this point. 

The comparison, therefore, must be made, and can only be made justly, between 
the weeds of the two continents, or plants which come very near them and may be 
called almost weeds. By the term "weed" we mean those plants to which the sur- 
roundings are so suitable that they increase and multiply, year after year, more 
rapidly than others by which they are surrounded. Entering into details, the soil 
affords them the nourishment they need 5 the spring frosts do not kill them, or they 
bud and grow only when this danger is passed 5 they ripen their seed in quantity 
sufficient before the winter sets in 5 the heat of summer does not scorch them, nor 
the cold of winter destroy their roots or seeds 5 they are not so much injured by 
insects as to preclude their coming to maturity 5 while their flowers are sufficiently 
visited by insects to insure the fertilization ot their seeds, or else they spread so 
rapidly by underground stems as to render seed unnecessary. Granted all these 
conditions, and we have weeds of the first order, while the failure of any one or 
more of tliem may reduce such a weed to the position of a very har mless and com- 
paratively rare plant. In fact, the great abundance of a weed or wild flower in one 
year, and its scarcity in another, is often due to its lacking one or more of these 
requisites. Weeds are the homely plants of a country, using the word in its true and 
original sen^e. A plant that is perfectly comfortable in its surroundings, if possess- 
ing considerable power of reproduction, becom;;s master of the situation, and is a 
uueed. 

The weeds of different countries must therefore differ because their conditions 
differ. For the same reason the weeds of different ages must also differ. Climate 
changes as geological time passes by, and all plants are not able to adapt themselves 
to these changes. It is frequently the case that a man placed in new circumstances 
is quite unable to adjust himself to them. His nature is not sufficiently plastic. So 
with plants. A wide range in time or space, with changing conditions, can only be 
enjoyed by a plant whose nature is. plastic or capable of change. Place a weed of 
stiff or unyielding nature in less favorable conditions and it cannot adapt itself to 
them. It becomes unhealthy and lingers on, as it were, by sufferance among stronger 
neighbors — no longer a weed — or it speedily dies out. But a weed possessing a 



114 Migration of Plants from Europe to America. {^"'VebirisaJT'™' 

plastic nature — one capable of being moulded by and to its new surroundings — ere 
long adapts itself, if the change is not too great or sudden, to its new situation, takes 
out a new lease of life, and continues in the strictest sense a nxjeed. 

Is it not possible that some such cause as this may lie underneath the facts we 
detailed in the earlier part of this paper ? The true and full explanation of the 
transfer of European species to America should at the same time explain the absence 
of American species from Europe. But the partial causes already alluded to fail to 
do this. There is a residual elfect for which they do not account. May it not be 
true that the plants of the European flora possess more of this plasticity, are less 
unyielding in their constitution, can adapt themselves more readily to their surround- 
ings, and thus secure their continuance in the New World ? And may it not be the 
lack of this plasticity in the American flora which incapacitate? it for securing a 
foothold and obtaining a living in the different conditions of the Old World ? Under 
the care of the gardener they grow and embellish the gardens and conservatories of 
Europe, but without this care they speedily fail and die. 

To point out the physiological basis of this property of plasticity is at presenr 
and will probably long remain impossible. But that such a property exists in both 
the animal and vegetable kingdoms is beyond a question. It is the secret of that 
variation which so strongly marks some species, while its absence is the cause of 
that fixedness which characterizes others. It is the secret of that quick response 
wliich some plants make to a change of conditions, and whereby they gain fresh 
vitality at the cost, it may be, of some slight modification of structure. Its absence, 
on the contrary, causes that indifference or resistance which characterizes others, 
and which is almost always followed sooner or later by the extinction of the resist- 
ing species. 

Though, however, the indication of the exact physiological basis of this plasticity 
of constitution is as yet beyond our reach, it seems possible to point out one fact 
which not improbably has had some share in reducing the plasticity of the American 
flora. To approach a single short step nearer to the object of our quest, when that 
object is at present unattainable, is so much ground gained We are all familiar 
with the effects of habit upon ourselves. We all know how easy habitual actions 
become ; how strong is the tendency to perform them when the conditions recur 
under which they are usually performed, and how unwillingly we deviate from our 
daily course after following it for years. To this one fact — the power of habit — is 
due the uncomfortable, unsettled state of most men who make some great change 
in their outward surroundings late in life. Few who emigrate in old age ever become 
quite reconciled to their new home. The habits of many years have so moulded 
them in body and mind, and set them so firmly in their mould, that the plasticity 
they may have once possessed is gone, as bricks dried and burnt have lost the 
pliancy they possessed when in the form of clay. Of the physiological cause of 
this fact we know nothing, but the fact no one can doubt. Experience shows us 
that habit is no less powerful in plants than in animals. What a plant has been in 
the habit of doing that it will incline to do again. The physical organization of 
the plant, acted upon by the conditions that surround it, produces its habit. The 
longer these remain unchanged the longer do its habits continue, and the longer its 



^^'^FeCis^s^!"'"'"} Migration of Plants from Europe to America, i i 5 

habits continue the more firmly, we must infer, do they become ingrained in its 
physiological structure. Thus do habit and organization act and react on each 
other. Each may be changed, but all such changes are slow, and we may easily, in 
view of these facts, believe that after many years or ages of unchanged conditions a 
plant may become (as many an old man becomes) so firmly set in its habits, so rigid 
in its nature, as to resist modifying influences with all the energy it possesses, and 
rather die than change. This is what we mean by losing its plasticity. A plant 
accustomed in the climate of England to occupy two months in perfecting its seed 
may, if suddenly removed to another country, continue its former practice or it may 
not. In the former case, if the new climate does not afford the time required, the 
seed is not ripened and the species fails. If, however, the plant can adapt itself to 
the shorter season, and ripen its seed earlier, it may survive. But for this result a 
high degree of plasticity is needed. On the other hand, if the change of climate be 
made more slowly, the habits and organization of the plant may keep pace with it, 
and with even less plasticity than in the former case, the species may survive. 

We may advance at least one step farther. If these views on the relation of habit 
and organization to time be correct, have we not a possible, though at present a 
rude, gauge for both? If the strength of habit increases with time, may we not 
roughly measure that strength by the length of time during which the habit has 
prevailed? And further, if the plasticity of plant nature diminishes and its rigidity 
increases with the duration of a habit, may not this duration in like manner be 
employed to some extent as a gauge of rigidity; that is of want of plasticity? We 
stand here on new and difficult ground, and any deduction must be tested severely 
before reliance can be placed upon it. The confines of geology and botany, the 
place where the two sciences march together, is almost unknown territory over 
which science is just beginning to extend its conquests. The tracing of earth's 
existing flowers into her past, the genealogy of plants, is a subject closely connected 
with that other subject — the descent of species — which now so sorely divides the 
leaders in natural science. Nevertheless, we propose in the concluding portion of 
this paper to grope out into this unknown land where the light is so dim, and try to 
feel our way along the clue indicated above, in the hope of finding some link that 
may connect the apparently inconsistent facts we are attempting to reconcile — the 
abundant westward migration of plants from Europe, and their scanty eastward 
migration from America. 

Have we then, at the outset, any reason to believe that the North American flora 
possesses less plasticity than the European? Let us apply the gauge just mentioned 
and see the result — the gauge of time. We are in the habit of calling America the 
**New World." Botanically, and also, we may add, zoologically speaking, Amer- 
ica is the older and Europe the younger. Europe passed ages ago through the 
stages of plant life which America exhibits to-day. The trees and plants of Amer- 
ica, like most of her native animals, belong to old-fashioned, antiquated types — 
types that have passed away from European life and now lie entombed beneath its 
surface in he records of geology. If we turn for a moment and consult these 
buried registers of births and deaths, we find that in ages past the existing families 
of America were living in Europe. Name after name may be turned up, long 
struggle. Our country swarms with the weeds of Europe, while our own weeds 
shrink from the conflict both in Europe and at home.' 



1 16 Migration of Plants from Europe to America, {^"^'yT.^I^I^"^' 

unknown and long forgotten, where onc e it lived in the Eastern World, but faith- 
fully recorded in these volumes, and yet surviving through American relatives in the 
West The woods of Europe once contained trees identical with those now grow- 
ing in the forests of North America. The miocene formations of Switzerland have 
yielded to the labor of Prof. Heer, of Zurich, a rich harvest of fossil plants amount- 
ing to at least 900 species. The descriptions and illustrations of these may be found 
in his^great work on the " Tertiary Flora of Switzerland " (i855-''59). These tertiary- 
beds lie in the great valley between the Jura Mountains and the Alps, and bear the 
name of the Molasse. From other parts of Europe also, and from high northern 
regions, similar fossil remains have been brought to light, and our knowledge of the 
European tertiary flora, though still very fragmentary, is in a condition to admit of 
fair comparison with the existing floras of the world. 

Space will not allow a minute enumeration of examples j nor is it necessary for 
the purpose of establishing the assertion made above concerning the relationship of 
the living plants of America to the fossil tertiary plants of Europe. A few illus- 
trations of the better known forms will suffice. Among the relics obtained from 
the beds at Oeningen are the leaves of a maple tree with flowers and seed. Europe 
possesses several maples, but these fossils resemble none of them, while they can 
scarcely be distinguished from the common red maple {^Acer rubrum) of North 
America. Europe also possesses her Plane tree [Platanus orientalis), but the fossil 
plane of Oeningen is not identical with this. It much more closely resembles the 
Western Plane or Button-wood [P. occidentalis) of America. The Miocene Vine 
of Oeningen is of an American type, and very closely allied to the Muscadine or 
Southern Fox Grape of Maryland and Kentucky. A Fan Palm [Sabal major) has 
been found in the Swiss Miocene. It belongs to a genus now known only in 
America, and found in the Southern States. The genus Taxodium, to which 
belongs the beautiful Bald Cypress (T. distichu?n) of the Southern cedar swamps, 
was once represented in Europe by a species so like the American that its remains 
can be with difficulty distinguished. The Tulip Tree [Liriodendron tulipiferum) is 
the queen of the forest in the Middle States. It Europe it has passed away, but its 
remains are entombed in the Swiss Miocene. Another of these tertiary fossils — an 
elm-like tree — was at first only distinguished from the American Planer Tree 
[Planera aquatica) by Prof. Heer on account of the size of its fruit; but on seeing 
the specimens at Kew he admitted that no distinction could be drawn between them. 
The Giant Redwood [Sequoia gigantea) lingers in California, dependent upon the 
protection of man to save it from extinction. Though now replanted and flourish- 
ing in European shrubberies, it passed away from that continent ages before the 
woodman's axe or the more murderous forest fire had begun to destroy. Of some- 
what more recent date, but yet fossil, is the European Sweet Gum Tree [Liquid- 
amhar Europaum)^ a species closely allied to the Sweet Gum of the Eastern and 
Middle States of America (Z. styracijiuum), but the genus is now totally unknown 
in Europe. Again, the Black Walnut of America [Juglans nigra) lies buried in 
the Miocene beds at Oeningen, and Europe has imported the far superior walnut 
from Persia to supply its place. The writer has been informed that the late Prof. 
Agassiz, on his arrival in this country, applied to a gentleman well known for his 



^""FeCisso.^"^"*} ^^gr^iion of Plants from Europe to America. 1 17 

^tudy of the American forest trees, and asked for an introduction to the Hickory 
family of America, remarking that all the members with which he was acquainted 
in Europe were fossil in the tertiary beds of his native land. Lastly, no fewer than 
-eight species of smilax, a genus scarcely known in Europe, but abundant in Amer- 
ica, have been found in the Miocene of Switzerland. 

We may here remark in passing, that anyone desiring to see for himself the close 
resemblance between the European fossils and their living American representatives 
•can do so by paying a visit to the Agassiz Museum at Cambridge, where, in one of 
the upper galleries, may be seen a collection which has no equal or second on this 
side of the Atlantic. 

It is just necessary here, in or/ier to avoid leaving a flaw in the argument, to state 
that many of these species have been discovered in beds of equal or greater age in 
this country. It is therefore impossible to urge that they may have passed from 
Europe to America so lately that changes have not 5'et had time to develop them- 
selves. On the contrary, some geologists are inclined to maintain that they existed 
in America before they appeared in Europe. At all events, we are warranted in 
asserting that during the Miocene age trees of the kinds named grew in Europe and 
America, as well as in Greenland and Spitzbergen and other points in the far Ncjrth. 

We do not propose here to investigate the causes of these changes. It is suffi- 
cient for our purpose to maintain the fact, that during tertiary geological times the 
European flora has changed, and largely changed, while the American flora has 
remained stationary, or nearly so. Plants which have changed in this interval thereby 
•show an ability to change — a plasticity — which may be shown again should occa- 
sion arise. Plants which have not changed during the same interval show no proof 
of possessing the same plasticity. Moreover, if the principle is true that long 
•existence without change strengthens the habits or increases the rigidity of the 
species, it is a necessary inference that the American flora, or so much of it as has 
€xisted during this long interval unchanged, must be less plastic than the present 
European flora, which has, during the same interval, been so largely modified. So 
many ages of persistence in type cannot well be without eff'cct. Little as we yet 
know of geological time, we cannot estimate the age of the Swiss fossil plants at 
less than 500,000 years, and it may well be twice as much. This would place the 
European flora just as far later or newer in age and in development than the Amer- 
ican — would give it the advantage of so many years of slow change — and may be 
supposed, in some degree, to have maintained or developed that plasticity to the 
possession of which we incline to attribute its ascendency over the native American 
flora. On the other hand, the native American flora, living unchanged through all 
these 500,000 years, may well have lost some of the plasticity it perhaps once pos- 
sessed, and have become comparatively rigid, so that it is to that extent unable to 
adapt itself suddenly to the changed condition of Europe at present. It cannot 
therefore compete with the more plastic and more highly-developed forms which it 
meets in the Eastern World; nor can it, in all cases, even hold its own against them 
on a soil and in a climate where it has dwelt for so many ages unmolested. The 
younger plant-life of Euope, like the white man, is more than a match for the old- 
fashioned life of this so-called New World of America, and the weaker fails in the 



ii8 



Varieties, 



{Am. Jour. Pharm^ 
Feb., 1880. 



Summing up the argument, in conclusion, we have pointed out : 

1. That many of the weeds of Europe have migrated to America. 

2. That many of these have become so thoroughly naturalized here that they pre- 
vail over some of the plants native to the soil. 

3. That only two or three American weeds have crossed the Atlantic and become 
naturalized in England. 

4. That the difference of climate and the conditions of mutual commerce do not 
fully account for this marked difference in the migrative power of the two floras. 

5. That in the Miocene era the European and American floras were very much 
alike. 

6. That since that era the European flora has been vastly altered, while the 
American flora still retains a Mipcene aspect, and is therefore the older of the two. 

7. That this long persistence of type in the American flora may have induced, by 
habit, a rigidity or indisposition to change in the American flora. 

8. That the changes in the European flora since the Miocene era betray a plas- 
ticity of nature, or power of adapting itself to circumstances of which the Amer- 
ican flora gives no sign. 

9. That in this view the European flora is better able to adapt itself to the strange 
climate and conditions — that is, to emigrate — than the American flora. 

10. That being thus more plastic or adaptable it succeeds in the New World,, 
while the less adaptable American flora fails in the Old World. 

The writer wishes to add that in the above paper he has brought forward chiefly 
the instances of migration from England to America and 'vice ^ersa. A few other 
American plants might be found naturalized in other parts of Europe on closer 
examination, but the list, at best, would be exceedingly scanty.' — Pharm. Journ. and' 
Trans. y Nov. 22, 1879. 



VARIETIES. 



Fucus Vesiculosus (Anti-Fat). — Now that this remedy is so universally used 
for the reduction of obesity, it may interest the profession to recall to mind another 
use found for it in 1826. 

Laennec having observed that on the coast of Brittany, where the air is more 
humid, but at the same time milder and more equable than in the interior of France, 
the number of phthisical patients was comparatively small, and having also seen 
that young men from Brittany became consumptive during their sojourn in large 
cities, and recovered on returning to their native province, came to the conclusion, 
that the peculiar atmosphere of the sea coast had something to do in these results. 

He, therefore, tried to imitate it, in some measure, by placing near the beds of 
the patients certain fresh marine plants. He brought together, into two small wards, 
a number of phthisical patients, and surrounded their beds with the fucus 'vesiculosus^ 

Rudbeckia laciniata has established itself in many parts of Central Europe. — See "Amer. Jour. 
Phar.," 1872, p 107- — Editor. 



^m. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1880. 



Varieties, 



causing them to drink also an infusion of the same plant. None appeared to suffer 
from this mode of treatment, as long as the fresh fucus could be procured. 

The cough became less frequent, the breathing less confined, the expectorition 
less in quantity. In the greater number the hectic fever ceased, and the progress of 
emaciation woas arrested. 

In 1826 the fucus caused fattening and arrest of emaciation 5 now it produces 
emaciation, or rather it reduces bulk, according to testimony of many writers, who 
perhaps do not take into account the diet they adopt, or the hygiene they follow, as 
being a more important factor in the matter. 

We do not hear now of fucus in consumption. In fifty-three years' time shall we 
hear of Anti-Fat? — Med. Press and Circ.j Dublin. 



Helianthus annuus. — An infusion of the stem of the sunflower has been success- 
fully used as a remedy for intermittent fever for three years by P. Filatow. The 
fresh or dried stems are cut into small pieces and macerated with 8 parts of whisky 
for three or four days. This tincture is administered in the dose of a tablespoonful 
three times daily for adults. The author claims to have derived almost fully as 
satisfactory results from the use of this exceedingly cheap preparation as from the 
very expensive quinia. — Pharm. Ztschr. f RussL, 1879, P- ^^'^i from St. P. Med. 
Wochenschr. 



Preparations of Thymol. — Thymol answers admirably well for antiseptic washes 
in the proportion of i part to 20 parts of glj-cerin and 100 parts water 5 the mixture 
does not injure surgical instruments, and is an excellent substitute for carbolic acid, 
being more efficacious without possessing such an unpleasant odor. 

Thymol glycerole consists of i part thymol and 100 parts starch glycerols 
Thymol lotion is a solution of i part thymol in 4 parts of alcohol 
Thymol sal've consists of from i to 4 parts of thymol and 100 parts of lard. 
— Pharm. Centralh , 1879, P- 4^8, from Ztsch. d. Allg.., Oest. Ap. Ver. 



Transparent glycerin soap is made by melting together 500 grams of tallow, 500 
Ceylon cocoa oil, 250 castor oil, 50 palm oil and 500 glycerin, and, when the mix- 
ture reaches 70 to 75°C., adding gradually 650 of soda lye (spec. grav. 1-385), stir- 
ring constantly j as soon as saponification is completed, which is usually the case at 
the expiration of a few minutes, the mass is removed from the fire, 600 grams of 96 
per cent, alcohol are added, and the mixture is stirred until it is clear and until it 
will congeal on a spatula, when a solution of 100 grams of sugar in 50 of water is 
added, the mixture is perfumed and poured into moulds. — Pharm. Ztg.^ 1879, P- 7^9 



Removal of Silver-Nitrate Stains. — Instead of potassium cyanide. Dr. H. 
Kaetzer uses a solution of 10 gzams ammonium chloride and 10 grams corrosive 
sublimate in 100 grams distilled water, which must be kept in glass-stoppered bot- 
tles. It will readily remove the stains from the skin, linen, wool and cotton, without 
injuring the fabric— PZ'^r;^. Ztg., Dec. 10, 1879, P- 7^7, fr. Neueste Erf u. Erfahr. 



I 20 Sixth Decennial P harmacopceia Convention. { '""pib.yissor"^ 

New Cement for Filling Teeth.— It consists of the pyrophoNphates of calcium 
and barium, with that of zinc or magnesium, and is made by Rostagni by fusing 
together in a crucible calcium phosphate and zinc phosphate, pouring out the mass, 
powdering, dissolving in dilute phosphoric acid and evaporating to a syrupy con- 
sistence. The liquid is mixed with a powder prepared by triturating 3 kilograms 
zinc oxide with from 5 to 50 grams boracic acid and a little water; the mass is dried, 
heated to redness for a few hours, and, after cooling, is powdered. For use the pow- 
der is formed into a paste with water. — Pharm. Ztschr.f. Russl , Nov. 13, 1879, p. 
693, fr. Dingl. Journ, 



A white tooth powder, which turns red when moistened, is made by reducing to a 
fine powder cochineal, 15 grains, and alum, \ drachm, and mixing with powdered, 
orris root, i ounce; cream of tartar, jo drachms; carbonate of magnesium, 
drachm ; powdered cuttle-fish bone, 5 drachms, and oil of rose, 5 drops. — Pharm, 
Ztschr.f. Russl. , from Ztschr.d. Oest. Ap. Ver. 



Anilin Inks. — Dr. Siemens publishes the formulas : 

Red. — Dissolve i part diamond fuchsin, soluble in water, in 150 or 200 parts hot 
water. 

Blue.-^i part "bleu de nuit" (bleu de Paris) to 200 or 250 parts hot water. 
Violet. — I part blueish-violet analin in 200 parts water. 

Green. — Dissolve i part iodine green in 100 or 110 parts hot water; it writes 
bhiish-greeii. If a yellowish-green lustre is desired, a little picric acid is added. 

Telloiv. — (Anilin is not advisable.) i part picric acid in 120 or 140 parts water. 

Black — t part nigrosin, soluble in water, is dissolved in 80 pnrts water. 

These anilin inks are very bright, never precipitate tiie coloring matter, flow 
readily, dry quickly, do not mould, and can be readily liquefied again when dried 
up. They should not be made too concentrated, should not be used with a new 
pen, and require dilution with water in case the writing has a coppery lustre. If an 
addition of gum is desired, which is generally not necessary, i part dextrin may be 
added to 100 parts of ink, but never gum arabic. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Dec. 3, 1879. 



SIXTH DECENNIAL PHARMACOPCEIA CONVENTION. 

By virtue of authority devolved upon me as the last surviving officer of the Phar- 
macopatia Convention of 1870, I again call the attention of "the several incorpo- 
rated State medical societies, the incorporated medical colleges, the incorporated 
colleges of physicians and surgeons and the incorporated colleges of pharmacy 
throughout the United States," to the importance of appointing delegates to the 
sixth decennial pharmacopoeia convention, and of sending the names and residences 
of the same to me for publication. The convention meets on the first Wednesday 
in May, 1880, and I am required "to publish the names and residences of the dele- 
gates, for the information of the medical public, previous to its meeting." 



'^'"'Feb!ri88o^"" } Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 1 2 1 



I have received so far the names and residences of the following delegates : 

From the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, Boston : Prof. G. F. H. Markoe, 
Ph.G. ; Samuel A. D. Sheppard, Ph.G. ; Thomas Doliber, Ph.G. 

From the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy: Prof. John M. Maisch, Alfred B. 
Taylor, Prof. Jos. P. Remington. 

From the Louisville College of Pharmacy : Prof. Emil Scheffer, Prof. C. Lewis 
Diehl, E. Vincent Davis. 

From the Maryland College of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Md. : Delegates — Wm. S 
Thompson, Louis Dohme, Jos. Roberts. Alternates — Charles Caspari, Jr , Dr. John 
F. Moore, Dr. Robert Lautenbach. 

From the Medical Society of the District of Columbia : Prof. D. W. Prentiss, 
M.D. 5 Prof, Thomas Antisell, M.D. 5 Emeritus Prof. James E. Morgan, M.D. 

From the National Medical College of Colwrnbla University, Washington, D.C. : 
Prof. W. W. Johnston, M.D. 5 Prof. D. W. Prentiss, M.D. 

From the Medical Department of the University of Georgetown, D. C. : Prof. 
W. H. Ross, M.D.; Prof. C. H. A. Kleinschmidt, M D. 

From the National College of Pharmacy, Washington, D. C : Mr.W. S. Thomp- 
son, Prof. Oscar Oldberg, Mr. R. B. Ferguson. 

(Signed,) James E. Morgan, M.D,, 

905 E Street, N. W , Washington, D. C. 

Washington^ D. 6\, January 28, 1880, 



MINUTES OF THE PHAI[MAGEUTICAL MEETING. 



Philadelphia, January 20th, 1879. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, Dillwyn Parrish ; the minutes 
of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Registrar presented five bound volumes of the " American Journal of Phar- 
macy," on behalf of our fellow member Mr. S. S. Bunting, and three volumes of 
the " New York Journal of Pharmacy," published in the years 1851-52-53, were 
also donated to the library by the Registrar. In this connection the Registrar 
requested those members having any of the older volumes of our ** Journal" which 
they were willing to donate to the library to inform him, so that he could send for 
them, as we now only required eight volumes to complete the entire series. 

Mr. Robert Shoemaker read a paper entitled the apprentice of fifty years ago (see 
page 65). The reading elicited remarks from several present, citing instances of 
similar character to those noted by the writer. Mr. Thompson said that the paper 
gave the younger portion of our trade a clear apprehension of the great advantages 
they possess over the learners of olden times. On motion the paper was referred to 
the Publishing Committee. 

A paper upon the oxidation of iron hy nitric acid (see page 74) was read by 
Mr. F. L. Slocum, a member of the present class. The paper was well received 
and referred to the Publishing Committee. 



122 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { ^%lb"'i8^o^''"'* 

Professor Sadtler exhibited specimens of ozokerite from Austria, both crude and 
bleached, also of paraffin residuums that were obtained in the refining of petroleum. 
He suggested that these residuums should be used in the preparation of a basis for 
ointments, similar to cosmoline and vaselin. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper by Mr* L. Lyons, a member of the present class, upon 
bromide of zinc and the syrup of that salt (see page 75). This paper was accom- 
panied with specimens of the products obtained, and of mixtures of the syrup with 
various tinctures, medicated waters and syraps. The paper was referred to the 
Publishing Committee. 

Mr. E. T. Ellis exhibited specimens of spherical soluble gelatin- coated pills, the 
coating of which was perfectly transparent. 

A. paper by Mr. J. U Lloyd, of Cincinnati, upon the coloring matter of Frasera 
Waiteri or American Colombo (see page 71) was read by Prof. Maisch, who 
remarked that he believed the crystals obtained by Mr. Lloyd to be identical with 
gentisin or, as it is also called, gentisic acid. This paper was also referred to the 
Publishing Committee. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper upon some American species of Artemisia (see page 
69), and presented for the Cabinet a specimen of Artemisia dracunculoides, from 
Arkansas. This paper was referred to the Publishing Committee. 

An inquiry for a formula for compound tincture of ipecacuanha, or fluid Dover's 
powder, was answered by the following formula, taken from Dr. Squibb's list of 
preparations : 

"Compound Tincture of Ipecacuanha, or a fluid form of 'Dover's 
Powder.' — Some years ago it was suggested that a mixture of Compound Solution 
of Opium, or of Deodorized Tincture of Opium, with Fluid Extract of Ipecacu- 
anha, in proppr officinal proportions, would form a good and convenient substitute 
for the Compound Powder of Ipecacuanha or Dover's Powder. It is prepared by 
concentrating the Deodorized Tincture of Opium on a water-bath, replacing the 
proportion of Alcohol lost, and mixing with this the Fluid Extract of Ipecacuanha 
in such proportion that each ten minims of the mixture represents one grain of 
Opium and one grain of Ipecacuanha 5 or, so that the mixture represents Dover's 
Powder in the proportion of minim for grain." 

An inquiry for a formula for an elixir of lacto-peptin was made, and a specimen 
of it, with the formula by which it may be jirepared, was promised by Dr„ 
Mattison. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Alumni Association, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The fourth social 
meeting of the session was held January 8, Mr. L, E. Sayre in the chair and Dr. 
Mattison acting as secretary. The pulverization of camphor by means of sublima- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Feb., 1880. j 



Editorial. 



tion was discussed ; some remarks were made on description of drugs, and the 
nature of homoeopathic preparations and medicines was alluded to. A preparation 
for disguising the taste of quinia, made by Mr. Pennypacker, was exhibited. It con- 
sists of equal parts of fluid extract of taraxacum, fluid extract of liquorice-root, 
and simple elixir. 



Boston Druggists' Association. — At the annual meeting, held January 27, the 
following officers were elected : President, Joseph Burnett ; Vice Presidents — A. 
Sigourney Bird, Thomas Doliberj Secretary, Henry Canning; Treasurer, Charles 
C. Goodwin. Executive Committee — E. Waldo Cutler, G. F H. Markoe, J. S. 
Melvin, E. H. Doolittle, J. S. Orne, I. B. Patten, A. G. Weeks. Committee on 
Membership— Solomon Carter, D. G. Wilkins, R. R. Kent, A. R. Bayley, B. O. 
Wilson. 

The preparation of a pharmacy law and its presentation to the legislature for 
adoption was discussed at some length, and then referred to the Executive Committee. 

At 5 o'clock the members and invited guests sat down to their fifth annual din- 
ner, and after justice was done to thtmenu provided by Parker's, speeches were made 
by many of those present. 



Pharmaceutical Association of Iowa. — A call, signed by a large number of 
pharmacists and druggists of Iowa, has been issued by Messrs. Geo. H. Schafer & 
Co., of Fort Madison. The convention will meet in the Academy of Music in the 
city of Des Moines, February 10 and 11, with the view of organizing a State 
Pharmaceutical Association. A bill for the regulation of the practice of pharmacy 
has been introduced into the House of Representatives, and it is expected that after 
the same shall have been discussed by the convention it will be passed by the legis- 
lature. We wish the proposed Association good success. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



••The Relation of Drug Manufacturers to the Progress of Therapeutics'" 
is the title of a lengthy paper which was read before a medical society in Boston, 
by Dr. Robert T. Edes, professor of materia medica in Harvard University, and pub- 
lished in the "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal " of January 15th. The paper 
seems to be aimed on the one hand against the introduction of new remedies with- 
out careful chemical and physiological study, and on the other hand against the 
multiplication of compound medicines, frequently containing ingredients which no 
intelligent physician would prescribe together, or which may suit a particular case 
without being adapted to general application. Dr. Edes says ; When the phar- 
macist informs us of active principles, or gives us preparations honestly representing 
a drug, he docs good service , but when he tells us why they act or when they should 



EditoriaL — Reviews, etc. 



\.m Tour. Pharnu 
Feb., 1880 



1)6 used he is going beyond his province." This is quite correct ; but we wish to 
remind Dr. Edes that the aim and the practice of the various pharmaceutical col- 
leges and associations is, in part, exactly that which he points out in the first part of 
the sentence quoted, while the condition depicted in the latter half has been brought 
about, not by the hoodwinking of the pharmaceutical profession, but through the 
easy-gosng credulity of the medical profession and press. Medical journals fre- 
quently extol preparations of the composition and mode of manufacture of which 
neither the writers of such articles nor the editors of the journals can have the 
remotest idea. The dispensing pharmacist is compelled to procure what the physi- 
cian orders, even though, as Dr. Bolles stated before the society, he may have 
three or four good manufactures of extract of malt on his shelves, and be obliged to 
get a fifth kind, " because it is put up in such pretty bottles." 

The physician creates the demand, and, in very many cases, the pharmacist can- 
not supply it, but has to fall back upon the manufacturers. Of course it is to the 
iatter's interest — and this is perfectly legitimate — to respond to the demand, and, if 
possible, to increase it. We do not blame them, as long as they can find credulous 
doctors to prescribe their inventions, to get up new ones whenever a bright idea, 
with the probability of money in it, dawns upon them 5 but we do not regard this 
as legitimate pharmacy, even though such preparations be endorsed or prescribed by 
professors in medical colleges. 

Dr. Bolles was correct in stating that physicians were more to be censured in this 
matter than the manufacturers or their agents — and most decidedly more than the 
pharmacist, who has to gratify such whims, not unfrequently to his loss Let the 
physician confine himself as much as possible to pharmacopoeial preparations, and 
let him, as Dr. Bolles suggested, '* hold the pharmacist personally responsible for 
the quality of their medicines, not directing them to get this or that manufacturer's 
ordinary preparations, nor allowing them to shield themselves behind the names of 
any wholesale makers, however famous " Not until then will the evil of which Dr. 
Edes complains be eradicated. 

There are other points in Dr. Edes' paper to which fairly objection may be taken. 
We do not believe that, after due consideration, he would rejterate that morphia 
and atropia were all that is essential in thirty-two officinal preparations. And in 
regard to recognition by the pharmacopoeia, we believe that his own admission, with 
regard to iron preparations, will reconcile him with the coming pharmacopoeia, the 
scope of which will probably be extended rather than abridged. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Pharmacographia — A history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with 
in Great Britain and British India. By Friedrich A. Fliickiger, Phil. Dr., Pro- 
fessor in the University of Strassburg, and.Daniel Hanbury, F.R.S., Fellow of the 
Linnean and Chemical Societies of London. Second edition. London . Mac- 
Millan & Co. (22 Bond street. New York), 1879. ^^o-j PP- ^^l- Price, $5. 
We take great pleasure in calling the attention of our readers to the appearance 



Am. Jour. Pharm } 
Feb., 1880. J 



Reviews, etc. 



125 



of the second edition of this work, which contains such a mine of information on 
the drugs used in Great Britain and in India. In scope and arrangement the work 
is identical with the first edition, which was described in this journal^ 1874, p. 589. 
In the present edition jaborandi leaves (Folia pilocarpi) are introduced, and a separate 
article is devoted to gallae chinenses seu japonicae, which formerly were treated under 
gallas halepenses. Numerous botanical synonyms are given and many additions 
have been made, more particularly to the historical and chemical notes relating to 
the different drugs, so as to bring the information up to our present knowledge. A 
very acceptable addition is found in the appendix, which contains short biographic 
and bibliographic notes, relating to (ancient) authors and books quoted in the 
body of the work. As a source for trustworthy information, on the most important 
drugs, Pharmacographia will always be of the highest value, and no library on 
materia medica can be considered complete without it. It is proper to state that, 
though deprived of the assistance of Daniel Hanbury through his death nearly five 
years ago. Professor Fliickiger has secured much valuable information from gentle- 
men named in the preface. 



The Yearbook of Pharmacy : Comprising Abstracts of Papers relating to Pharmacy^ 
Materia Medica and Chemistry, contributed to British and foreign journals from 
July I, 1878, to June 30, 1 879 j with the Transactions of the British Pharmaceuti- 
cal Conference at the sixteenth annual meeting, held at Sheffield, August, 1879. 
London : J. & A. Churchill, 1879. 8vo, pp. 567. 

This annual publication reports with accustomed accuracy on the investigations 
of interest to pharmacists published during the period indicated. Nearly one-half 
of the book contains the transactions, list of members, etc., of the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference. In our October number we have published an account of the 
last meeting, at which twenty-one papers were read, and of these several have been 
transferred to our columns. 



Jahresher'icht uher die Fortschritte der Pharmacognosies Pharmacie und T oxicologie. 
Von Prof. Dr. G. Dragendorff. Neue Folge. 13. Jahrgang, 1878. Gottingen : 
Vandenhoek & Ruprecht's Verlag. 1S79. 8vo, pp 656. 

Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy and Toxicology for 
the Year 1878 

This publication is replete with information. Like the preceding volumes, it is a 
full record of the investigations and observations in pharmacy and the collateral 
sciences, which have been published during the year 1878. As heretofore, it con- 
tains also a list of new publications (376), in different languages. 

It will be of interest to many of our readers that the publishers have reduced (he 
price of the first ten volumes of the present series to 45 marks, which is less than 
one-half the publishing price. 



Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Nenv Jersey Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion. Camden, 1879. 8vo, pp. 64. 



126 



Reviews^ etc. 



(Am Jour. Pharm 
t Feb., 1880. 



A report of the meeting, which was held at Princeton, May 21 and 22, will be 
found in our July number. The pamphlet contains, in addition to the minutes, the 
papers read, and an interesting and instructive report on pharmaceutical legislation 
in New Jersey. 



Proceedings of the Ohio State Pharmaceutical Association at its first meeting, held in 
Columbus, September 2d, 1879. Cleveland, 1879. ^^o, pp. 16. 

An account of the organization of this society will be found in our October 
number. 



Proceedings of the Western Wholesale Drug Association^ in convention at Milwaukee, 
Nov. 13th and 14th, 1879. Paul: John J Lemon. 8vo, pp. 48. 

The objects of the association are to create a permanent social feeling between 
the wholesale druggists, to obliterate the feeling of jealousy and distrust that seems 
to exist, to correct excessive and unmercantile competition, to remove by concert of 
action all evils and customs against good policy and sound business principles, and 
to establish rules and regulations, that all differences and grievances may be fairly 
and equitably adjusted. 

The officers for the current year arc : President, Dr. H. H. Button, Milwaukee. 
Vice-Presidents — J C. Richardson, St. Louis j W. A. Robinson, Louisville; S. A. 
Toiman, Chicago ; Geo. A. Kelly, Pittsburgh. Treasurer, S. M. Strong, Cleve- 
land Secretary, D. R. Noyes, St. Paul. 



"The Chemists'' and Druggists'" Diary. 1880. London. 4to. 
This issue is accompanied by a map of the city of London. 



l^he Physician's Hand-book for 1880. By William Elmer, M.D., and Albert D. 
Elmer, M.D. New York: W. A. Townsend, Publisher. i6mo, pp. 314. Price, 
^1.75. 

The first 134 pages are printed matter, giving brief information on diseases, poi- 
sons, properties of remedies, etc.; the remaining portion is prepared so as to be 
conveniently used by the physician for recording his professional engagements, for 
which purpose it appears to be well adapted. It is suitably bound in morocco with 
tucks, and may be conveniently carried in the pocket. 



Ueber die Wirkung einiger Antiseptica und ^er^andter Stoffe auf Hefe. Inaugural- 
Dissertation von Woldemar Werncke, Dorpat, 1879. ^^o, pp. 99. 
On the action of certain antiseptics and allied bodies upon yeast. 

A large number of experiments were made with a liquid containing i gram of 
compressed yeast (dry residue ='246 gram) in 10 cc. of water, and its efficacy was 
proven to be fully equal to fresh surface yeast with an equal weight of dry residue. 
It was found that the following compounds completely destroyed the efficacy of the 
yeast liquid when used in the proportions indicated. Corrosive sublimate i : 42*800, 



^"^-fck'^ssT""'} Reviews, etc. — Obituary, 127 

volatile oil of mustard i : 6300, thymol i : 3100, sodium hydrate i : 1050, salicylic 
acid I : 1000, oil of cinnamon i : 1000, xylol i : 800, benzoic acid i : 680, creasot 
I : 500, cresylic acid i : 460, crystallized carbolic acid i : 150, sulphuric acid i : 55, 
borax I : 50, glycerin i : 5. Altogether 47 different substances were experimented 
with, of which the least effectual, commencing with the weakest, were : saltpetre, 
zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, boric acid, petroleum, sodium benzoate, quinia 
hydrochlorate, sodium salicylate and tannin. 



The reception of the following reprints and reports is acknowledged: 

Sketch of Heinrich Wilhelm Do^e. By Frederick Hoffmann. With portrait. From 
the " Popular Science Monthly," December, 1879. 

Reduction du Chlorure d'' Argent (Reduction of Chloride of Silver). By Dr. D, Tom- 
masi. From "Journ. de Phar. et de Chlmie." 

Recherches sur la Constitution des Hydrates Ferriques (Researches on the Constitution 
of the Ferric Hydrates). By Dr. D. Tommasi. From "Revue hebdom. des 
Sciences." 

Notes on Hospital and Prinjate Practice. By Henry Gibbons, Sr., M.D. Read before 
the California State Medical Society. 

Some Important Topical Remedies and their use in the Treatment oj Skin Diseases. By 
John V. Shoemaker, A.M , M.D. Read before the Medical Society of the State 
of Pennsylvania. 

Neurasthenia [Ner<ve- exhaustion) nvith Remarks on Treatment. By Geo. M. Beard, 
A.M., M.D. From " St. Louis Med. and Surg. Jour. " 

Morbid Fear as a Symptom of Nervous Disease. By G. M. Beard, M.D. Read 
before the American Neurological Association. 

OesophagismuSyHJoith Remarks on the Subject. By J. J. Henna, M.D. From the 
"Hospital Gazette," Oct. 18, 1879. 

Proceedings of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic 
and Feeble-minded Persons. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. 8vo, pp. 108. 

This pamphlet contains the proceedings of the meetings held at Syracuse, N. Y., 
June, 1878, and at Lincoln, 111., May, 1879. 

Report of the Committee on Public Health Relati've to Lunatic Asylums. Albany : C. 
Van Benthuysen & Sons. 8vo, pp. 51. 
Presented to the legislature of the State of New York. 



OBITUARY. 



Charles Howard Dingee was one of three graduates of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy of the class of 1826 — the first upon whom the diploma of the College* 
was conferred. His associate graduates were Charles McCormick and William 
Sharp. 

Mr. Dingee was born in the city of Philadelphia, May 22d, 1805. His early 
education was at a Friends' school on Pine street, near Second street. He after- 



128 



Obituary. 



{\xa.. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1880 



wards went to the school of Dr. Wiley, at Eleventh and Market streets, then known 
as the Latin school. At this school he received hon'ors for proficiency in his studies. 

After leaving this school he entered the store of Daniel B. Smith, as an apprentice 
to the drug and apothecary business. After graduating at the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy he entered into business with his brother, John Henry Dingee (also a 
graduate of this College), on Second street, near South street. On account of the 
impaired health of Mr. John H. Dingee, the partnership was dissolved, and Charles 
went into the employ of Nicholas Lennig, where he remained until he again formed 
a partnership with his brother, and opened a store at No. 145 South Front street^ 
under the firm name of Dingee & Brother, for the purpose of conducting a drug 
commission business. After some years the partnership was again dissolved, and 
the business conducted by C. H. Dingee, retaining the old name of Dingee & 
Brother. The failure of his sight obliged him to withdraw from active business 
pursuits 5 he, however, retained a loom in the building where his business had been 
conducted, and here he spent much of his time. 

The father of Mr. Dingee died when Charles was about two years old, and his 
early care devolved upon his mother and his uncle, John Henry Fenner. From these 
worthy guardians he received the careful religious training which made him in after 
life a man of integrity, respected by all his business associates and friends. 

He married early in life, but never had any childien. He survived his wife several 
years. 

Mr. Dingee died from paralysis at the house of his nephew, 1006 Clinton street, 
on the 30th of December, 1879, in the 75th year of his age His funeral was 
attended by the officers of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



J. B. Alphonse Chevallier, honorary professor of the superior school of phar- 
macy at Paris, died there November 30, in the 87th year of his age. The deceased 
was for many years professor at the Paris school of pharmacy and a member of the 
Academy of Medicine and of the Board of Health. He was the author of numer- 
ous essays on pharmaceutical subjects, of which many will be found in the earlier 
volumes of this journal. In connection with A. Richard he published a dictionary 
of drugs, and, together with A. Payen, a work on chemical analysis. His most 
important work is a dictionary of falsifications of alimentary and medicinal substances. 
The deceased was, among others, an honorary member of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association and of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



J. M. Boutron-Charlard, formerly a prominent pharmacist of Paris, died 
recently in that city at the age of 83 years. He retired from active business in 1834. 
but continued his scientific researches, many of which were made conjointly with 
Robiquet, Pelouze, Fremy and others. He was a member of the Academy of Medi- 
cine since 1824, was president of the Pharmaceutical Society of Paris in 1843, and 
since 1835 "^as one of the editors of the "Journal de Pharmacle et de Chimie," in 
which most of his scientific investigations were published. Several of his essays 
have been republished in the earlier volumes of this journaU 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MARCH, 1880. 

NOTE ON THE FRUIT OF ADANSONIA DIGITATA. 

By F. L. Slocum. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting February 17. 

A short notice of the so-called ''cream of tartar fruit" is contained 
in the "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1877, P- ^54, and it is there stated to 
be probably distinct from the fruit of the baobab, Adansonia digitata. 
Opportunity was afforded by Prof. Maisch to examine some of the pulp 
covering the seeds of the latter. When examined under the micro- 
scope, the dry pulp is seen to be destitute of crystalline structure. It 
readily falls to a yellowish-white powder, and has a pleasant acidulous 
taste. The pulp of the cream of tartar fruit is of a darker color and 
more acid taste. The pulp is soluble in hot or cold water, and the 
solution has an acid reaction. 

Examined for bases, potassium was found, and probably traces of 
calcium and phosphates, the two latter requiring confirmation, which, 
for want of time, had to be postponed for the present. 

The examination for acids resulted in proving the presence of malic 
acid only, combined as an acid malate of potassium. 

The aqueous solution, agitated with six volumes of strong alcohol, 
gives a copious precipitate of pectin^ which forms the largest part of 
the pulp. The pectin, when dissolved in strong hot hydrochloric acid, 
yields a bright Magenta-colored solution. 

Distilling the aqueous solution with water, ether and alcohol, gave 
no volatile compounds. 

The concentrated aqueous solution left in the still had, in each case, 
a dark brown color, and deposited a white amorphous powder. On 
agitating this residue with ether, it was dissolved; on evaporation of the 
ether, it either separates as white, silky needles, or as a white amorphous 
mass. 

After the removal of pectin and after the evaporation of the alco- 
hol, the remaining solution yields, with alkaline solution of copper, 

9 



ijo Extractum Giycyrrhiz^ Liquidum. { ^'"•mIT"x^8o"'"'" 

a very copious precipitate of cuprous oxide, showing a large percentage 
of grape sugar. No traces of tartaric acid were found. 

Summing up the constituents, we have pectin, grape sugar, malic 
acid and potassium as acid potassium malate, a crystalline principle not 
further investigated, and probably traces of calcium and of phosphates. 



EXTRACTUM GLYCYRRHIZiE LIQUIDUM, 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy: 

I take this opportunity to bring before you the following method of 
preparing the German succus liquiritiae depuratus, often perscribed in 
this country. I call it liquid extract to distinguish it from the fluid 
extract of the root. The process is as follows: 

Placing alternate layers of the commercial extract of licorice, in 
unbroken sticks, and clean straw into a sufficiently large percolator, 1 
proceed to exhaust the licorice with water, to which a small quantity 
of ammonia water is added — about 4 ozs. to the gallon. You will at 
once see the object in using ammonia. It combines with the glycyr- 
rhizin, which becomes freely soluble, and is therefore more readily 
exhausted from the extract ; and as the percolate will have to be con- 
centrated by evaporation, there will be no danger of having free 
ammonia in the product. I prepare it of such a strength that each 
pint represents i lb. of the solid extract. 

Whenever the powdered extract is to be dispensed in solution I use 
this liquid extract, which imparts a much better appearance than the 
powder, and has just as much, if not more, of the sweet principle of 
licorice; at the same time, the preparation is free from the large 
amount of inert matter contained in the commercial extract of licorice. 

I also obtained an excellent aromatic syrup of licorice from the for- 
mula published in the ''Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1877, page 578, by sub- 
stituting this liquid extract for the powdered extract. I proceed exactlv 
the same way as does the writer, only making this substitution. It is 
true that nearly all the aromatic properties of the drugs are lost by this 
process, but still enough are retained to give the syrup a very pleasant 
aroma. I have introduced this to physicians whenever I could, and 
always received their full approbation that it is a most excellent vehicle 
for quinia preparations. Yours, etc., 

Wm. Mittelbach. 

St. Louis, Mo.f January 30, 1880. 



^'^£r''^sso!'"'} Gleanings from the German Journals, 131 

GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 
The unpleasant and offensive Odor of Iodoform is easily over- 
come by E. Biermann by the addition of from 5 to 8 drops of volatile 
oil of fennel to i gram of iodoform. Its efficacy is really surprising, 
and far exceeds that of oil of peppermint (see '^Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 
April, 1879, p. 190) and of balsam of Peru. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Jan. 10, 
1880, p. 16. 

The Odor of Musk is rendered less penetrating, according to E. 
Biermann, by the addition of powdered fennel-seed (for other methods 
see "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1879, p. 25 and 487). — Ibid, 

Salicylic Acid Tampons. — As employed in the German army, 
they consist of pieces of soft gauze of about 13 or 16 square centi- 
meters, which are loosely tied around i or 2 grams of cotton, so as to 
be readily forn^d into any desired shape by pressure. One kilo of 
these tampons is impregnated with a solution of 110 grams of salicylic 
acid and 40 grams of castor oil in 3J or 4 liters of 95 per cent, alco- 
hol. They are afterwards dried in a well-ventilated room, and are 
intended to be used in applying a temporary bandage until the services 
of a surgeon may be procured. Bernbeck suggests the use of glycerin 
in place of the castor oil, considering it far preferable. — Ibid.^ ^^795 P* 
704- 

Compound Solution of Carbolic Acid. — Hager recommends the 
following: 

Take of Sumatra benzoin (2d quality), . . ioo"o 

Aloes, .... 50'o 

Crude salicylic acid, . . . 25 

Reduce to powder, and add 

Oil of spike, .... 50*0 
Oil of star anise, . . . io"o 

Alcohol, . • • * lOOQ-O 

Macerate for i day, shaking occasionally, then add: 

Oleic acid, ... * loco 

And a previously prepared solution of 

Crude caustic soda, . . . 6o'o 

Borax, .... 25-0 

Water, ..... 500*0 

Digest, shaking occasionally, for i day, and add to the warm 
mixture 

Crude carbolic acid (containing 90 to 95 per cent. 

phenol), .... 3ooo"o 
Shake for half hour, then set aside in a cold place for a week, and decant the 
liquid. 



132 Gleanings from the German Journals, {^^ulZ'^zo!" ' 

The solution must be used cautiously, so as not to come into con- 
tact with the eyes, lips and other tender portions of the body. For 
killing vermin on animals it is applied with a brush, previously diluted 
with 100 or 120 parts of water, and with linen or cotton, also for dis- 
infecting offensive sores. When used for protecting horses, etc.^ 
against flies and other insects, very little of the composition is applied 
with a brush once or twice a d?iy.—Phar. Centraib. ^ Ja.n. 15, 1880, p. 27. 

Fennel-honey consists of purified honey, 500 grams; malt-sugar, 
1,000 grams; fennel oil, 5 drops, and a little glycerin. — Pharm. Ztg.^ 
1879, p. 719. 

Clarified Honey. — Frank Juehling objects to the use of tannin,, 
because honey thus purified always contains traces of tannic acid, which 
will react with iron, quinia and other salts. He prefers the following 
method: Six kilograms of honey are dissolved in 3 kilograms of water 
on a water-bath. About one sheet of filtering-paper, previously tri- 
turated into a pulp with water, and freshly-precipitated and washed 
aluminium hydrate are added, until a filtered sample, transferred to a 
test tube, appears perfectly bright. After cooling, the liquid is passed 
through a linen or cotton strainer and evaporated to the weight of 6 
kilograms. The quantity of aluminium hydrate precipitated from 500 
grams of alum and 600 grams of soda is more than sufficient. — Ibid.y 
1879, p. 704. 

Extemporaneous Preparation ot Syrup of Licorice. — Juehling 
prepares a syrup, equal in strength to that of the German Pharm- 
acopoeia, by mixing: 

5c Essentias Hquiritiae, .... lo'o 

Syrupi simplicis, . ... 180 

Mellis depurati, .... 120-0 M. 

Essentia liquiritia is made by extracting twice i, 000 grams of licorice 
root with 3,000 grams of water, evaporatiog the infusion to 500 grams,, 
adding 500 grams of alcohol, filtering and evaporating to 333 grams 
(consistence of honey). — Ibid. 

The solubility of Ozone in water has hitherto been a disputed 
question. A. R. Leeds conducted ozone into two bell-glasses con- 
taining water, which covered lead sulphide in one and silver in the 
other glass. Sufficient ozone was absorbed by the water to cause oxi- 
dation of the silver and of the lead sulphide, in the latter case appar- 
ently with the production of brown anhydrous lead peroxide and of free 
sulphuric acid. — Ber, d. Deutsch. Chem, Ges.^ 1^79? P- i^S^* 



^""'ATr'^mo''^'} Gleanings from the German Journals. 133 

Karlsbad- Sprudel Salt (see also " Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1878, p. 
474, and 1879, p. 454). Dr. Harnack states that 

The genuine anhydrous salt contains sodium sulphate, 99*33 per cent ; 
sodium carbonate, 0*45 per cent., and sodium chloride, 0*076 per cent., 
and, therefore, is nearly pure Glauber's salt, from which it differs 
chiefly in being 30 times more expensive. 

The artificial salt contains much more soda, is made usually by allow- 
ing a solution of 200 parts of crystallized sodium sulphate, 30 parts of 
crystallized sodium carbonate and 5 parts of sodium chloride to crystal- 
lize, is not uniform, and, therefore, objectionable, for which reason the 
author suggests the adoption of an officinal formula directing a mix- 
ture of the powdered salts. — Pharm, Ztg.^ Jan. 21, 1880, p. 38, from 
Klin. Wochenschr. 

Ferric Hydrates.— The trihydrate, Fe2(OH)Q, has never been pre- 
;pared thus far according to Tommasi, who mentions the existence of 
two isomeric, respectively red and yellow, monohydrates, Fe202(OH)2, 
and bihydrates, Y^^(OY{\^ and publishes the following distinctions : 

The red bihydrate remains unaltered up to 50°C. and the yellow to 
I05°C.; the red monohydrate to 92° and the yellow to I50°C. The 
red hydrates, when dehydrated, leave as a residue a brown oxide hav- 
ing the density 5*1, while the yellow hydrates leave a red or reddish- 
yellow oxide having the density 3*95. The red hydrates dissolve even 
in dilute acids, while the yellow are scarcely soluble in concentrated 
acids. The red hydrates are readily dissolved by ferric chloride solu- 
tion, and this solution yields, on the addition of sodium sulphate or sul- 
.phuric acid, a precipitate of hydrated oxide ; the yellow hydrates are 
insoluble in ferric chloride. The red hydrates are entirely dehydrated 
by boiling, while the yellow are only reduced to monohydrates. Tom- 
masi considers the combinations of ferric hydrates with ferric salts 
mere mechanical mixtures and not chemical compounds. — Ber, d. 
Deutsch, Chem. Ges.^ 1879, p. 1929. 

Determination of Metallic Iron in Reduced Iron. — G. Vulpius 
proposes the following process : Digest i gram of the iron for one 
hour with a solution of 5 grams of pure copper sulphate in 25 grams 
of water, acidulated with 2 drops of dilute sulphuric acid, filter into a 
previously weighed flask, wash the filter with sufficient distilled water 
to obtain 50 grams of filtrate, add i gram of pure powdered iron (the 
percentage of carbon contained in it should be previously determined), 
digest until all the copper is precipitated in a metallic state, add 5 grams 



134 Gleanings from the German\Journals, {^"^-^tr'^l^o!"^- 

of pure concentrated sulphuric acid and heat slowly to boiling, and 
until the iron is completely dissolved, when the precipitated copper will- 
alone remain, contaminated with a little carbon. Wash it repeatedly by 
decantation with water, afterwards with alcohol, absolute alcohol and 
ether, dry the flask quickly by heat, weigh, and from the weight of the 
copper subtract the carbon of the powdered iron (about O'Oi gram). 
Since the difference between the weight of this precipitated copper and 
the total weight of the metallic copper (1*271 gram) contained in the 
5 grams of crystallized sulphate equals the quantity of the copper^ 
which was precipitated by the metallic iron contained in i gram of the 
reduced iron, the percentage of the unoxidized metal is readily deter- 
mined from the ascertained weight, and the relation between the atomic 
weights of copper and iron. The number of centigrams of iron cal- 
culated from the copper which was precipitated in the first part of the 
process indicates directly the percentage of the metallic iron contained 
in the reduced iron. — Archiv d. Pharm.^ Dec, 1879, p. 508. 

Detection of Ammonia in Water. — Ammonia is usually present in 
water as carbonate, but frequently in such small quantities that it can- 
not be detected by the ordinary tests. In such cases Hager ascertains 
its presence by mixing 2 to 3 liters of the water with 20 drops hydro- 
chloric acid, evaporating to dryness, dissolving the residue in 10 or 15; 
cc. distilled water, filtering, and. applying Bohlig's test, which consists 
in adding, first, 5 drops of solution of corrosive sublimate (i part in 30 
parts of water), and then 5 drops of solution of potassium carbonate (i 
part in 50 parts of water), when a cloudiness indicates the presence of 
ammonia. — Pharm. Centralh.^ Dec. 25, 1879, p. 474. 

An Acid and a Neutral Ammonium Valerianate are distinguished 
by Hager, who reports that the commercial ammonium valerianate is 
always the acid salt^ which consists usually of handsome crystals, having 
an acid taste and reaction, and readily decomposed unless kept in tightly 
stoppered bottles. The decomposition is proved by its penetrating odor 
and the strongly rotating motion of the crystals when thrown on cold 
water ; this rotation is an excellent test for identifying the salt. 

Neutral Jmmoniu?n Valerianate is obtained with the greatest difficulty 
in prismatic crystals by the action of anhydrous ammonia on the mono- 
hydrated acid at a low temperature ; the crystals of the neutral salt 
liquefy even at a moderate temperature, without, however, absorbing 
moisture. Hager thinks that physicians, when ordering ammonium 
valerianate in pills or in any other solid shape, want the acid valerian- 



Aid . Tour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1880. 



} Gleanings from the German Journals, 135 



ate, and when ordering the salt in a mixture, invariably wish the neu- 
tral salt, which can be readily kept unaltered in solution for such pur- 
poses. Ammonium valerianate is considered an excellent stimulant 
and anti-neuralgic remedy, and is usually given in doses of 0*2 to 0*4 to 
0"6 gram every two or three hours. — Ibid,^ 1^791 P- 465- 

Pure Valerianic Acid. — The so-called monohydrate is now a com- 
mercial article, and in Hager's opinion should be made officinal, espe- 
cially since the trishydrate of the market is rarely pure and contains 
more or less monohydrate. The pharmacopoeia should require it to be 
tested for butyric acid and for amylic alcohol. For butyric acid the 
author uses copper acetate, and for testing for valeraldehyd he mixes 
2 grams of the acid lirst with 3 grams of caustic ammonia, and then 
with about 150 grams of cold water. After agitating the mixture well 
it should remain either entirely clear, or possess merely a very slight 
opalescence. — Ibid.^ Jan. 8, 1880, p. 13. 

Contamination of Benzoic Acid with Corrosive Sublimate. — 
Spoerl purchased benzoic acid from a well-known chemical laboratory, 
and found it to be contaminated with a not i[iconsiderable quantity of 
corrosive sublimate. From information received from the seller, it 
appears that the acid had been obtained from England. It is possible 
that this accidental contamination was caused by subliming the acid in 
an apparatus previously used for corrosive sublimate and not properly 
cleaned. — Archiv d. Pharm. ^ Dec, 1879, p. 517. 

Benzoic Acid in the Berries of Vaccinium Vitis-idaea. — The 
cowberries resist fermentation and decomposition for a long time, on 
which account Naegeli supposed the presence of an antiferment. 
O. Loew isolated from them benzoic acid by distilling the expressed 
juice repeatedly with water, neutralizing the slightly acid distillate with 
soda, concentrating considerably, and adding dilute sulphuric acid. Ben- 
zoic acid was precipitated as a crystalline magma, and the supernatant 
liquid contained a little formic acid. — Ztschr. d. Oest. Apoth. Ver.^ Dec. 
20, 1879, p. 543, from your. f. Prakt. Chem. 

Teucrium fruticans, L., N. O. Labiatae, indigenous to Southern 
Europe, called " Olivetto " by the Italian peasants on account of 
the resemblance of its leaves to olive leaves, was subjected to a 
chemical analysis by Oglialoro, who states that it contains no volatile 
oil, but teucrin, a substance containing no nitrogen, crystallizing in 
slender yellow prisms, scarcely soluble in the ordinary solvents except 
in glacial acetic acid, and transformed by dilute nitric acid into an acid 



136 Gleanings from the German Journals, { ^'"k^'n^s^o^'™' 

which is supposed to be hydroxytoluic acid. Dilute sulphuric acid also 
decomposes teucrin, when boiled with it, into an acid and glucose. — 
Pharm. Ztg.^ Jan. 3, 1 880, p. 3, from Ga%%. Chim. ItaL 

Heracleum giganteum hort., Pastinaca sativa, L. and Anthris- 
cus cerefolinm, Hoff?n,^ were analyzed by Dr. Gutzeit, who found 
free ethylic and methylic alcohol in the distilled waters of the unripe 
fruits, and proved the existence of ethylbutyrate in those portions of 
heracleum oil having the lowest boiling point, and the certain 
existence of solid hydrocarbons, belonging to the parffins, and having 
the general formula C^H2jj. The author isolated also a new 
crystalline substance " heraclin," C32H22OJQ from the unripe fruits 
of heracleum and pastinaca. This heraclin is an odorless and taste- 
less substance containing no nitrogen, melts at almost i85°C., and 
crystallizes from alcoholic solutions in white, brilliant, silky needles, 
grouped in the shape of stars, gradually turns yellow, does not react 
with litmus-paper, is insoluble in water, readily soluble in chloroform, 
difficultly soluble in ether, soluble in 1,200 parts of cold and in 400 
parts of boiling carbon bisulphuret, in 700 parts of cold and in 60 
parts of boiling absolute alcohol. — Ib'id.^ Nov. 12, 1879, p. 703, from 
Sitzungsb. d. Jena Ges. f. M. u. Nat. 

Pilocarpina. — A. Poehl recommends its preparation by extracting 
jaborandi leaves with hot water acidulated with i per cent, of hydro- 
chloric acid, precipitating bv solution of lead subacetate, concentrating 
the filtrate, adding phospho-molybdic acid, washing the heavy floccu- 
lent precipitate with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, drying 
with baryta water on a water-bath, and extracting the pure alkaloid 
from the residue by chloroform. Thus prepared, pilocarpina is a soft, 
tough, colorless mass, soluble in water, has the formula C23H3^N404 
(Kingzett), after being dried at 100°, is not volatile, and begins to be 
decomposed at i8o°C. The leaves appear to contain only one alkaloid. 
In regard to the volatile oil of jaborandi, Poehl states that the proper- 
ties of the hydrocarbon pilocarpene^ C^^H^g, which distills over between 
174° and 176° are so similar to those of carvene of oil of caraway that 
he considers them to be identical. — 7Z'/V., 1879, p. 718. 

Duboisinic Acid and Piturina, from Pitury — the dried branches 
and leaves of Duboisia Hopwoodii. F. von Mueller and L. Rummel 
isolated duboisinic acid in colorless rhombic prisms and tabular crystals, 
having a slightly acid reaction and a slightly bitter taste, and being solu- 
ble in water and alcohol. They obtained also i per cent, of an alka- 



^""Mir^s^or"^} Gleanings from the German Journals, 137 

loid as a thick, strongly alkaline, brown, oily liquid, heavier than water, 
combining readily with acids, and possessing a strong, burning taste, 
and an odor resembling tobacco. Even at ordinary temperatures it 
irritates the eyes, nose and throat, and in the presence of hydrochloric 
acid forms white clouds. It dissolves in every proportion in water, 
alcohol and ether, and greatly resembles nicotina. The authors at 
first supposed this alkaloid to be identical with the alkaloid isolated 
from Duboisia myoporoides, but were convinced by further investiga- 
tions that the two alkaloids difFer considerably, both in regard to their 
physiological action and also in chemical and physical respects, for 
which reason they suggest the adoption of the name Piturina for the 
alkaloid'of Duboisia Hopwoodii, and favor the retention of the name 
Duboisina for the alkaloid of Duboisia myoporoides. The yield of the 
latter alkaloid, obtained by the authors from the fresh (cultivated) plant, 
amounted to 0*55 per cent. — Ztschr, d. Allg. Oest. Ap. Ver.^ Jan. 10, 
1880, p. 21. 

Are Swedish Safety Matches Poisonous ? — Hamberg found 
them to contain, besides amorphous phosphorus, which, when pure, is 
not poisonous, also antimony, arsenic, ordinary phosphorus and a large 
percentage of potassium bichromate, thus proving them to be very poison- 
ous. The arsenic is attributed by Hamberg and Dr. S. Jolin to the 
impure amorphous phosphorus used in the preparation of the matches, 
and this was found to contain almost 2 per cent, of ordinary phosphorus 
and nearly i per cent, of arsenic. — Arch'iv d. Pharm.^ Dec, 1879, p. 518. 

Antidote for Carbolic Acid. — Husemann recommended several 
years ago saccharated lime (a solution of caustic lime in sugar-water) for 
neutralizing the poisonous effect of carbolic acid, while Sanftleben claims 
to have found an antidote in sulphuric acid, which, according to his state- 
ment, enters into a not poisonous combination with carbolic acid ; he 
prescribes the following : 

R Dilute sulphuric acid, . . . . lo grams. 

Muc. of gum arabic, .... 200 

Simple syrup, ..... 30 
Mix, and give a tablespoonful every hour. 

— Ztschr. d. Allg. Oest. Apoth. Ver.^ Jan. 10, 1880, p. 10, from Pharm. 
Ztschr. /. Russl. 

Chloral hydrate as an Antidote. — Th. Husemann states that 
I. Chloralhydrate is an excellent antidote for strychnia and other 
poisonous vegetable alkaloids which cause convulsions. In order to 



Preparation of Mercurial Ointment, {^"^Ma? 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 

1880. 



prove effective it must be given in sufficiently large doses, not less than 
two and not more than three grams to adults, and incase the convulsions 
reappear after the sleep produced by the chloral, one-half of the for- 
mer dose is given. 

Chloral hydrate ought to be given internally when possible, but may 
be injected into the rectum, or hypodermically if the patient cannot 
swallow it. It was found to prevent the death of rabbits poisoned with 
five times a fatal dose of strychnia. 

2. As an antidote for ammonium salts, chloralhydrate is not only not 
efficacious, but even deleterious, since it was found to shorten the life 
of poisoned animals. 

3. Chloral hydrate was found by Browne and Amagat to merely pro- 
long the life of rabbits to about eight times the usual duration of a fatal 
intoxication by picrotoxin. 

4. Chloral hydrate will not prevent death by overdoses of santonin 
or sodium santonate, according to Binz and Becker, although it was 
observed to prevent convulsions if previously administered. 

5. Chloral hydrate was found by Husemann and Wehr to counteract 
almost twice the fatal dose of codeia, but no more. However, it greatly 
prolonged the life of animals poisoned with twice the fatal dose or 
larger doses. The authors consider it nevertheless far less reliable than 
the usual antidotes for codeia. 

6. Chloral hydrate is no antidote for barium chloride, carbolic acid or 
calabarina. — Archiv d. Pharm , Dec, 1879, p. 481-508. 



PREPARATION OF MERCURIAL OINTMENT. 

By E. Dieterich. 

Translated and abridged from "Pharm. Centralh.," Jan. rst and 8th, 1880, by 

Louis VON COTZHAUSEN, Ph.G. 

Few preparations have ever been so much experimented with as 
mercurial ointment, and have busied the inventing brain of as many 
pharmacists, whose researches ultimately terminated in suggesting a 
formula of their own for preparing it. Having tested all those meth- 
ods which did not seem too absurd, in order to be able to pass judg- 
ment on their respective merits, and to compare them with my own 
experience in its manufacture, 1 report in the following my observa- 
tions with the different processes arranged in the chronological order 
of the latter : 



^VaTris^so*'"^} Preparation of Mercurial Ointment, 139 

1. Reinsch proposed i part of turpentine and a little alcohol to 
parts of mercury. The turpentine is contrary to the directions of the 
German Pharmacopoeia ; his method of extinguishment yields satisfac- 
tory results, especially if absolute alcohol is used. 

2. Heusler adds ether. Ether, petroleum naphtha, chloroform, etc., 
aid momentarily in dividing the mercury; as the evaporation continues,, 
almost all the mercury separates again. 

3. Reinige employs steam power, and adds sulphuretted oil of tur- 
pentine. 1 agree with him in using steam-power, but consider the 
addition unsuitable, and therefore did not test its efficacy. 

4. Loewel attaches a mixture of olive oil and mercury to the saw of 
a saw-mill, and extinguishes by shaking. This process is recom- 
mended by many, but seems unsuitable for making large quantities^ 
1, like most others, had no facilities to test this method. 

5. Luederson states that a darker colored ointment is abtained by 

. long-continued trituration, caused, in his opinion, by the formation of 
black oxide. I consider this correct as far as the color is concerned, 
but do not believe in his explanation, since I always obtain the dark 
colored ointment by triturating with steam-power for 5 or 6 hours, in 
which short time a formation of black oxide seems impossible. 

6. Guibourt mentions I'7I5 as the specific gravity of an ointment 
made in the proportion of i to 2, while Buchner found it to be 1*330. 
Hager agrees with the latter, while I found it to be 1*32 to 1*34. 

7. Heauly suggests in the place of the saltpetre, which was recom- 
mended by Polmonte, an addition of 6 parts of potassium sulphate to 
500 parts of mercury. Both plans were not tried by me. 

8. Mouchon adds one-fifth stearic acid, which 1 tried without 
success. 

9- Snoep recommended boiling the fatty matter to be used for some 
time with water, then dehydrating it, and claims to have obtained 
usually favorable results. The process was not satisfactory in my 
hands. 

10. Coldefier spreads 500 grams of lard under a bell-glass, in a thin 
layer, so as to increase its surface, and then suspends above t a piece 
of phosphorus for 15 days ; the ozonized lard is then transferred to a 
wide-mouthed bottle, 250 grams (^f mercury are added, and heat is 
applied until the lard begins to flow, when the mixture is well shaken 
for some time, and the ointment is finished by quickly cooling with 
immersion in cold water. I made use of the first portion of this sug- 



i40 Preparation of Mercurial Ointment, { *^'"'Jar.?i8to.'''"' 

gestion, not believing in the second ; e.^ I used ozonized lard for 
triturating, but not for shaking with the mercury ; the ointment was 
completed in a much shorter period than with pure lard, but a much 
longer time was required than with old ointment. 

11. Overbeck thinks that old ointment contains mercury in combi- 
nation, and thus explains the success with it in extinguishing. I shall 
prove that this is not the case. 

12. Geissler recommends steam-power as it is used in England, the 
machine used consisting of a circular iron trough, constantly kept in a 
rocking motion, in which two iron balls take the place of the pestle. 
A porcelain apparatus, constructed on the same plan, is used for 
dissolving indigo in sulphuric acid. I believe that it is far superior to 
manual labor for preparing the ointment, although I do not see any 
extraordinary virtues in it. 

13. Prof. Ludwig's plan was to precipitate the mercury in globules, 
invisible to the naked eye, from a solution of nitrate of mercury, by 
conducting sulphurous acid gas into it, and, after washing it, to mix it 
with the fatty matter. I did not try this method, but believe that it 
would be used more extensively if it yielded reliable results. 

14. Magnus triturates with almond oil and Peruvian balsam. The 
oil was tried by me unsuccessfully, while the balsam seemed objec- 
tionable to me, for which reason I did not test its efficacy. 

15. Another author suggests 2 parts of lard and i part of Japan 
wax, which mixture is less adapted for extinguishing the mercury than 
iard alone. 

16. Adolph Brejcha uses glycerin ointment, with which I obtained 
very unfavorable results. 

17. Wallet suggests adding the mercury in small quantities, gradu- 
ally, to the fat, and extinguishing each portion entirely before adding 
another. This is a very sensible suggestion, and will always yield a 
good ointment in a comparatively short time. 

18. Another author claimed, four or five years ago, that lard con- 
taining no water is equally well adapted as old ointment. I cannot 
corroborate this statement, but find that it does not extinguish the mer- 
cury any quicker than lard containing water, although I consider the 
former far preferable for preparing any ointment, since the absence of 
water is the best remedy for preventing rancidity. 

19. Supposing that rancid fat extinguishes mercury more quickly 
than not rancid fat, and attributing this apparently greater affinity for 



^"^M^Z'^ln-" '} Preparation of Mercurial Ointment, 141 

mercury to the presence of fatty acids, somebody suggested to add a 
few drops of olein to the fatty matter used for triturating. The mass 
turns foamy when triturated without mixing with the mercury. 

20. Donovan thinks that the metal is first transformed into mercu- 
rous oxide before it dissolves in the fat ; that it is only efficacious in 
solution, and that the balance of the metal is wasted and useless ; in 
order to obtain an ointment containing no free metal, the oxide is to be 
digested with the fat for some time at 150 to 160° ; the mixture is 
then cooled and triturated. I did not try this suggestion. 

21. GodefFroy uses vaseline instead of the old ointment, and claims 
to obtain a perfect ointment in a shorter time. I tried the plan on a 
large scale, and obtained in two minutes a uniform grayish-white mix- 
ture, containing numerous metallic globules ; the mercury was extin- 
guished to an equal extent in two minutes as it was when triturated 
with old ointment for 10 to 15 minutes. I then supposed vaseline to 
be the best vehicle, but soon became aware of my mistake, since 
further trituration for eight days produced no noticeable change in the 
ointment, the mercury being apparently no more extinguished than it 
was at the end of the first two minutes. I therefore suppose that 
GodefFroy commenced the trituration with the pestle, and continued it 
with pen and ink. 

22. Lautenschlaeger conducts ozone into melted lard, and extin- 
guishes the mercury with the ozonized lard in a remarkably short time, 
I see no particular gain of time in this process, and prefer old ointment 
as a vehicle. 

23. Kenzel made a celebrated blue ointment in the eighteenth cen- 
tury by adding 6 grains of sulphur to 2 ounces of the lard ; thus a very 
efficacious ointment is obtained in a short time. 

24. Hager suggests either old ointment or a mixture of i part of 
wax, I part of tallow, and 3 parts of olive oil. The latter mixture is 
far inferior to old ointment, and will only prove successful in connec- 
tion with absolute alcohol. 

Attempts to prepare an ointment with lard, to which an alcoholic or 
an aqueous potassa solution had been added, yielded unsatisfactory 
results. 

In almost all these experiments I used steam-power, and feel fully 
convinced by the results that 

I. The best vehicle for extinguishing the mercury is not "old ran- 



!42 Manufacture of Olive Oil in Southern France. { '^'Va°n,'';^o^"' 

cid ointment," but "ointment," either old or fresh. (I frequently use 
blue ointment made the day before.) 

2. The mercury ought to be added gradually. 

3. The specific gravity of the completed ointment ought to be 
between 1*32 and 1*34. 

4. No rancid fats should be used in its preparation. 

5. The excellent results obtained with old ointment as a vehicle 
are not due to the rancidity of the ointment, but the affinity for larger 
quantities of mercury depends greatly on the degree of uniform extin- 
guishment of the mercury in the vehicle. 

I determine the percentage of mercury in a commercial mercurial 
ointment by Hager's method, modifying the latter, however, by using 
ether instead of benzin for dissolving the ointment ; the mercury soon 
settles, and after washing six or seven times in a narrow but tall cylin- 
drical glass vessel, the last traces of ether may, by a moderate heat, be 
readily removed from the sediment, which is then weighed. 



MANUFACTURE of OLIVE OIL in SOUTHERN FRANCE. 

Translated from " Phar. Handelsbl.," Jan. 14, by Louis vON Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

In the establishment of E. Jourdan de JaufFret et Fils, at Salon in 
the Provence, the manufacture of olive oil necessarily always begins 
in the first half of November, because the olives become ripe in this 
season in the Provence, and, when begun, it must be continued night 
and day for three or four months, the length of the season, of course, 
depending on the duration of the harvest. 

De JaufFret & Son employ eighteen laborers, who are divided into 
two divisions, working respectively during the day and during the night, 
and producing daily 1,200 kilograms of the best oil from 1,000 deka- 
liters of olives. The facilities of the establishment are such that the 
largest harvests of olives can be handled quickly, so as not to necessi- 
tate a prolonged storing of olives, which would cause them to ferment, 
when they yield an inferior oil. 

Nevertheless, there are some manufacturers who believe in this fer- 
mentation, claiming that it increases the yield because it assists the sep- 
aration of the oil from the cellular tissue of the olives. But experience 
has shown that this increase in yield can only be obtained at the expense 
of the quality of the oil, and that the larger yield never makes up for the 
inferiority of the oil. 



'^'"klrrTis^so!'"' } Manufacture of live Oil in Southern France. 143 

In the establishment of Jourdan de JaufFret this is avoided. Never- 
theless, their manner of preparing the oil is such that fully as much, if 
not more, is obtained by them as by those allowing the olives to fer- 
ment. Before the olives enter the mills they are carefully spread over 
the floor of the well-ventilated store-room, where they are allowed to 
remain for three days, if the wind is from the south, and four or five 
days if from the north. The first stage of the manufacture consists in 
grinding the olives between revolving granite stones; then the mass, 
enclosed in baskets, is exposed to a slight pressure in an iron press, and 
yields the so-called virgin oil (huile vierge), which has gained the good 
reputation for the oil of the Provence. The mass in the baskets is 
then exposed to a stronger pressure, and yields the well-known good 
oil usually found in commerce. After this second operation, the mass 
is taken from the basket-work, and is again placed into the mills, where 
it is thoroughly ground up, when it is again packed into baskets and is 
exposed to the pressure of hydraulic presses. 

During this operation the effect of fermentation is made use of by 
treating the mass with boiling water, in order to facilitate the separa- 
tion of the oil from the cells, which still retain it. Thus, a larger 
yield is obtained from the olives without interfering with the quality of 
the greater portion of the oil, since only the last yield is exposed to 
heat. This oil is always better than the oil obtained from fermented 
olives, because frequently a rotten odor is produced by fermentation, 
which is imparted even to the oil expressed first. 

The oil expressed with the aid of hot water is known in commerce as 
fine table-oil. The greatest precautions must be used in the manufacture. 
Columelle even forbids the kindling of fires in the mills during the manu- 
facture, claiming that the smoke of a single lamp may prove injurious 
to the quality of the oil. This caution is necessary in the older mills. 
Even at the present time, most mills are under ground, and of such a 
construction that air and light can scfarcely penetrate into them, and 
that foul odors, etc., can scarcely escape from them ; besides, most of 
the mills are revolved by mules, which adds to their uncleanliness. 

The olive oil must be preserved Vv'ith great care, since Th. de Saus- 
sure has shown that the absorption of atmospheric oxygen, which is 
favored by heat, has a tendency to turn it rancid. The expressed oil 
is filtered, and immediately transferred into large cooled stoneware jugs, 
in which it gets cold very soon, and will keep unaltered for two years. 

"Waste-oil" (^huile d'enfer) is the name given to all oil in the Pro- 



144 Cinchona Culture for the Pacific Coast, {'''^'A^';^^^"' 

vence which is collected on the surface of the pits. It is treated with 
caustic soda and with hot water, in order to remove the fatty acids, and 
then enters commerce as lubricating machine-oil. It is greatly valued 
for oiling machinery, and also for wool. 



CINCHONA CULTURE FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Mr. Willis Weaver, of Bogota, South America, has written a long 
letter to the Department of Agriculture, advocating the introduction of 
the cinchona tree in California. 

After reviewing the conditions under which the cinchona tree thrives 
naturally in South America, and, under cultivation, in India, Mr, 
Weaver says: "The cinchona seems to seek a dry soil, but a climate 
affording plenty of rain in certain parts of the year. The coasts of 
Northern California and Oregon would fulfill the conditions as to 
moisture; the slopes of the mountains would probably furnish hilly 
ground very similar to that occupied by the tree in its native habitat j 
while I believe that the temperature would admit of its cultivation even 
north of the mouth of the Columbia. It is also uncertaii. as to how 
far any undue dryness of the atmosphere may be overcome by irriga- 
tion. The surprising results already attained in the cultivation of the 
trees prepare us to expect further advances, and this may be one of 
them as naturally as anything else. 

It is well known that the barks produced under cultivation are much 
superior to the natural bark, as the process of mossing the tree causes 
a remarkable development of the alkaloids in which their virtue con- 
sists; also, that the cultivated trees are not destroyed. A strip is taken 
off reaching the length of the trunk and one-third its circumference* 
The wound is then dressed wilh straw matting, and kept wet until the 
bark forms anew. The next year another strip is taken, and so on^ 
indefinitely. I am told that the harvest begins when the tree is five 
years old, but am not in a position to verify the statement. 

"I have calculated roughly, according to the prices of land snd labor 
here, that a plantation of a hundred acres might be put in at less than 
$1,000 an acre, covering all outlay, or say $1,500 to cover interest and 
all contingencies." 

A yield of $8,000 an acre has been reported from Indian plantations. 
Mr. Weaver is convinced that with a wise choice of sites and judi- 
cious treatment, together with a careful selection of the proper varie- 



Am. Jour, Pharir . ) 
Mar., 1880, / 



Chemical Notes, 



ties, the cinchona tree could be cultivated in many parts of the Pacific 
coast, and probably in New Mexico ; that if irrigation can be made to 
supply the place of a naturally moist climate, the cultivation can be 
carried into a large part of the Colorado Valley and Texas, as well as 
into Northern Georgia and Alabama, and thence north along the south- 
ern slope of the Blue Ridge. He would not be surprised if the hardier 
varieties were found to grow even in Virginia and Colorado and in 
Arkansas, in favored situations on the southern slopes of the Ozark 
mountains. — Set. Amer.^ Feb. 28, 1880. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 

Inorganic Chemistry. — The Chemical Cause of the Poisonous Nature 
of Arsenic. — The old theory proposed by Liebig that arsenous acid, like 
corrosive sublimate, formed an insoluble compound with albumen, and 
hence decomposes the animal tissues, has beengiven up since it has been 
found experimentally that these supposed albuminates are not formed 
by the action of arsenous acid or its salts. Binz and Schulz find that 
arsenic acid, digested with egg-albumen and fibrin of warm-blooded 
animals, at the temperature of the body, is reduced. They find that 
the mucous membrane of the stomach, the liver and the undecomposed 
protoplasm of plants reduce arsenic acid and also oxidise arsenous to 
arsenic acid. The authors find in this alternate oxidation and reduc- 
tion, which the two arsenic acids undergo when in contact with the 
albumen molecules, the reason for the decomposing effect which arsenic 
in its several forms exerts upon the tissue, or, in other words, for its 
poisonous character. They draw an analogy with the poisonous effects 
of nitrogen dioxide, which is also a carrier of oxygen, passing into 
nitrogen tetroxide, and then, in the presence of water, regenerating 
nitrogen dioxide. Phosphorus and antimony, they consider as showing 
similar characters. — Ber. der Chem. G^^., xii, p. 2199. 

Arsenic in Grape Sugar.— Qlowti and Ritter have found, indepen- 
dently, that all commercial grape sugar contains arsenic in small quan- 
tities ; according to Ritter the amount varies from -0025 to '1094 
gram per kilo. The arsenic is probably derived from the sulphuric 
acid used in the manufacture. — Bied. Centr.^ 1879, p. 477. 

On the Preparation of Sub-nitrate of Bismuth Free from Arsenic. — R. 
Schneider has found that sub-nitrate of bismuth, free from arsenic, 

10 



146 



Chemical Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pham. 
t Mar., 1880. 



can be made from bismuth containing arsenic by adding the coarsely 
powdered metal gradually to five times its weight of nitric acid, heated 
to between 75° and 90°C., and by application of heat, keeping the 
reaction going actively. There is formed by the oxidation of the 
arsenic, bismuth arsenate, which Schneider has found is insoluble in a 
concentrated solution of bismuth nitrate, and separates out as a white 
powder. After the settling out of the arsenate, the solution is filtered 
through asbestos, evaporated to crystallization, and the neutral salt so 
gotten changed into the basic salt by the usual method. — 'Jour, fur Pr. 
Chem.^ p. 20. 

Combustion of Hydrogen Sulphide Gas in Nitrous Fumes. — Kessel 
describes an interesting experiment in which this combustion is beauti- 
fully shown. In a half-liter flask 60 to 80 cc. of cold fuming nitric 
acid (i'53 specific gravity) is poured, and a rapid stream of sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas, purified by passing through a wash-bottle, is passed into 
the acid. This becomes rapidly heated and the flask is filled with red 
fumes. If now the delivery-tube of the gas be withdrawn from the 
acid, and slowly raised to the mouth of the flask, the hydrogen sulphide 
gas ignites and burns with a bluish flame, tinged with a reddish-yellow 
color. If the flame becomes extinguished the addition of fresh acid 
calls it forth again. The neck of the flask becomes filled during the 
combustion with white sulphuric acid vapors, while the space below 
the flame remains filled with red fumes. If the combustion proceed 
properly very little, if any, sulphur separates out. — Ber. der Chem. Ges.^ 
xii, p. 2305. 

Organic Chemistry.— Z)/^^^//^;^ Ferment of Carica Papaya. — A 
description of this, the so-called melon tree, appeared in this journal 
November, 1879, p. 559. A. Wurtz and E. Bouchut have made an 
examination of the juice obtained from incisions in the bark of the tree. 
This juice separates spontaneously into two portions, an insoluble pulp 
and a limpid, colorless liquid. From the latter of these alcohol pre- 
cipitates a body which, after suitable purification, presents the charac- 
ters of a strong digestive ferment, resembling that secreted by car- 
niverous plants. When pure, it is an amorphous white powder, entirely 
soluble in water — a property which shows the absence of vegetable 
albumin. It contains I0'6 per cent, of nitrogen. Its aqueous solution 
has an astringent taste, gives an abundant precipitate with alcohol, also 
with nitric acid, soluble in excess to a yellow liquid ; acetate of lead 
and tannin also precipitate it from its solution. Placed in contact with 



'%lr-i8o'™- } Chemical Notes. 1 47 

moist fibrin in slightly acid, neutral or slightly alkaline solution, it dis- 
solves large quantities of that substance, the fibrin first softening, then 
disintegrating without swelling and dissolving, leaving a residue of 
dyspeptone. The above-mentioned pulp, even after careful washing, 
f)resented similar characters. — Compt. Rend.., No. 89, p. 425. 

Action of the Sap of Carica Papaya. — L. Wittmak finds that the sap 
of Carica papaya contains a ferment analogous to pepsin, from which 
it is distinguished by its acting upon milk quickly without addition of 
acid. On boiling a solution of the sap, or on adding mercuric chloride, 
iodine or mineral acids, a precipitate is formed. This substance 
resembles pepsin in being precipitated by neutral lead acetate, but not 
by potassium ferrocyanide or ferric chloride. One milligram of the 
'dried sap coagulated 10 cc. of milk at 35°. — Journ. Chem. Soc.^ Nov., 
1879, from Bied. Centr.^ p. 475. 

Change of Piperidina into Pyridin. — Within the last few years pyri- 
din derivatives have been gotten from a number of the alkaloids, as, 
for example, from the several quinia bases, from nicotina and from 
berberina. W. Koenigs has now obtained pyridin, C^H^N, from 
piperidina, C^H^^N, the base which is produced at the same time with 
piperic acid by the decomposition of the alkaloid piperin. This 
change was effected by heating the piperidina for some hours with an 
excess of sulphuric acid to about 300°C. During the process a steady 
evolution of sulphurous acid gas took place, but no coaking was observed. 
The base extracted with ether, and purified, was converted into the 
platinum double salt, and analyzed. — Ber.., xii, p. 2341. 

Action of Potassium Ferricyanide upon Morphia. — Polstorff has exam- 
ined the product of the oxidation of morphia by potassium ferricyanide, 
and has obtained a well-crystallized very stable base of the composi- 
tion C3^H3gN20^. This he names oxydimorphia, considering that it 
has formed by the elimination of one atom of hydrogen from each of 
two molecules of morphia, Cj.H^gNOg, and the linking together of the 
C.,H,3N03 

•residues, thus : | He prepared and analyzed the sulphate 

and the chlorhydrate of this base. — Ibid.., xiii, p. 86. 

Other Methods of Formation of Oxydimorphia. — Polstorff and Broock- 
mann have also repeated Schiitzenberger's (^'Bul. de la Soc. Chim.," 
1865, No. 4, p. 176) preparation of oxymorphia by the action of silver 
nitrate upon morphia hydrochlorate, and find that the base so obtained 



148 



Chemical Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharna, 

t Mar., 1880, 



is in reality oxydimorphia, identical in all respects with that prepared by 
themselves in the way before mentioned. They also examined the 
action of potassium permanganate upon morphia in the presence of 
alkaline carbonate. FlUckiger ("Handbook of Pharmac. Chem.," p.- 
375) states that oxymorphia is obtained under these circumstances. 
The authors find that this product is also oxydimorphia, as is proved 
by the analysis of the base, the sulphate and the hydrochlorate. They 
have also prepared the oxydimorpliia by the action of atmospheric air 
upon morphia when in ammoniacal solution. A very dilute solution of 
morphia hydrochlorate (i to 600) is supersaturated with ammonia solu- 
tion, and then allowed to stand in open vessels for a long time in con- 
tact with air. The crystalline deposit, purified by crystallization, proved 
to be identical with those before described. — Ber, der, Chejn. Ges.^ xiii, 
p. 86. 

On the Preparation of Artificial Alkaloids. — A. Ladenburg has fol- 
lowed up his formation of artificial atropia (this journal, 1879, p. 398), 
by a comparison of its properties with those of the natural alkaloid, 
showing entire correspondence. These results, awakened the hope that 
by the treatment of other tropin salts with hydrochloric acid other bases- 
analogous to atropia might be obtained. This hope has been fulfilled, 
and it seems possible to form a whole class of artificial alkaloids which 
the author calls tropeins. He has prepared salicyl-tropein^ oxytoluyl-tro- 
pein and phtalyl-tropein. Of these the salicyl-tropein is a weak poison,, 
and has no effect upon the pupil of the eye. Oxytoluyl tropein, or 
homatropin, as he proposes to call it, however, acts upon the pupil of 
the eye almost as strongly as atropia itself, and in its mydriatic action 
it seems to exceed in many cases atropia, so that it may have a thera- 
peutic value. The phtalyl-tropein has not been sufficiently studied as 
yet. The author considers it likely that hyoscyamia and duboisina also 
belong to the class of tropeins. These he proposes to investigate 
immediately, as also belladonia. — Ibid.^ p. 104. 

Miscellaneous. — Ancient Samples of Butter. — Wigner and Church 
read a paper before the English Society of Public Analysts on this sub- 
ject. The first sample was of Irish bog butler, and its probable age 
was judged to be about one thousand years. The sample contains 
nearly 4 per cent, of curd, which consisted partly of vegetable matter 
derived from the bog, but contained quite enough animal matter to 
prove that the butter had been originally made from animal milk and 
was not a mere artificial fat. Its fatty character has, however, been 



"^'"mn^'ifst""'} Relation of Acids of Nitrogen to Sulphuric Acid, 1 49 

entirely changed, and the glycerides, of which the fat had originally 
consisted, had been decomposed so as to leave simply a mixture of the 
fatty acids, which constituted the acid portion of animal fats. The 
butter had in fact become changed into a substance closely resembling, 
in character and composition, the substance of which good composite 
candles are made. The result is singular as showing that length of 
time, combined with exposure to moisture, will effect the decomposition 
which the manufacturer of stearin has to effect by the agency of heat 
and acid. The other and older sample of butter had been taken from 
an alabaster vase in an Egyptian tomb ; it had evidently been melted 
and poured into the vase, and carefully sealed over. This sample was 
probably about 2,500 years old, but the preservation had been so per- 
fect that it was only slightly rancid and had fully retained the chemical 
properties of genuine butter, the fat not having been decomposed to any 
sensible extent. This sample possessed a decided taste and smell of 
butter, while the sample from the bog was cheesy rather than buttery 
in smell. — Chem. News^ Jan. 23, 1880. 



ON THE RELATIONS OF THE ACIDS OF NITROGEN 
TO SULPHURIC ACID. 

By G. Lunge. 

Our knowledge of this relation is not by any means complete. It is 
well known that nitrous acid, either in the liquid or gaseous form, or 
produced nascent from the union of nitrogen dioxide with oxygen, is 
dissolved by sulphuric acid of about 1*7 specific gravity; but the 
behavior of nitrogen tetroxide toward sulphuric acid is not accurately 
known. The author has shown that it is dissolved by sulphuric acid, 
forming nitrosulphuric and nitric acids ; but according to Weber and 
Winkler, nitrogen tetroxide is dissolved as such by sulphuric acid of 
66°B., producing a reddish-yellow solution, which, when heated, gives 
off nitrogen tetroxide with violent ebullition, and leaves a liquid having 
the properties of nitrosulphuric acid. Winkler stated that 28*072 
grams of sulphuric acid at 6o°B. absorbed 7*39.7 grams of nitrogen 
tetroxide, but that on heating gently, the latter was entirely expelled. 
Weber describes the effects of nitrogen tetroxide on sulphuric acid of 
■different specific gravities, but only qualitatively : thus, sulphuric acid at 
a specific gravity of 1*7 absorbs nitrogen tetroxide without becoming 
•colored ; hence it was assumed that the latter was decomposed ; at a 



1 50 Relation of Acids of Nitrogen to Sulphuric Acid. { ^"^k^aXx^so^'"'" 

specific gravity of 1*55 the sulphuric acid becomes yellow, and hence- 
it was supposed that the greater part of the nitrogen tetroxide was- 
simply dissolved. Acid of 1*49 specific gravity takes a greenish-yellow 
color; acid of 1*41 specific gravity takes an intense green color;, 
acid of 1*31 specific gravity becomes blue and liberates n-itrogen- 
dioxide, which escapes with violent ebullition on gently heating. 
The green and blue colors were supposed to be due to the formation of 
nitrous acid, the nitrogen tetroxide having been decomposed into that 
substance and nitrogen dioxide. As these results are very important to- 
vitriol manufacturers, the author studied them more accurately, and, 
as far as possible, quantitatively. The nitrogen tetroxide, prepared from 
dry fused lead nitrate, was measured off^ from a burette, and mixed with 
pure sulphuric acid, which had been diluted to different strengths with 
water, and the effects of heat upon these mixtures were also noted. 

The following are given as examples of the method employed and of 
the results obtained by the author in carrying out the experiments : 

100 cc. sulphuric acid of 1.84 specific gravity, to which was added 

2 GC. = 3 grams liquid nitrogen tetroxide, gave a colorless solution with 
a very feeble odor, recalling that of ozone. The amount of nitrogen 
dioxide evolved from i cc. of this solution in the nitrometer was deter- 
mined, and also the amount required to decolorize 10 cc. seminormal 
potassium permanganate solution. From the results, the author calcu- 
lates that his nitrogen tetroxide contained of pure nitrogen tetroxide 93, 
per cent., and of nitric acid 7 per cent.; but he argues, as in reality the 
nitrogen tetroxide does not exist as such in the sulphuric acid, but has 
undergone a decomposition, one part of the tetroxide having been con- 
verted into nitric acid at the expense of the oxygen of the other part,, 
whilst the part which has been robbed of its oxygen remains as nitrous 
acid in combination with the sulphuric acid ; then assuming that this- 
lower oxide takes the oxygen from, and decolorizes the potassium per- 
manganate, this would give 46'5 per cent, as nitrous acid, and 53.5 per 
cent, as nitric acid. The other calculations are made on this supposi- 
tion, that is, it is first assumed that all the nitrogen tetroxide remains as. 
such, and the deficiency in the theoretical amount of oxygen required 
is calculated as nitric acid ; but if, on the contrary, the amount of oxy- 
gen required be less than that found by the permanganate process, then- 
he assumes that no nitric acid is present, but that nitrous acid must 
have been originally present as an impurity. 

(I.) The acid was heated to 280°, and kept at that temperature for 



^""'Mar '"ifs'a^'""* } RelaHon of Acids of Nitrogen to Sulphuric Acid, 1 5 1 

one hour ; any free nitrogen tetroxide, if it were present, must have 
been thus expelled. When the temperature rose to 200°, a little red 
vapor was evolved, and the liquid acquired a golden-yello color ; but 
on cooling, it again became colorless. 

On analysis the author calculated that 77*9 per cent, of the nitrogen 
present existed as N2O3, and 21 'i per cent as HNO3; there is conse- 
quently, he says, a large amount of the nitric acid driven off and another 
part changed into nitrous acid. 

(11.) On continuing to heat for one hour longer, a further change 
took place of the same kind, and 94*5 per cent, of the nitrogen remain- 
ing existed as N2O3, in combination with the sulphuric acid forming 
nitrosulphuric acid ; whilst 5*5 per cent, remained as HNO3, and 18 
per cent, of the nitrogen originally present having been expelled by the 
heating. 

(III.) Another experiment was made by adding pure nitric to pure 
sulphuric acid, and analyzing the resulting mixture, but no change was 
found to have taken place. 

(IV.) On boiling the mixtures for half an hour, however, red fumes 
were given ofF, and the whole of the nitrogen present was converted 
into nitrous acid, which was found in combination with the sulphuric 
acid. 

That nitric acid is thus broken up has also been demonstrated in 
another way by Winkler, who collected the oxygen which was evolved 
from the decomposition. 

The author did not find the same result as Winkler with sulphuric 
acid of 66°B. above mentioned, and he explains this hyy assuming that 
Winkler employed so much nitrogen tetroxide that it left a large excess 
beyond that which could combine with the sulphuric acid as nitrous 
acid : hence the sudden and violent ebullition and liberation of nitrogen 
tetroxide on heating the mixture. 

2 cc. nitrogen tetroxide added to sulphuric acid of 1*805 specific 
gravity was broken up into practically the same proportions of nitrous 
and nitric acids as in the first experiment, with acid of 1*84 specific 
gravity. 

Other experiments are described in which sulphuric acid of 1*75 
specific gravity was mixed with nitrogen tetroxide and then heated (^7), so 
that the vapor evolved might at once escape, and {f) where a long tube 
was attached to the flask in which the mixture was heated, so that the 
vapor might condense and flow back again to the acid in the flask. In 



152 



The Chemistry of Gurjun Balsam. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1880. 



(a) nitrous acid, but no nitric acid was found, whilst in (b) nitric acid 
was present but no nitrous acid ; this is explained by the fact that it 
requires concentrated sulpuric acid to combine with and retain the 
nitrous acid ; and in (a) the acid became concentrated by evaporation, 
whilst in (b) it remained of about the same strength, and was unable to 
retain the nitrous acid. 

Again, when the mixture was heated on a water-bath at about 95°, 
no such changes occurred. 

As Winkler found, that on heating his mixture of acid of 6o°B. 
with nitrogen tetroxide, the latter was evolved, he presumed that it 
existed as a mechanical mixture with the acid. This the author denies, 
stating that had Winkler examined the acid after boiling, he would have 
found that it contained nitric acid, and that the nitrogen tetroxide had 
really undergone decomposition ; and further, that he must have heated 
it considerably above the temperature of boiling water, otherwise no 
change would have resulted, and no red fumes would have been liber- 
ated. 

When the amount of nitrogen tetroxide added is in excess of that 
required to form nitrosulphuric acid, the author is uncertain from ana- 
lysis whether it exists in the acid in the form of nitrous acid or of 
nitrogen tetroxide. — Ger. Chem. Soc.^ Feb. 1880, p. 91, from D'lngl. 
polyt. 7, 233, 155 to 165. 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF GURJUN 

BALSAM, 

By Eduard Hirschsohn, Mag. Pharm. 
In my work, " Contributions to the Chemistry of the more impor- 
tant Gum Resins, Resins and Balsams,"^ will be found experiments 
which were made with a liquid sold as gurjun balsam. The sample I 
examined did not solidify on heating, showed a slight fluorescence, and 
did not give with nitric and sulphuric acids the violet coloration men- 
tioned by Fliickiger." As no sample of the balsam described by 
Fllickiger was at my disposal, I was unable at the time to determine 

^" Archiv der Pharinacie," vii, 6, 1877. 

- Fllickiger proceeded as follows: One drop of the balsam is dissolved in twenty- 
drops of bisulphide of carbon, and one drop of a previously cooled mixture of con. 
centrated sulphuric and nitric acids added and the whole well shaken. " Jahresbe- 
richt fiir Phai macognosie," etc., 1876, p. 220. 



"""k^aTisso!'™-} The Chemistry of Gurjun Balsam. 1 53 

whether any difference, other than the above-mentioned, could be 
detected between the two specimens by means of the reagents I had 
employed in the quoted work. Last year Professor Hamberg presented 
a sample of the balsam to the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Insti- 
tute of this town, and the experiments made with this specimen, 
kindly placed at my disposal by Professor Dragendorff, and a sample 
of gurjun purchased at a neighboring chemist's, yielded the following 
results : 

Both samples showed a strong fluorescence in green, and formed on 
standing a deposit consisting entirely of crystals, the quantity of which 
in the last named sample was small in comparison to that received from 
Professor Hamberg. 

On heating in a test tube, the balsam from Professor Hamberg 
became quite solid, so that the tube could be inverted without any fear 
of the contents running out, while with the second sample a solidifica- 
tion appeared only after heating for a considerable length of time, and 
even then it did not become so thick as the first named sample. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.) dissolved both samples with the exception of a 
white residue. 

Ether impure) dissolved also incompletely. The cloudy mixture 
became on the addition of an equal volume of alcohol nearly clear, 
and the greater part of the deposit was taken into solution. 

Ether and Alcohol (equal volumes) gave an opalescent solution. 

Chloroform dissolved, forming a clear liquid. 

Solution of Bromine (i part. of bromine in 20 parts of chloroform) 
added to the chloroformic solution of the balsam (3 drops balsam, i cc. 
chloroform and 5 drops bromine solution) produced at first no appreci- 
able alteration, but after a time the mixture became intensely green- 
colored and retained this color tolerably long. 

Bisulphide of Carbon gave a cloudy solution with the balsam and the 
reagent recommended by Fliickiger produced a deep violet colora- 
tion, which in Hamberg's sample was permanent for hours, whilst 
in the second sample it disappeared in the course of a short time. 

Alcoholic Solution of Acetate of Lead (a saturated solution of acetate of 
lead in 95 per cent, alcohol) produced in the filtered alcoholic solution 
no change. 

Alcoholic Solution of Ferric Chloride (10 per cent, in 95 per cent, alco- 
hol) colored the alcoholic solutions of the balsam darker. 



1 54 The Chemistry of Gurjun Balsam. { VCisso!™' 

Concentrated Sulphuric Acid dissolved the balsams with yellowish- 
brown color, and this solution with five to ten volumes of water gave 
a white milk; with three to five volumes of alcohol, a flesh-colored 
mixture passing into violet. 

Alcoholic Hydrochloric Acid {i.e. 95 per cent, alcohol saturated with 
gaseous HCl.) yielded with the balsam a yellowish-red tincture, which 
on the addition of alcohol became violet. 

Petroleum Spirit dissolved incompletely. 

Chloral Reagent^ colored both balsams, as well as the residue left on 
evaporating the petroleum spirit solution, deep green. 

To allow of an easy comparison of the reactions previously, and 
those now obtained, I have tabulated the results as follows : 

Gurjun Balsam, 
Hamberg's Gurjun " Archiv d. Pharm.," 

Balsam. vii, 6, 1877. 

Ether, . . . Solution incomplete, Incomplete. 

Alcohol, . . u « « 

Ether-Alcohol, . " opalescent. Perfectly clear. 

Chloroform, . " clear. Incomplete. 

Solution of Bromine, Green coloration. Yellowish coloration. 

Chloral Reagent, Green. Green. 

Flvickiger's Reagent, Violet coloration. Bright yellow coloration. 

As will be seen from the above table the two samples of true balsam 
now examined differ from the one previously experimented upon: (i) in 
the Fllickiger reaction; (ii) they are completely soluble in chloroform, 
and (iii) give with solution of bromine a green coloration. The slight 
difference between Professor Hamberg's sample and that from a chemist 
in this town is due, I am convinced, to the presence of alcohol in the 
latter, for if it be freed therefrom by distillation the two give identical 
reactions. 

The true gurjun balsam differs from copaiva balsam: 

(i) in the violet coloration produced by Fllickiger's reagent in the 
bisulphide of carbon solution ; 

(ii) in the incomplete solubility in ether (copaiva balsam gives a clear 
solution ; 

(iii) in the negative behavior of acetate of lead to the alcoholic solu- 
tion. (Copaiva balsam gives a cloudiness which on warming disap- 
pears.) — Pharm. Jour, and Trans.., J^"-? i88o, p. 561 and 606. 



^"Archiv der Pharmacie," vii, 6, 1877. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1880. 



The Testing of Pepsin. 



155 



THE TESTING OF PEPSIN. 

By a. Petit. 

Recent investigation having directed attention to the ferments which 
preside over the transformation of the various alimentary matters, it 
appeared to me that it would be useful to define the present state of 
this interesting question, and particularly to state the method of testing: 
most convenient to be adopted for these ferments, of which the medi- 
cal employment is becoming more and more common. 

In commencing this study I would recall that all the facts relative t» 
the action of pepsin and diastase have been explained with the greatest 
clearness by M. Mialhe. Upon reperusing the memoirs of 1845 and 
1 846 it will be seen that his opinions, sharplv discussed at the time when 
they appeared, are now accepted by all investigators occupied with the- 
phenomena of digestion. On the present occasion I will deal only 
with certain facts connected with the transformation of nitrogenous 
foods by pepsin. 

These substances-^albumen, fibrin, casein, etc. — ^submitted to the 
combined action of pepsin and an acid, are transformed at first into a 
compound, named caseiform albumen by M. Mialhe, and more recently 
syntonin ; then into another substance — the ultimate product of the 
stomachic digestion of albuminoid matters — the albuminose of Mialhe,, 
or the peptone of Lehmann. According to their source, these peptones^ 
although they are very probably isomers, differ from one another by 
their action upon polarized light. 

M. Henninger thinks that the peptones are formed by the hydration 
of albuminoid matters, and as they combine indifferently with acids 
and bases he considers them as weak acid amides. M. Meissner divided 
the products of transformation of albuminoid matters into parapeptones,, 
metapeptones, dyspeptones and peptones «, ^ and y ; but these divi- 
sions can no longer be accepted in the present state of science. 

The essential characters of peptones are those of not being precipi- 
tated by saturation of the acid liquids holding them in solution, or by 
nitric acid, or by ferrocyanide of potassium added to acetic acid. They 
are mostly soluble in water, even after having been precipitated from 
their aqueous solution by excess of alcohol. 

The test by nitric acid has a prime importance, as will appear sub- 
sequently. It permits, in fact, of ascertaining rapidly whether the 
transformation is more or less advanced. When nitric acid, added drop 



156 The Testing of Pepsin. • {'"^■^Z'^l'^"'' 

by drop, to a peptic solution of albumen no longer gives a precipitate it 
may be concluded that all the albumen is transformed into peptones. 

The report upon pepsin presented in 1865 by M. Guibourt to the 
Societe de Pharmacie, did not sufficiently bring out the importance of 
this reaction. M. Guibourt thought that the solution of the fibrin was 
sufficient, and it appears (p. 102) that i gram of pepsin prepared by the 
Commission, in presence of 8*40 grams of lactic acid and 20 grams of 
water, very incompletely modified 12 grams of fibrin after heating for 
twelve hours at 40 to 45°C. The solution was in fact semigelatinous, 
and was strongly precipitated by nitric acid. Certainly, at the present 
time, such a pepsin would be considered to be of mediocre quality. 

Rapid solution indicates that the pepsin is of good quality, but 
between this phenomenon and that of transformation the difterence is 
essential. 

Let us now examine the various methods of testing that have been 
proposed for pepsin, and see which is most suitable for adoption. 

1. Test by Coagulation of Milk. — This process ought to be rejected. 
iVl. Guibourt had, in 1865, come to the conclusion from experiments 
made on rennet, that the principle in rennet, which produces the coag- 
ulation of milk, is not that which dissolves and transforms fibrin. I 
have observed also that a pepsin, twelve times more active than another 
prepared from calves' rennet, was much less active than the latter in 
respect to the coagulation of milk. It is probable that this special 
action is due to a particular ferment. 

2. Test by Coagulated White of Egg. — This test is universally adopted 
in England and in Germany. I have made some experiments to deter- 
mine : 

(a) The temperature most favorable to solution. 

(b) The action of various acids. 

{c) The acidimetric strength which it is advisable to give to the liquors. 

With respect to temperature, experiments were made at from 30° 
to 8o°C. Even at elevated temperatures the action of acidified pepsin 
is produced, but the maximum occurs at 50°. 

With liquors containing 2 to 15 per mille of acetic or butyric acid, 
I have been able to convince myself that in the presence of these 
acids pepsin is without action upon coagulated white of egg. Tartaric, 
lactic, and especially hydrochloric acids, on the contrary, facilitate the 
action of pepsin. 

The solution of tartaric acid ought to be of the strength of about 10 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1880. 



The Testing of Pep sin . 



^57 



grams, and that of lactic acid from 8 to 12 grams per liter. With 
hydrochloric acid, the digestion of white of egg takes place very well 
in liquors containing from i to 3 parts per 1,000 of real acid, the most 
favorable acidity being i j- part per looo. 

In the study of similar phenomena it ought never to be forgotten 
that the digestion in the stomach goes on at a temperature of about 
40°C. It is, therefore, especially at this temperature that the test of 
artificial digestions should be made. It might happen, in fact, that an 
acid solution, acting on albumen at 50° or 6o°C., would be less active at 
40°C. This is what takes place with lactic acid, which at a concen- 
tration corresponding to 2 or even 3 per 1,000 of real hydrochloric acid 
leaves white of egg in great part undissolved at a temperature of 40°C., 
whilst hydrochloric acid of i per 1,000, in the same conditions of time 
and temperature, dissolves and transforms all the albumen. 

In these facts is found the experimental demonstration that the free 
acid of the gastric juice is hydrochloric acid. This is a fact, moreover, 
gained to science by the remarkable researches of M. Richet, who has 
proved that the acidity of the gastric juice is about 2 per 1,000 ; that 
it is due solely to hydrochloric acid, and that if lactic acid is found 
there it is the product of a special fermentation which the food has 
undergone in the stomach. 

The more that artificial digestions are studied the more evident 
becomes the similarity which exists between these phenomena and 
those of the stomachal digestion. No doubt, the stomach absorbs 
during the digestive period a portion of the liquids and of the peptones 
they contain, and this, according to SchifF, favors digestion consider- 
ably. The movements in the food which this initiates facilitate the 
action of the gastric juice, the secretion of which is uninterrupted ; 
but it is no less true that in experiments in vitro it is easy to equal and 
even to surpass the digestive power of the stomach. 

We know that the activity of the gastric juice is always maintained 
within certain limits, the secretions of the stomach rapidly re-establish- 
ing an equilibrium when this is more or less destroyed. The specific 
action recognized in hydrochloric acid throws light on the rationale of 
certain medicines and the troublesome influence exercised by some sub- 
stances upon the act of digestion. As has been justly remarked by M. 
Richet, in the case of abnormal fermentations there is produced a great 
excess of lactic, acetic and buytric acids. Hydrochloric acid is no 
longer secreted, but instead, a less active acid, lactic acid, or inactive 



The Testing of Pepsin, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1880. 



acids, acetic and butyric. The utility will hence be understood of 
employing in such a case alkalies, which in saturating the free acids 
induce a fresh secretion of hydrochloric acid and thus restore to the 
gastric juice all its digestive power. It will be understood also that to 
attain the same object sometimes solutions of hydrochloric acid and 
sometimes of the alkaline bicarbonates have been given with success. 
It is necessary, besides, in this case, that the acetates and butyrates 
should be eliminated by stomachal absorption ; otherwise they would be 
decomposed and the inactive acids again set free by the hydrochloric 
acid secreted normally or administered as medicine. 

To return to the testing of pepsin by coagulated white of egg, one 
objection that may be brought against it is that it does not establish a 
sufficient gradation in the transformations. However this may be, the 
method of operating is a follows : 

An egg is kept in boiling water during half an hour, and the very 
coherent white is then passed through a moderately fine strainer. 5 
grams of this coagulated albumen, put into contact at 40°C. with 25 
grams of hydrochloric acid containing 1-50 of HCl per liter, ought to 
be dissolved in four to five hours by O'lO gram of pepsin of good 
quality. It is necessary to agitate the flask every half hour. 

Test by Fibrin. — This appears to me to present great advantages over 
the preceding. The phenomena are very distinct and very comparable. 
Whatever may be the origin of a ferment, in the same conditions of 
time, temperature and acidity of the menstruum, its exact equivalence 
can be determined by relation to other specimens. The following are 
the conclusions I have arrived at with respect to the best conditions for 
the transformation of fibrin. 

The temperature of 50°C. is that of the maximum. The same pepsin 
is about four times less active at 40° than at fO^C. 

The acid most favorable to the transformation is hydrochloric acid. 
In order to approach the action of this acid it is necessary to employ 
relatively large quantities of lactic or tartaric acids, about 25 to 30 
grams per liter. With lactic acid in the proportion of 20 grams per 
liter the action is five times less than that which corresponds to a 3 per 
1,000 solution of hydrochloric acid. With hydrochloric acid the most 
favorable action is obtained with a solution containing between 2 and 5 
grams of real HCl per liter. 

To recapitulate, it appears that the acidity of the gastric juice does 
not exceed 2 to 3 grams per liter of acid expressed as HCl, which 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Mar., 1880. 



The Testing of Pepsin. 



159 



would give 5 to 7*5 grams of acid expressed as lactic acid, whilst the 
action would be much weaker in the presence of the latter solvent. 

I would also remark that the acidity of the i per 1,000 in HCl, 
which is favorable to the solution of coagulated albumen, is not suffi- 
cient for the easy transformation of fibrin. In order to approach phy- 
siological condition I would propose, therefore, to employ 1*50 gram of 
real HCl per liter in the testing with coagulated white of egg and 3 
grams per r,ooo for testing with fibrin. 

It may be asked whether it is not possible to render the testing of 
pepsin more practical by diminishing the time of operating. Nothing is 
more easy. In heating during six hours instead of twelve about twice 
as much pepsin is required for the transformation. Again, in heating 
during six hours at 40°C., instead of twelve hours at 50°C., nearly 
eight times the quantity of pepsin is required to obtain the same result. 

This great influence exercised ^by temperature renders it necessary 
that a standard for operating should be fixed in an exact manner. The 
Commission of 1865, in recommending to heat to from 40° to 45°, 
was not sufficiently precise upon this important point. 

I have stated that there is an essential difference between the solu- 
tion of fibrin and its transformation ; the following experiments demon- 
strate this very clearly : 

■ A pepsin prepared in my laboratory, which dissolved and transformed 
in twelve hours at a temperature of 50°C. six hundred times its weight 
of fibrin in a liquor containing 4 per 1,000 of real HCl,'dissolved in 
the same conditions : 

1,200 times its weight of fibrin in . .1 hour. 



2,400 " " " ,1 hour 10 minutes. 

4,800 " " " . . I hour 15 minutes, 

9,600 " " " .1 hour 45 minutes. 

19,200 *' " " . . 2 hours 10 minutes. 



It was not thought necessary to carry the experiment further. 

An identical experiment was made with lactic acid in the proportion 
of 0*40 gram to 25 cc. or 16 grams per liter. Although the same pepsin 
transformed in these conditions only one hundred times its weight of 
fibrin, instead of six hundred times, as in the preceding experiment, it 
was found that it dissolved — 

1,200 times its weight in . . .30 minutes. 



2,400 " " . . . I hour 15 minutes. 

4,800 an ... I hour 30 minutes. 

9,600 4 hours. 

19,200 « <i ... 5 hours. 



i6o Antidotes. {^iZis^so^^ 

It is necessary to add that in flasks differing from the others only in 
the absence of pepsin no liquefaction took place. 

To test a pepsin, therefore, I should take of hydrochloric acid of the 
strength of 3 grams of HCl per liter 25 cc; then 5 grams of moist 
fibrin strongly dried, and add to several flasks so prepared quantities of 
pepsin ranging from O'lO to 0'6o gram. These should be heated to 
50°C., for it has been seen that four times as much pepsin would be 
required at 40°C., which would be an useless waste. Agitate every 
half hour until the complete solution of the fibrin, and then every hour. 

A good pepsin ought not to give a precipitate with nitric acid after 
twelve hours' heating in flasks containing 25 to 30 centigrams, and 
after six hours in those containing 50 to 60 centigrams. The nitric 
acid should be added drop by drop to 10 cc, for example, of the solu- 
tion, and not the slightest turbidity should be produced in the liquor at 
the moment of adding it. 

In these experiments I have for some time used a fibrin of mutton 
washed until it has become white and preserved in pure glycerin. 
When required for use it is washed with plenty of water. 

In subsequent communications I shall show the action which a num- 
ber of bodies exercise upon the peptic and diastastic ferments. — Pharm. 
Jour, and Trans. ^ Jan. 24, 1 880, from Jour, de Pharm. et de Chimie^ 
5th ser., vol. i, p. 82. 



ANTIDOTES. 

By Dr. Th. Schlosser. 
Translated from " Zcschr. d. Allg. Oest. Apoth. Ver 1880, Nos. i and 2, by 

Louis VON COTZHAUSEN, Ph.G. 

In order to supply the demand for a reliable table of antidotes the 
author publishes the following, and at the same requests others to assist 
in improving and completing the formulas. 

General Remark. — An emetic is unnecessary when the poisoned 
patient has already vomited freely. 

Antidotes for : 
I. Aconitia. | Tlien : 

R Cupri sulph., . . I'o Acid, tann., . . 4*0 



Aquas dest., . . 40'o 

Dissolve. 

S : Emetic 5 give half, and balance, if 



Aquae dest., . . 200-0 

Syr. simpl,, . . 50*0 

M. S : Tablespoonful every five min-^ 



necessary, in five minutes. | utes. 



Am. Jour. Pharir. P 
Mar., 1880, J 



Antidotes, 



161 



2, Excessive Etherization. 
R Aquas ammon., . . gtt. 15 

Aquas dest., . . 20'c 

S : To be taken at one dose. 

R Aquas ammonias, . . 30 

S : For smelling. (Cold water must 
be freely applied and fresh air.) 

3. Caustic Alkalies and Alkali Carbonates. 
R Acidi tartaric, . .100 
Aquas font., . . 1000 o 

M. S : Drink a tumblerful at once ; 
then every five minutes a dessertspoon- 
ful of almond oil, with five tablespoon- 
fuls of the tartaric acid solution. (This 
is sufficient for 100 grams of a 5 per 
cent, solution of alkali.) 

4. Caustic Lime and Calcium Salts. 
R Magnes. sulph., . . 20-0 

Aquas dest., . . ioo"o 

Syr. simpl., . . 40*0 

Dissolve. 

5. : Take at once. 

Then: 

R 01. amygd. dulc, . . 20 

Pulv. gum. acacise, . io*o 

Aquae dest., . * 15 o 

Syr. simpl., . . ioo"o 

M. D. S. : Two dessertspoonfuls 

every quarter hour. 

5. Alcohol Intoxication. 
R Pepsini, . . . 2*0 

Aquas dest., . . 200*0 

Acid, mur., . . I'oo 

M. D. S. : Tablespoonful every five 
minutes. 

Or 

R Aquae ammon., . . gtt. 10 

Aquas dest., . . 150 

Syr. simpl., . . 2o'o 

M. S. : Take at once. 

6. Ammonia. 
R Acid. acet. concent., . 10 
S. : For smelling. 



I R Acet. crud., . . 20-0 

1 Aquae dest., . . 2oo'o 

Syr. simp , . . . 20-0 
M. S. : Tablespoonful every five min- 
utes. 

R Aceti crudi, . . 50 o 

j Aquae dest., . . 2oo"o 

I S. : Inhale warm. (Cold washing.) 

7. Anilin Preparations. 

R Cupri sulph , . . I'o 

I Aquas dest., . . 40*0 

I S. : Emetic 5 half to be taken at once, 
j and the other half in five minutes, if 

necessary. 

R Magn. ust. in aq., . . 2oo'o 

D. S. : Tablespoonful every half hour. 

8. Antimonial Preparations and Tartar 
Emetic. 

R Acid, tannic, . . 3 

Aquae dest., . . 140*0 

Syr. althaeas, . . 6o"o 

M. S. : Tablespoonful every five min- 
utes. 

9. Arsenic Preparations. 
R Magn. ust. in aq., , . 200*0 

D S. : One third to be taken at once, 
then a tablespoonful every five minutes. 

10. Atropia. 
R Fol. jaborandi, . . 10 o 

Fiat infus. ad colat. . 200 
S. : Take half at once, then every 
j half hour a tablespoonful with a table- 
j spoonful of wine. 

I R Pilocarpin. mur., . . 0*05 

I Aquas dest., . . 2 00 

j S. : Inject hypodermically. 

1 

' II. Baryta. 

Treat like lead salts. 

12. Belladonna. 
Treat like atropia. 



l62 



Antidotes. 



Am. Jour. Pharnu 
Mar., 1880 



13. Bites by Dogs and Cats. j 
Potassae, . . . i"o ; 

Aquae dest., . . 50o'o | 

M.S.: Wash the wound, and keep 
open with linen dipped into it, until a 
physician arrives. 

14, Snake Bite. 
See dog bite. 

Aquas ammon., . . gtt. 30 

Aquas dest., . . 150*0 

Syr. simp., . . . 30*0 

M. S. : Tablespoonful every five min- 
utes. 

15. Lead Salts. 

3^ Aquse laxat , . 50 

Magnes. sulph., . 30-0 

Aquas ferv., . . loo-o 

MS: Give in two doses, within ten 

minutes. 

Bromine. 

^ Magn. ust. in aqua, . 200*0 

S. : Take one-third at once, then a 
tablespoonful every quarter of an hour. 

17. Brucia. 
Treat like strychnia 

18. Cannabis Indica. 
Treat like morphia. 

19. Cantharidin. 
R Cupri sulph , . . i*o ] 

Aquas dest., . . 40*0 

M.S.: Emetic 5 take one-half imme- 
■diately, and the balance in five minutes, 
if necessary. 

Then : 

Camph., . . . 3-0 

Muc. g. arabic, . q s. 

Mixt. gummos., . . 300*0 

Tr. opii, . . gtt. 10 

M. S, : Tablespoonful every five to 
ten minutes. 

20. Carbolic Acid. 
Use the same emetic as for anilin. 
Then: 

R Magn ust. in aqua, . 200 o 



S. : Take one-half at once, then every 
quarter of an hour a tablespoonful alter- 
nately with 

Mixt. oleos., . . 2oo*o 

S. : Tablespoonful every quarter of an 
hour. 

2 1 . Chloral Hydrate. 
U Atrop. sulph., . milligram. 2 
Aquse dest., . . 35*0 

M. S. : Give in two doses, in the 
course of half an hour. (Instead of 
atropia tincture of belladonna, 2*0 may 
be given in the same manner.) 

22. Chloroform. 

R Aquae ammon., . . 50 o 

S. : For smelling. (Cold douche and. 
ice applied to the head.) 

U Two Seidlitz powders. 
S. : Give one. 

If very bad, give 
R Cupr. sulph., . „ i*o 

Aquas dest., . . 40 

S, : Emetic 5 give one-half, and, if 
necessary, the other half five minutes 
later. 

23. Chlorine Vapors. 
R Aquas laurocerasi, . .100 
Aetheris, 

Alcohol, 90 per cent , aa 30*0 
S. : For smelling and inhaling. 

R Spir. nitr. dulc, . . 20*0 

Syr. althasae, 

Aquas dest., . ad 40*0 

M. S. : A tablespoonful every five or 
ten minutes. 

24. Chromic Acid and Chromates. 
R Pulv. ferri, . . .5*0 

Linct. oleos., . 

Syr. simp., . . da 50*0 

M. S. : Shake well, and take a dessert- 
spoonful every five minutes, and then 
two tablespoonfuls of water. 



4A.ni. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar., 1880. J 



Antidotes, 



163 



25. Smlphuretted Hydrogen. 
R Spir. aetheris comp., . 30*0 

S. : Give ten drops every five minutes 
in a dessertspoonful of water. 

R Spir. aeth. nitrosi, . . 50-0 

S : Pour on a cloth, and apply to 
nostrils. 

R Calc. hypochlor , . . 40*0 

S.: For smelling. (Fresh air 5 wash 
with vinegar.) 



26. Codeia. 



See morphia. 

27, 

See aconitia. 



Colchicia. 



28. Conia. 
B- Strych. nitrat., . . o'oi 

Aquas dest., . . loo'o 

Tr. opii, . . . gtt. 30 

M. S. : Two dessertspoonfuls every 
-quarter of an hour, until one-third is 
taken ; then every half hour, until the 
second one-third is consumed ; then 
every hour. 

29. Curare. 
R Strychn, nitr., . . 0-05 

Aquae dest., . . 5-0 

M. S. : Inject. 

30. Potassium Cyanide and Prussic Acid. 
H Cupri sulph., . . 2*0 

Aquae dest., . . 28*0 

Dissolve. 

S. : Emetic j Tablespoonful at once, 
the balance in five minutes. (Cold wa- 
ter ought to be applied.) 

31. Digitalis. 
Like morphia. 

32. Mu scar in. 
See chloral hydrate. 

Or 

R Atrop. sulph , . .001 
Aquae dest., . . 5-0 

S. : Use as an injection. 



33. Gratiola. 
Like aconitia. 

34. Helleborus. 
See aconitia. 

35. Hyoscyamus. 
See morphia. 

36. Stings by Insects. 
R Aquae ammon., . . 20'o 

S : Apply externally. 

37. Iodine. 

R Amyl., . . .5'° 

Mix by triturating with a little 
water ; then pour on 
Aquas fervidas, . , loo'o 

and add 

Magn. ust. in aqua, . 100 o 
S. : Tablespoonful every five minutes. 

38. Lime. 
See caustic lime. 

39. Oxalic Acid and Oxalates. 
R Calcii carb. pulv., . . 50*0 

Aquae dest., . 200*0 

M. D. S. : One-half at once 5 then 
every ten minutes a tablespoonful. Half 
an hour later take 

R Aquas laxat. Vienn., . 50*0 

Sodii sulph. cryst., . lo'o 
Dissolve 
S. : Take at once. 

40. Carbonic Oxide and Carbonic Acid 
Gas. 

R Aquae ammon., . . 40*0 

S. : For smelling. (Cold ablutions.) 

R Extr. ergotae, . . 0*30 

Aquas dest , . 50*0 

S. S. : Dessertspoonful every quarter 
of an hour. 

4 1 . Creasote. 
R Pulv. acaciae, . . lo'o 

01. amygd. dulc, . 20*0 
Aquas dest., . . 280*0 

Ft. emulsio. 
D. S : Take one-fourth at once, then 
half a teacupful every ten minutes. 



164 



Antidotes, 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Blar., 1880. 



42. Copper Salts. 
R Pulv. ferri, . . . i4'o 

Flor. sulph. lot , . 8-0 

Syr. simpl., . . 60 

M. D. S. : Shake well, and give a 
dessertspoonful every five minutes, alter- 
nating with 

R Magn. ust. in aq., . . 20o'o 

Mix with white of 4 eggs and add 
Aquae dest., . . 200*0 

Syr. sinipl., . . 80 

S. : Half a teacupful every five min- 
utes. 

43. Snjoallonjoed Copper Money. • 
To children : 
R Hydrom. infant., . . 20*0 

D. S. : Give at once. 

To adults : 
R Aq. laxat. Vienn., . . 50*0 

Sodii sulph. cryst., . jo'o 
D. S. : Take at once. 

44. Lactucarium. 
As morphia. 

45. Mineral Acids. 
R Magn. ust. in aq., . 200 o 

D. S. : Take one-half at once 5 then 
a tablespoonful every five minutes, alter- 
nating with two tablespoonfuls of the fol- 
lowing : 

R 01. amygd. dulc, . . 20 o 

Pulv. acacicC, . . io*o 

Aquae dest., , . 200 

Syr. simp., . . loo'o 

Fiat emxils. 

46. Morphia. 
5t Cupri sulph., . . I'o 

Aquae dest., . . 40-0 

M. D. S. : Emetic ; give one-half and, 
if necessary, the balance in five minutes. 
Besides : 

R Coffeae tostae, . . 50 o 

F. infusum ad colatur. . 200 
Acidi tannici, , . 4-0 

Syr. simpl., . . 50*0 

S. : Teaspoonful every five minutes. 



47. Nicotina. 
In case of nausea in consequence of 
smoking. 

R Aceti crudi, . . so'o- 

Aquae dest., . . 200*0 

Syr. simpl., . . 50*0 

' M.S.: One-half at once, and then a» 

I tablespoonful every five minutes. 

j In case of poisoning. 

i See morphia. 

j R Acidi tannici, . . 4'o. 

Aquae dest., . . 200 o 

j Syr. simpl., . . 50 o 

I M. D. S. : Tablespoonful every five 
i minutes. 

I 48. Opium. 

Treat like morphia. 

49. Paris quadrifolia. 
Like morphia. 
I 50. Phosphorus. 

j R Cupri sulph., . . ra 

Aquae dest., . . 40 

Solve. 

D. S. : Emetic 5 Give one-half, and, 
if necessary, the balance in five minutes. 
Then : 

I R 01. terebinth, vetusti, . 30-0 
(the older the better), beat with 
the white of 2 eggs, and add 
Aquae menth. pip., . 250*0 

Syr. simpl., . . 50*0 

Fiat emulsio. 
S. : Shake well, and give one table- 
spoonful every half hour, until one- 
fourth of the mixture has been given j 
then one tablespoonful every^hour. 

In doubtful cases of poisoning with 
phosphorus give 

R Magn. ust. in aqua, . 20*0 

Aquce chlori, . . i2o'o 

M. D. 

51. Phosphorus — Burns • 
R Argenti nitr, fus., . 2*0 
Aquae dest., . . 20 o 

Solve. 

S. : Apply with a camel-hair brush, 
and use as a wash. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Mar., 1880. J 



Antidotes. 



165 



52. Pulsatilla. 
Treat like aconitia. 

53. Mercury Salts. 
See copper salts. 

54. Sabina. 
See morphia. 

55. Santonin. 
Be Cupri sulph,, . . I'o 

Aquas dest., . . 40*0 

S. : Emetic ; give one-half at once, 
and, if necessary, the balance in five 
minutes. 

56. Fungi » 
Like morphia. 

57. Ergot. 
Like sausage poison. 

58. Silver Preparations. 
1^ Sodii chlorid., . . 20*0 

Aquae comm., . . 300*0 

M. D. S..: Give one-half at once, 
and then a tablespoonful every half hour. 

Between the doses give : 
B; Mixturas oleosas, 

Mixturge^gummosse, ad 1 50*0 
M. S. : Two tablespoonfuls every 
half hour. 

59. Stramonium. 
Like opium. 

Then : 

B: Morph. mur., . . o'lo 

Aquas dest., . . lO'o 

Inject hypodermically. 

60. Strychnia. 

B Acidi tannici, . . 3-0 

Aquas dest., , . i40'o 

Syr. althaeae, . . 6o*o 

M. D. S. : Tablespoonful every five 
•minutes. 



R Chloral, hydrat., . . 4*0 

Aquas dest., . . loo-o 

Solve. 

S. : Tablespoonful every half hour. 

61. Ver atria. 
Treat like morphia. 

; 62. Sausage Poison^ or Spoiled Meat. 
B Cupri sulph., . . I'o 

Aquae dest., . . 40-0 

S. D. S, : Emetic 5 give one-half at 
: once, and, if necessary, the balance in 
five minutes. 

Then give : 
B Aetheris pur., . . 2*0 

Aquae dest., . . 150*0 

Tr. opii, . . . gtt. 10 

Syr. capill. vener., . 20*0 
S. : Tablespoonful every half hour. 

63. y.inc Salts. 

I 

B Acidi tannici, . . 4*0 

Aquas dest., . . 140 o 

Syr. althseas, . . 6o"o 

j D. S, : Tablespoonful every five min- 

I utes. 

i 64. Tin Salts. 

B Pulv. ipecac, . . z-o 

Aquae dest., . . ioq-o 

Syr. simpl., . . 20*0 

M. D. S. : Emetic 5 to be taken in 
two doses inside of quarter of an hour. 
Then: 

B Magn. ust. in aqua, . 200-0 

S : Take one-third at once, then a 
tablespoonful every five minutes, besides 
plenty of milk. 

65. Petroleum y or Volatile Oils. 
B Mixt. oleos., . . looo'o 

S. : Drink continually. 



Note. — The following are the formulas of several of the prepara- 
tions ordered above : 



i66 



Varieties, 



Am. Jour. Pharro.. 

Mar., 1880. 



Aqua laxatinja Viennensis. 
Nearly identical with Infus. Sennse 
comp., Ph Germ. 
R Senna, . . . 6 p. 

Hot water, . . 48 

Infuse^ for half an hour, strain and 



Linctus oleosus. 



R 



Acaciag pulv., 
Aquce amygd. amar. dil., 
01. amygd. expres., . 
Syr. althasae, . 



ad 2 



3 



M. 



add 

Manna, . . . 8 p. 



Magnesia usta in aqua. 
Magnesia, 
Water, . 



Hydromel infantum. 
K Vienna draught. 
Syrup of manna. 



R 



I p. 

6 



3 p. 



VARIETIES. 



Wickersheimer's Preserving Fluid. — As originally published by the Prussian^ 
Government (see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1880, p. 102), the formula is incorrect in 
giving 10 grams of arsenious acid ; the quantity should be 20 grams. [Phar, Zeitungy 
1879, P- 

J. Martenson (" Phar. Zeitschr. f. Russland") directs attention to the reaction 
between the alum and the potassium carbonate in the original formula, resulting in 
the formation of potassium sulphate and rendering tedious filtration necessary, and 
suggests the following improved formula, in which the alum is partly replaced by 
borax: Dissolve arsenious acid 20 parts, potassium carbonate 90 parts, sodium 
nitrate 30 parts, sodium chloride 50 parts, potassium sulphate 40 parts, and borax, 
loo parts in 6,200 parts of water, and add glycerin 3,000 parts and 90 per cent, 
alcohol (or methylic alcohol) 500 parts. The arsenious acid and potassium carbo- 
nate should be dissolved separately by boiling with a small quantity of the water. 

In the hospitals of St. Petersburg, Dr. Sesemann employs a preserving fluid con- 
sisting of arsenious acid 10 parts, crystallized carbonate of sodium 20 parts, water 
350 parts, and glycerin 650 parts. 



A new Method of Administering Koosso. — Of all the remedies for tape-worm 
none is more certain or efficient than koosso, and many efforts have been made tO' 
bring it into such pharmaceutical shape that, while its properties as a taenicide remain 
unimpaired, it might be administered without repugnance. Dr. Corre, some years 
ago, proposed the following method, which has been successfully used in many 
cases : One-half ounce of fresh powdered koosso is treated with 1 ounce of hot 
castor oil, and afterward with 2 ounces of boiling water by displacement ; express, 
and by means of the yolk of an egg combine the two percolates into an emulsion, 
and add 40 drops of sulphuric ether, flavoring with some aromatic oil. 

This is to be taken at one dose early in the morning, after a previous fast of 
about 18 hours. The worm is usually expelled dead after 6 or 8 hours. — Buffalo 
Med. and Surg. Jour., January. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. i 
Mar., 1879. J 



Varieties, 



167 



A New Remedy — With the coming summer we are threatened with the intro- 
duction of a new remedy, for which is claimed a wonderful efficacy in cystic and 
nephritic affections. The stigmata of maize, or corn-silk," is the substance which,, 
for our sins, is to be added to the list of new drugs already unconscionably longer 
than the list of benefits derived from their use. The mode of administration of the 
maize stigmata is to be the extract or syrup, the decoction being *' unieliable." The 
results already obtained with the drug are rapid suppression of the painful symptoms 
of vesical catarrh and chronic cystitis. In cystitis subsequent to gonorrhoea, or when 
traumatic in origin, though the medicine produces marked diuresis, it excites increased 
pain. It may possibly be that the stigmata of maize do contain a product that will 
prove of therapeutic value, but the experience of recent so-called "new remedies" 
is not encouraging to the hopeful. — Med. Press and Circular, Jan. 14. 



Senecio Aureus in Rheumatism. — For removing the rheumatic diathesis, Dr. 
N. S. Davis (Chicago " Med. Journ. and Exam.," Sept.) extols the life-root plant, 
Senecio aureus. In a typical case of chronic rheumatic carditis he perscribes : 
R Acid carbolic (crystal), . . . 0*40 gram. 

Glycerin (pure), . . . i6'oo 

Tinct. gelsemium, . . . i6'oo 

Tinct. digitalis, . . . 32*00 

Fl. ext. senecio aureus, . . . 96*00 M. 

SiG. — Give 5 grams, or an ordinary teaspoonful, in a little water, just before each 
meal and at bed-time. 

The steady use of this, with due attention to diet and exercise, and the avoid- 
ance of all use of alcoholic drinks and tobacco, will probably do as much to coun- 
teract the rheumatic diathesis, regulate the action of the heart, improve digestion, 
and thereby prolong the life and usefulness of the patient, as any course of treat- 
ment we could suggest. — Med. and Surg. Rep., November. 



Formiate of Sodium as a Defervescent M. Arloing, of Paris, recently 

reported to the Academy of Medicine some experiments with this salt, showing 
that it lowers the animal temperature in a marked manner. It is poisonous when 
the dose exceeds i gram to the kilogram of the living weight of the animal. The 
effects he describes assign to formiate of sodium a place among defervescent remedies. 
This compound is therefore pointed out by M. Arloing to the attention of physi- 
cians, who might employ it in a certain number of cases where the action of salicy- 
late of sodium is feared, for the formiate does not congest the kidneys like the salicy- 
late, and does not modify the heat so profoundly as this latter substance. — Ibtd..^ 
Jan. 10. 



Administration of Creasote. — Reuss prepares capsules, each containing 5 centi- 
grams of creasote, combined with balsam of tolu as an excipient, for which pur- 
pose the balsam is admirably adapted. — ArchlVw di Farmacia, 1880, p. 37. 



Protagon, discovered by Liebreich in the brain substance ("Annalen," 1 34, p. 24 to 
44), has been regarded by some authors as a mixture of lecithin and cerebrin. A. 
Gamgee and E. Blankenhorn (" Ber. d. Chem. Ges,," 1879, P- ^^^9 1234) con- 



i68 



Varieties. 



Am, Jour. Pharir. 

Mar., 1880. 



sider this view untenable, and have prepared large quantities of protagon from the 
brain of oxen, horses and dogs by a modification of Liebreich's process. Its formula 
appears to be C^ggHgogNgPOg^, It is a white body, permanent in the air, crystallizing 
when heated with alcohol to 45°C., turning brown at i5o°C. and melting at about 
20o°C. to a brown syrup. On being continuously boiled with ether it is decomposed. 



The chemical constitution of Cerebrin, freed from lecithin and cholesterin, 
and crystallized from alcohol, was studied by Geoghegan, who found as the average 
result of different analyses : 687 per cent. C, 10-9 per cent. H and 1*5 percent. 
N. By the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on cerebrin a substance melting 
at 62 to 65°, and containing no nitrogen, was obtained, which the author calls Cety- 
lid, This is insoluble in water, very soluble in ether, chloroform and hot 

alcohol, and is transformed into palmitic acid, liberating hydrogen and marsh gas, by 
the action of melting caustic potassa. The yield of cetylid amounts to about 85 
per cent, of the cerebrin. As another result of the action of sulphuric acid on cere- 
brin, an acid is obtained which is soluble in water, reduces alkaline copper solution 
and rotates the plane of polarized light towards the left. — Ber. d. Deutsch. Chem. 
Ges.y xii, 1879, P- 2250, from Ztschr.J. Phys. Chem, 

Chaulmoogra Oil. — John Moss found it to be a mixture of the glyceryl com- 
pounds of about 2*3 per cent, cocinic acid, 4 percent, hypogaeic acid, 63 per cent, 
palmitic acid and 1 1-7 per cent, gynocardic acid, the two last acids being partly 
present in the free state. Gynocardic acid has probably the formula Cj^H^^O^, is of 
a pale yellow color, crystalline, produces the acrid burning taste, which is noticed 
when chaulmoogra is swallowed, and gives a splendid green color with sulphuric 
acid. — Phar. Jour, and Trans. ^ Sept. 27, 1879. 

Porpoise oil is manufactured largely in Provincetown, Mass. Since about the 
year 1816 it was obtained from the porpoise, the best being derived from the jaw- 
bone j it is admirably adapted for oiling watches, clocks, philosophical apparatus, etc. 
Since 1829 the black fish has also been used for producing this oil, a superior lubri- 
cating oil being obtained from the melon, which is taken from the top of the head, 
reaching from the spout-hole to the end of the nose and down to the upper jaw, and 
when taken off" in one piece has the shape of a half watermelon, weighs about 25 
pounds and yields about 6 quarts of oil. After it has been refined it will become 
somewhat milky at zero, but will not congeal. 

The oil from the melon of the cowfish or grampus is of a very yellow color, and 
when refined by chilling and straining appears to have valuable lubricating proper- 
ties. — Scient. Amer , Feb. 21. 

Porpoise oil is beginning to form an article of export from Trebizond, in Asia 
Minor. The porpoises are caught in nets and are also shot by expert marksmen. 
As much as 300 pounds of oil is occasionally obtained from a single animal, and, 
in spite of its strong smell, it was generally used for lamps before the introduction 
of petroleum. — Jour. Appl. Science^ February. 



The origin of balsamum antarthriticum indicum (see Amer. Jour. Phar.," 
1878, p. 475) is referred by Dr. Mathes to Eper^va falcata, a tree of French Guia- 



Varieties, 169 

tia. The author also confirms tlie observations of Dr. Hoelder as to the value of 
the balsam in rheumatism. — Memorahilien^ 1879. 



Glycyrrhizin is believed, by F. Sestini, to exist in liquorice root in combination 
with bases, chiefly lime. It is best prepared by exhausting the root with boiling 
water and a little lime, concentrating the decoction and precipitating with acetic 
acid. The brownish gelatinous precipitate is washed with water, dissolved in spirit 
of 50 per cent., the solution decolorized by animal charcoal and evaporated until 
the alcohol is expelled. The gelantinous mass is dissolved in alcohol, the solution 
mixed with twice its volume of ether, filtered, evaporated and the residue dried over 
sulphuric acid. Fresh root, containing 48 per cent, of water, yields S'iyi per cent, 
-of glycyrrhizin, or 6-318 on the dry root. — Jour. Chem. Soc.^ Sept., 1879. 



Oil of Rosemary consists, according to Bruylants, of about 80 per cent, of a 
iasvogyrate hydrocarbon, C^gH^g, boiling near i6o"C.5 6 to 8 per cent, of camphor, 
C^gH^gO, melting at 176° and boiling at 204°C.5 and of 4 to 5 per cent, of a borneol 
camphor, C^QH^gO. With concentrated sulphuric acid a mixture of cymene and 
terpene is obtained. — Ibid. 



For burns and scalds, the " Allg. Hopfen-Zeitung " says, one of the best but 
least known agents is oil of peppermint. Applied by pencil or cloth to the wound, 
it gives prompt ease from pain and leads to a rapid cure without scars. This oil 
should always be kept on hand. Previous to its application the burnt part may be 
kept under water. It is sometimes advisable to dilute it one-half with glycerin. 
In this form it is an excellent application to frozen extremities. — Allgemeine Wiener 
Zeitung, No. i, 1880, from Cinci. Lane, and Clinic, Feb. 14. 

Menthol, an Anti-Neuralgic. — Mr. A. D. Macdonald, writing in the " Edin- 
burgh Medical Journal," September, 1879, extols the virtues of this substance, 
which is a volatile solid obtained from Chinese or American oil of peppermint, as a 
remedy in the various forms of neuralgia. The solution he uses is the following: 
Menthol gr. ij spt. vin. rect. TT)^ i ; ol. caryoph. TT\^ x: mix. To be shaken, and 
painted over the aff'ected tract. Pain is in this way relieved in from two to four 
minutes, and within a minute or two more the attack ceases. In toothache the 
author has cleaned out the cavity of the tooth with a little cotton wool, and then 
placed a single crystal on another small piece of wool and inserted it, with the result 
that the pain instantly disappeared. A tincture of strength 1*50 is equally effective. 
Mr. Macdonald recommends menthol as a suitable external application in sciatica, 
intercostal neuralgia and brachialgia. — Phila. Med. limes^ Jan. 3. 



Alcohol and Chlorinated Lime. — One part of absolute alcohol and 4 or 5 parts 
of chlorinated lime form a mixture which becomes spontaneously heated in about 
10 minutes, when aldehyd, acetal derivatives, alcohol and a greenish-yellow oil, 
probably ethyl-hy poclilorite, distil over. The latter compound is rapidly decom- 
posed, yielding, among other products, a heavy oil, insoluble in water, froin which, 
on fractional distillation, are obtained various chlorinated compounds boiling below 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
Mar., 1880. 



•70 Varieties. {'"^■AZ-^'^r- 

77^C ; also mono- and di-chloracetal, and a compound, probably a chlorinated 
ethyl-methylic ether, which boils between 77° and 78°C. — Jour. Prak. Chem., xix^ 
P- 393. 

The Bichloride of Ethidene as an Anaesthetic. — Dr. J. H. Palmer, of Birming- 
ham, writes to the "Lancet," October 25, of this substance: 

" I have administered this drug in half a dozen cases, and so far I have met with 
favorable results. Unconsciousness is produced, so far as my experience goes, with 
very little struggling, and 4f minutes was the longest time required. The pulse is 
slowed, but remains full, and I have not yet met with any symptoms of cardiac 
failure. The breathing was quite quiet and uninterrupted, and there was an absence 
of all bronchial irritation and frothing at the mouth. Vomiting occurred once in 
the first five cases, and then was both slight and transient. The largest quantity 
used was an ounce 5 this was given to a boy eighteen years of age, who had an 
organic systolic murmur at the apex of the heart, and he was kept unconscious for 
35 minutes. In all these cases the drug was administered on a piece of lint or a 
towel. It was obtained from C. A. F. Kalbaum, of Berlin. It is a very expensive 
agent — I believe 32s. a pound — and shoald be kept in a capped bottle for the pur- 
pose of preventing evaporation." — Med. and Surg. Rep., Jan. 24. 



Formation of Ozone during the slow Oxidation of Phosphorus. By H. Mc- 
Leod. The active substance formed during the slow oxidation of phosphorus is 
probably either ozone or peroxide of hydrogen. Air in which phosphorus is slowly 
oxidizing was drawn through a U tube, inches long (filled with fragments of 
glass containing in succession sodic carbonate, a mixture of potassic bichromate and 
sulphuric acid, and potassic permanganate); the U tube was at the temperature of 
the air, or at ioo°C. In both cases the gas which passed through rendered blue a 
solution of potassic iodide and starch 5 hydroxyl, under these circumstances, would 
be completely decomposed. In another series of experiments, the gas was passed 
through a narrow U tube, heated to 150° to zoo°C., but no water was formed. It 
is extremely improbable that ozone and hydroxyl- are simultaneously formed, as 
these substances decompose each other. The author, therefore, concludes that the 
gas obtained during the slow oxidation of phosphorus possesses the properties of 
ozone and not those of hydroxyl, the only known peroxide of hydrogen. — Chem. 
and Drug , Jan. 15 

Detection of Mineral Oils in Fats. — E. Geissler saponifies a known weight of 
the fat in a rather large, long-necked flask, and afterwards adds sufficient hot water 
to make the liquid reach into the neck of the flask. On allowing this to stand for 
some time in a warm place, unsaponifiable or still unsaponified oils, if present, will 
collect on the top of the liquid, and may be readily decanted or removed with a 
pipette, and the last portions, if necessary, with ether. On weighing this portion, 
the amount of the admixture is determined. — Chem. Centralbl., 1879, P- 75°? from 
Corr. Bl. d. Ver. analyt. Chem. 



Durable Cement, prepared by J. Hart, consists of glue, white lead, oil, alum and 
borax. — Ber. Chem. Ges , xii, p. 4194. 



Am. Jour. Pharm,) 
Mar., 1880. J 



Varieties, 



Cure for Corns. — Gezow recommends the following as reliable and palnlesss : 
Dissolve 30 grams of salicylic acid and 5 grams of extract of cannabis indica in 240 
grams of collodion. The solution is applied with a camel-hair pencil. — Fharm. 
Ztschr.f. Russl.j 1879, P- 5^°- 

Improved Bleaching Process for Animal Tissues. — Tessie du Mothay places 
the substances in a moderately concentrated solution of potassium permanganate 
for a few minutes until they have become yellowish-brown, and then into a solution 
of sodium bisulphite, when they almost immediately become white. — Ztschr. d. 
Allg. Oest. Apoth. Ver., from Jahresber. Phys. Ver. Frankft. 



Flowers, grasses, moss, etc., may be readily colored by allowing them to remain 
for 12 to 24 hours in an alum solution, drying them, and then placing them, until 
the desired shade is obtained, into a not too concentrated anilin solution. 

A purely green color can only be obtained by mixing much yellow with little 
blue. Blue flowers are turned red by dilute sulphuric acid, and green by ammonia. 
Red flowers are turned green by ammonia, and yellow flowers brown. 

In order to impart a nvhite color to flowers, grasses, moss, etc., they are exposed 
to sulphurous acid vapors ; chlorine water cannot be used, because it is too energetic. 
After being colored the plants are washed carefully and dried. — Pharm. Centralh,^. 
Jan. 22, 1880, p. 35, from Fundgrube. 



Dyeing with Anilin Black. — Gravitz uses for 100 kilograms cotton a bath of 
2,000 liters water, 8 liters pure anilin oil, 32 liters hydrochloric acid and 17J kilo- 
grams potassium bichromate. The cotton, previously well boiled, is allowed to 
remain in the bath for about one hour, at the ordinary temperature 5 the bath is then 
gradually heated to about 9o°C., and this temperature is retained until the black is 
no longer turned greenish by sulphurous acid. The black obtained does not turn 
green when in contact with air or sulphurous acid, and has a chestnut-brown gloss 
after washing, which can be changed to violet or blue by boiling with alkalies or 
soap. — Pharm, Centralh., 1879, P- 34^, from Deutsch. Ind. Ztg. 



The presence of silk in textures is readily ascertained, according to Boettger, by 
heating to the boiling point with a solution of zinc chloride of 6o°B., when silk is 
dissolved, while linen and cotton are not altered. — Chem. CentralbL, Nov. 12, 1879, 
p. 734) from Jahresber. d. Phys. Ver. z. Frkft. 

Bleaching of Gray Feathers.— A. Viol and C. P. Duflot's method of bleaching 
gray feathers white consists in suspending them at a temperature of at ieasft 3o''C. in 
rectified oil of terpentine, or of other similar oils (f. e. oil of lavender, thyme, etc.), 
and exposing to the sun 5 in this liquid they are allowed to remain, being at the 
same time acted upon by light and heat, until the liquid evaporates, which usually 
takes 3 or 4 weeks, when they are rinsed off, dried and blued. Instead of in the 
bleaching liquid, they are sometimes suspended, with equal success, in an atmos- 
phere impregnated with the vapors of one of the oils mentioned.— ^/oM. Ztg.y fyorr 
Drog. Ztg. 



172 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. {^'"m^T^^'o^™" 

MINUTES OF TH E PHAtjMACE UTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, February 17th, 1880, 
The meeting was called to order by Mr. Robbins, who was requested to take the 
•chair 5 the minutes of the last meeting were read, and a correction suggested by 
Dr. R. V. Mattison, having been made, they were approved. 

The recent additions to the library were exhibited 5 these consisted of the vol- 
umes of the Encyclopoedia Britannica, which were purchased with funds derived 
from the legacy of the late Algernon S. Roberts, one of the original members of 
our College; the other works were Muter's Pharmaceutical and Analytical Chemistry, 
Allen's Commercial Analytical Chemistry, HassalTs Adulteration of Food, Sim- 
mond's Tropical Agriculture, Simmond's Waste Products and Undeveloped Sub- 
stances, The British Year-book of Pharmacy for 1879 ^ copy of the Diction- 
naire des Termes Botaniques, the latter presented by Mr. John E. Cook. It was 
thought desirable to call the especial attention of the members of the College to 
the fact that the committee having the library in charge are constantly adding such' 
works, upon the various sciences germain to pharmacy, as will maintain the charac- 
ter of the library. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited about fifty excellent photographs of medicinal plants, 
which had been presented to the College by Mr. C. L. Lochman, of Bethlehem, 
Pa. The photographs are taken from carefully dried specimens, and show the 
botanical characters of the plants very well. They are sold at the remarkably low- 
price of $1.50 per dozen, and are well adapted to aid the student in botany and 
materia medica. It was suggested that the photographs would be best preserved in 
album form. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper upon the fruit of Adansonia digitata (see p, 129), 
written by F. L. Slocum, and remarked that he had searched in numerous works at 
his command for an investigation on the constituents of the pulp of this fruit, but 
only to day had found, in an old German work, the statement, without mention of 
the author, that the acid taste was due to malic acid. 

According to the promise made. Dr. Mattison exhibited a sample of lactopeptin, 
prepared by him in accordance with the formula published by the New York manu- 
facturer. The difficulties experienced by others who had tried to prepare it were 
commented upon, and the method of avoiding them explained. 

In answer to questions bv Prof. Maisch, Dr. Mattison stated that pepsin possessed 
the power of dissolving albumen only in acid solution ; that pancreatin was active 
only in alkaline solutions ; that a mixture of the two in solution must result in the 
destruction of one, a fact which was also experimentally proven by Prof. SchefFer 
several years ago, and that the standard strength of pepsin, recognized in the United 
States, IS the dissolving of 120 grains of coagulated albumen by 10 grains of sac- 
charated pepsin in 5 or 6 hours (see "Amer. Jour. Phar ," 1872, p. 11). 

Prof. Maisch referred to a paper recently published in the " Chicago Medical 
Gazette," according to which 10 grains of the patented preparation, called lacto- 
peptin, dissolved two grains of albumen only. 

Mr, Thompson read a letter from the manufacturers of the article, who have the 
proprietary right of the name, stating that it was impossible for more than one drug- 



^'"£!''i88o^'"'^ } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, lyj 

gist in a thousand to prepare, by the published formula, lacto-peptin similar to their 
own, and that the article thus made by others would never be uniformly the same. 

Prof. Maisch alluded to the origin of this discussion, which arose from an inquiry 
for a formula of a preparation containing lacto-peptin and cinchona, and said that 
from what had been developed it was evident that no preparation could be made 
containing both pepsin and pancreatin in an active or unaltered state. He also 
alluded to the manner in which such and similar copyrighted or secret preparations 
are introduced, and the facility with which favorable reports and certificates are pro- 
cured from physicians, and even from many professors of medical colleges. 

In response to an inquiry for an efficient remedy for taenia, Prof. Maisch stated 
that he had successfully used the oleoresin of Aspidium marginale, prepared^some 
years ago by Mr. Patterson. The oleroesin, diluted with an equal bulk of alcohol, 
had been agitated with about 15 or 20 times its weight of sugar, and afterwards with 
sufficient water to form a syrup. Given in this manner in divided doses, like oleo- 
resin of male fern, it was well borne by the stomach. The same method had sub- 
sequently been tried by Mr. Kennedy with equal success, as reported by him to the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association at its last meeting. The only points to 
be observed were that the rhizome should be sound and free from any brown or 
decayed portions. 

After some conversation upon various topics, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S, WiEGAND, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The annual meeting was held January 14th. 
The reports of the officers and standing committees were read and appropriately 
referred 5 that of the retiring President, Mr. J. D. Wells, contained many valuable 
suggestions for future action. 

The following officers were elected for the enstiing year : President, John Weyer ; 
Recording Secretary, A. W.Bain ; Corresponding Secretary, Louis Heister : Treas- 
urer, Chas. Faust; Trustees — R. M. Byrnes, George Eger, H. H. Koehnken, J. D„ 
Wells and John Ruppert. 

A movement was set on foot relative to removing the stamp duty on perfumeries, 
toilet and medicinal articles, as demanded under Schedule A of the revised statutes 
of Internal Revenue. A preamble and resolutions were adopted, signed and for- 
warded to Congress, and a petition pertaining to the same subject and signed by 
most pharmacists of Cincinnati was forwarded to the same body. 

At the monthly meeting, held February nth, Professor Wayne presented for the 
cabinet the following specimens and made interesting explanatory remarks on each : 
bael fruit, coto bark, handsomely preserved underground parts of cimicifuga and 
caulophyllum, Berberis aquifolia, rare India rhubarb, lactate of calcium, sweet gum 
and botanical specimens of liquidambar styraciflua, chionanthin, a crystalline prin- 
ciple obtained by him from chionanthus virginica ; baptisin deposited from the fluid 
extract, cinnamic acid from benzoin, containing only a trace of benzoic aqid ; 
hippuric acid, obtained to the amount of 10 per cent, from commercial benzoic acid 



174 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {^^MarJ'iss'o^''"^ 

of German manufacture, and syrup of lactophosphate of calcium, which had 
undergone decomposition. In regard to the latter specimen Prof. Wayne remarked 
that lactic acid at first dissolved the calcium phosphate, that during the decomposi- 
tion lactate of calcium and free phosphoric acid was formed, that this change fre- 
quently occurred over night, and that an analogous change takes place in syrup of 
lactophosphate of iron. The addition of hydrochloric acid does not prevent this* 
change, but acts merely as a solvent of the salts precipitated. 



Alumni Association of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — The fifth 
annual meeting was held at the college rooms, February 17th. After the officers 
of the past year and the various committees had read their reports, the following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, J. W. Tomfohrde j Vice- 
Presidents, F. F. Reichenbach and O. E. Treuller; Recording Secretary, G. H. M. 
Goehringj Corresponding Secretary, L. Riesmeyer 5 Treasurer, Charles Gietner; 
Register, Ed. M. Till j Members of the Executive Board — Adolph Pfeiffer, John 
G. Goehring, Peter Hoffmann and Edmund Knoebel. 

Iowa State Pharmaceutical Association. — Pursuant to the call noticed in our 
last number (p. 123), the convention of druggists and pharmacists of Iowa assem- 
bled in the Academy of Music, in the city of Des Moines, on February loth, at 10 
o'clock A.M. Mr, L H. Bush, of Des Moines, was elected temporary chairman, 
and Geo. C. Henry, of Burlington, temporary secretary. The committee on cre- 
dentials reported that 250 druggists of Iowa had responded to the circulars sent and 
applied to join the new organization ; over one hundred of these were present at the 
opening session. The objects of the meeting were explained by Mr. George H. 
Schafer, and an address was made by the Hon. J. D. M. Hamilton in furtherance 
of the objects. 

The following letter was received and referred for further consideration : 
*' Saint Paul, Feb. 6.- — To the State Druggists' Association, Des Moines, Iowa. 
— Gentlemen : On behalf of the Western Wholesale Drug Association, I send you 
hearty greeting. The interests of our Associations are mutual, and our objects in a 
great measure identical. You seek by association to create good feeling, to remove 
prejudices, to correct wrong and unbusiness })ractices and to establish good and 
wholesome rules 5 you seek by combination to secure needed legislation and to 
remove burdensome und annoying taxation. We also have sought and are seeking, 
in the same way, the same ends. You desire to protect the educated and compe- 
tent pharmacist against the ' dangerous classes ' in the business; we have earnestly 
advocated this. The matter of adulteration in food, drink and medicine will 
undoubtedly have your attention. We hold that adulteration in drinks is bad, in 
food worse, in medicine criminal. We believe also that the wholesale druggist who 
cheapens quality to cheapen goods, and who adulterates his dealings with * baits ' 
and * catch-penny slips,' or the retail druggists who adulterate with poor and unreli- 
able goods what should be a pure and honest stock, comes under just condemnation. 
We are now seeking to secure the removal or essential modification of the present 
very unequal, unfair and arbitrary stamp act as applied to perfumery, medicines, etc., 
usually put up by the retail druggists. We trust your association will put itself on 
record as earnestly favoring such legislation, and instruct your secretary not onlv to 
CO operate with us in securing it, but also direct him to forward copy of your reso- 
lutions at once to the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means at Washing- 
ton. Very respectfully, D. R. Noyes, 

Secretary Western Wholesale Drug Association." 



^""Mariss^™*} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 175 

At the afternoon session the following permanent officers were elected : President, 
Geo. H. Schafer, Fort Madison. Vice Presidents — Geo. B. Hogin, Newton j W. S. 
McBride, Marshalltown 5 F. W. Parish, Clarindaj Francis Lee, Clinton ; C. P. 
Squires, Burlington. Secretary, H. W. Dodd, Fort Madison. Assistant Secretary, 
A. H. Miles, Des Moines. Treasurer, C. H. Ward, Des Moines. Executive Com- 
mittee — W. B. Cousins, Albia 5 W. E. Schrader, Iowa City j Norman Lichty, Des 
Moines. 

A committee of five was appointed on Constitution and By-Laws, consisting of 
George W Fuller, Keokuk 5 George C. Henry, Burlington ; C. A. Weaver, 
Des Moines i E. L, Boerner, Iowa City 5 D. B. Snyder, Lyons, who were to 
report on the following morning. The following delegates to the American Phar- 
maceutical Association were appointed : T. W. Ruete, Dubuque ; C. R. Wallace, 
Independence; A. R. Townsend, Boone; J. W. Sattherthwait, Mt. Pleasant; Max 
Conrad, Ottumwa. . 

The bill for the regulation of the practice of pharmacy and the sale of medicines 
and poisons in the State of Iowa, now before the House of Representatives, was 
taken up for discussion, by sections, and with slight modifications approved. 

On the second day the Constitution and By-Laws reported by the special com- 
mittee were considered and adopted. A reply to the Western Wholesale Drug 
Association was adopted, pledging their co-operation in the removal of the irksome 
stamp duty on perfumery, etc., and the meeting was addressed on the same subject 
by Mr. P. Van Schaack, of Chicago. 

A communication from the Women's Christian Temperance Union of Iowa on 
the subject of liquor selling by druggists was received and responded to. 

A memorial to the Legislature of Iowa was adopted and signed, urging the 
passage of the pharmacy bill now pending before that body. 

The chair appointed the following standing committees: Committee on Trade 
Interests — R. W. Crawford, Fort Dodge; A. D. Cram, Des Moines; C. H. 
Holmes, Magnolia. Committee on Pharmacy and Queries — Emil L. Boerner, 
Iowa City; Herman Tiarks, Monticello ; Martin O. Oleson, Fort Dodge. Com- 
mittee on Legislation — L. H. Bush, Des Moines; D. Storie, Chariton; D, B. 
Snyder, Lyons. 

After passing a vote of thanks to the druggists of Des Moines, and those who 
assisted in forming the association, an adjournment was had to meet again in Des 
Moines on Tuesday, February 8th, 1881. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.— At the pharmaceutical meeting held 
February 4, Mr. G. F. Schacht, Vice President, presiding, a large number of drugs 
were presented by the government through Sir Joseph Hooker, and were commented 
upon by Mr. Holmes, Prof. Bentley, Dr. Cooke and others. The specimens formed 
but a small portion of the materia medica collection which were originally in the 
India Museum. 

Mr. Greenish and Dr. Symes spoke on the use of the polarimetery and the latter 
gentleman described a new instrument made for him by Messrs. Field, of Birming- 
ham, for the price of five guineas. 

Mr. Henry Collier read a paper on tincture of senega as an emulsifying agent. 



1-6 



Editorial, — Obituary, 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 

I Man, 1880. 



Referring to his paper on the use of tincture of quillaia for the same purpose (see 
this journal, Jan , p. 41), the author reviewed the literature of senegin or polygalic 
acid, and stated that its emulsifying power was equal to that of saponin. Using 
half an ounce of water, 5 minims of tincture of senega will emulsionize of fixed 
oils 5SS, ol terebinthinas Tr^xx, copaiba ^^s, oleores. filicis ^'1, chloroform TT^^x. For 
emulsifying resins, tincture of senega is not as useful as acacia or tragacanth. Tinct. 
tola V(\^^o, tinct. senegas TrL2o, and water q. s. ad 51, make a good emulsion, but 
the quantity of tincture is large. 

Mr. Greenish regarded the introduction of tincture of senega as an emulsifying 
agent as inadmissable. Mr. Gerrard regarded it admissable for emulsifying tar. 

At the next meeting, Prof. Redwood will read a paper on dialyzed iron and other 
analogous iron preparations. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



State Pharmceutical Associations We have repeatedly urged upon our readers, 

in ditl'erent sections of the country, the importance of uniting in the organization of 
State Pharmaceutical Associations. Many of the States bordering on the Atlantic 
have such organizations 5 several are in existence in the valleys of the Mississippi 
and Ohio ; an organization has been effected in Texas, and, several years ago, one 
was formed in California. We are pleased to be able to give, in the present num- 
ber, an account of the formation of another State society, that of Iowa, which 
commences its existence with the respectable number of 250 members and with the 
demand for a pharmacy law. The Iowa State Pharmaceutical Association thus 
makes a proud record for itself at the very start, and we doubt not it will maintain 
it in the future. From the accounts received the transactions were characterized by 
an earnestness of purpose, which deserves and insures success. 

Along the eastern, southern and northern borders of the United States, as well as 
in the interior, there are still a nnmber of States in which such associations have no 
existence 5 we trust that the gathering at Indianapolis last September will have sown 
the seeds, and that their speedy germination will be stimulated by the example set 
by the druggists and pharmacists of Iowa. 



OBITUARY. 

Adolphus Frederick Haselden died in London February 4. The deceased 
has rendered valuable service to pharmacy, and more especially to the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society of Great Britain, of whicli body he was vicepresident from 1869 to 
1871, when, on the resignation of Mr. Sandford, he was elected president, in which 
capacity he served until 1873. Mr. Haselden joined the Pharmaceutical Society as 
an associate at its commencement, in 1841, and as a pharmaceutical chemist in 
1865, and has been one of the examiners, with the exception of a short interval, 
from 1864 to 1877, His contributions to pharmaceutical literature were character- 
ized by being eminently practical and frequently marked by brightness and piquancy^ 
A number of his papers will be found in previous volumes of this journal. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JPRIL, 1880. 

ALBUMINATE OF IRON. 

By C. Lewis Diehl. 

Among the ferric compounds introduced during the past few years, 
albuminate of iron has attracted some attention abroad, but has been 
noticed only to a limited extent in the United States, if I may be 
allowed to judge by the demand for it in this locality. Recently, how- 
ever, I was called upon to prepare a solution of albuminate of iron by 
a formula suggested by Dr. W. Donitz, of Tokio, Japan. This for- 
mula differed so radically from those that had previously come under 
my observation, both in the manipulation directed and the proportion of 
ferric chloride and egg albumen employed, that I was led to make some 
comparisons, and eventually a series of experiments, during the course 
of which some facts were developed that seem to merit publication. 
But before giving these experiments in detail a brief review of the 
methods and experiments that have been made public, or as far as they 
have come under my observation, is necessary; and it is also necessary 
to explain that, in so far as the method of Dr. H. Hager is concerned, 
which anticipates me in the application of common salt to the precipi- 
tation of the ferric compound, but differs widely in some particulars, I 
had no knowledge of it at the time my method was developed. 

Friese^ first recommended albuminate of iron for the treatment of 
chlorosis, rhachitis, etc. He obtained it by adding 10 grams of liq. 
ferri sesquichlor., Phar. Ger., to the white of one egg, washing the 
precipitate with distilled water until the excess of ferric chloride was 
removed, then macerating the residue for 24 hours in 500 cc. of dis- 
tilled water and 12 drops of hydrochloric acid to effect solution, The 
albuminate of iron so produced is said to contain 2*8 per cent. iron. 

KobligP observed that an albuminate containing uniformly as much 
iron as stated by Friese cannot be obtained. Also, that the albuminate 

^"Berlin. Klin. Wochenschr.," 1877; "Phar. Centralh.," Aug. 2, 1877, p. 251. 
^"Schweiz. Wochenschr. f. Phar.," 1877, No. 47, p. 381. 

12 



178 



Albuminate of Iron. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 

t April, i£8o. 



IS somewhat soluble in water, and that therefore it should not be mixed 
with large quantities of that fluid, but should be washed upon a filter as 
long as the water passes clear. 

Bernbeck^ makes the same observation as Kobligk regarding the 
solubility of the albuminate produced by Friese's method, but ascribes 
the solubility to the excess of hydrochloric acid in the officinal (Phar. 
Ger.) solution of ferric chloride. He recommends that 6 parts of dry 
ferric chloride, obtained by evaporating the officinal (Phar. Ger.) liquor, 
be dissolved in lo parts of distilled water, the solution filtered and mixed 
intimately with 20 parts of albumen ; the brown-yellow magma is trans- 
ferred to a wetted cloth, expressed with the hands, and this is repeated 
with the addition of distilled water until the excess of ferric chloride is 
removed. The residue is then dissolved by macerating it for one or 
two days in half a liter of water containing i2 drops of muriatic acid. 
By parts, the author evidently means grams; by albumen, the white of 
eggs. 

Biel' recommends the following method: lo grams of dry egg albu- 
men are dissolved in lOO grams distilled water, clarified by subsidence, 
and mixed with 3*2 gram liq. ferr. chlor. of 30 per cent, (or 2*4 grams 
Phar. Ger.), previously diluted with 10 times the quantity of water; 
the mixture is gently heated and agitated vigorously, after which 20 
grams of 90 per cent, alcohol and sufficient water are added to make 
the mixture weigh 200 grams. When used, the concentrated liquor is 
to be diluted with four times its weight of water, and then contains 
0*033 per cent. iron. By subjecting the solution to dialysis, a neutral 
product was obtained, but it still contained chlorine, and appeared to 
possess no advantage over the normal solution. Dry albuminate of iron 
is obtained by evaporating the solution to syrup, spreading this on glass 
plates, and drying at 40°C. (=I04°F.) The golden-yellow lamellae 
contain 3-34 per cent, iron, and readily dissolve in warm water after 
the addition of i or 2 drops of hydrochloric acid (to how much of the 
albuminate?). 

Holdermann^ records some experiments relative to the conditions 
which favor the precipitation of the albuminates, the influence of acid- 
ity, alkalinity, etc. The nature of the acid in the ferric salt employed 
appears to exercise a decided influence on the composition (proportion 

i"Arch. d. Phar.," 1877, Dec, p. 521. 
2*<Phar. Zeitschr. f. Russ.," 1878, No. 7, p. 193. 
^<*Arch. der Pharm.," Feb., 1878, p. 149. 



A.m. Jour. Pharm ) 
April, iSSo. J 



Albuminate of Iron, 



179 



<of iron) of the albuminate, but the latter, after its formation, does not 
appear to become changed in its composition by fractional washings. 

Merck^ recommends the method of Dr. Hoffmann (?) for preparing 
<dry albuminate of iron. Fifteen parts crystallized ferric chloride (con- 
taining 20 per cent. Fe), or 20 parts liquor ferr. sesquichlor. (Phar. 
Ger.), are dried with 10 parts dextrin at 40° to 50°C. (=104° to 122° 
F.), and pulverized ; then 80 parts pulverized egg-albumen are mixed 
with it. He describes it to form Inminous brownish-red crystals (?), 
-not hygroscopic, soluble in 50 parts cold water, and most readily at a 
temperature of 30° to 35°C. (=86° to 95°F.). A slight deposit may 
form on standing, which is readily dissolved by a few drops of hydro- 
<^hloric acid. 

Donit%'^ gives the following formula: The white of one or two eggs 
is thoroughly mixed with about 150 cc. water, and a solution of six 
'drops of officinal (Phar. Ger. ?) solution of ferric chloride in 30 cc. water 
is gradually added, agitating vigorously after each addition. The tur- 
^bidity at first produced gradually disappears on the further addition of 
the ferric solution, but the addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid 
may be necessary if the ferric solution has been added too rapidly. The 
'Solution is finally filtered, which it does more easily than if it is 
attempted to filter the solution of albumen before the addition of ferric 
•chloride. Upon evaporating the solution at a moderate temperature a 
|)ermanent and readily soluble dry albuminate is obtained. Finally, 

Hager^ in an Appendix (p. 1338) to his recently-completed " Hand- 
buch der Pharmaceutischen Praxis," gives the following formula for 
'''ferrum albuminatum saccharatum " : 100 cc. albumen (from 5 hen's 
•eggs) are vigorously shaken with 400 cc. water, the solution is strained 
without expression, mixed with 250 cc. of a cold saturated solution of 
common salt, and then with 40 cc. liq. ferri sesquichlor. (Phar. Ger.) 
diluted with 160' cc. water. After about half a day, the mixture is 
"diluted wilh 3 liters of water, well shaken, the precipitate collected 
upon a muslin strainer, washed with water, etc. The well-drained 
magma, which when dry amounts to about 10 grams, is mixed with 
60 grams of powdered refined sugar, dried at the temperature of the 
water-bath on porcelain plates, weighed, powdered, and mixed with suf- 
ficient sugar to make 100 grams of saccharate. This contains 0*65 to 
<0'66 per cent, ferric oxide; the pure albuminate 6*5 to 6*6 ferric 

^"Phar. Zeit. " March, 1878. 

-^"Berlin. Killn. Wochenschr,," Sept.. 8, 1879, p 535, 



i8o 



Albuminate of Iron. 



f Am. Jour. Pharz»„ 
\ April, 1880 



oxide. The same preparation may be obtained by precipitating the 
solution of the albuminate of iron with alcohol, etc. 

As mentioned, my first practical acquaintance with albuminate of 
iron was with the solution produced by the formula of Dr. Donitz. 
This solution is, as described by the author, a perfectly transparent 
light-brown liquid, nearly tasteless, and will keep well in cool weather 
for several weeks. It contains, as I have determined by calculation 
and subsequent experiments, an excess of albumen, even when the 
smaller quantity of egg-white is employed, for which reason the latter 
quantity was adopted for the experiments made with this solution. 
When such a solution is evaporated in a current of warm air a light- 
brown, transparent residue is obtained, which may be detached in the 
form of scales, and readily furnishes a powder having a very light cin- 
namon-brown color. This dry albuminate also corresponds to the 
description of Dr. Donitz, being readily dissolved by water to form a 
clear solution, particularly if a modicum of dilute hydrochloric acid is 
added. The yield, however, is necessarily very small, owing to the 
dilute character of the solution;^ and the preparation of dry albuminate 
from such, on any considerable scale, is therefore out of question; and 
though subsequent experiments showed that a far more concentrated 
solution of albuminate of iron could be obtained by a modification of the 
method, it nevertheless seemed desirable to ascertain some process — if 
possible one of precipitation — whereby the evaporation and consequent 
exposure of any considerable proportion of liquid should be avoided. 
To this end, it became necessary to subject the known or accepted 
characters of albumen and its compounds to critical review, when,, 
among others, the following points bearing directly upon the subject 
under consideration were developed.^ 

I.. Albumen is not precipitated from its aqueous solutions by ferric 
chloride,^ and even prevents the precipitation of the oxide of that metal 
by alkalies. 

^Egg-white contains about 12-5 per cent, dry albumen (which quantity has been 
accepted by me in my experiments), consequently six fluidounces of Donitz's solu- 
tion will yield only about one drachm of albuminate. 

The principal works consulted were '* Graham-Otto's Lehrbuch der Chemie," 
"Organische Chemie," vol. iii, by H. v. Fehling, and "Dictionary of Solubilities 
of Chemical Substances," by Frank A. Storer. 

This does not, however, apply to the egg-white in its natural condition, as is 
evident from the methods hitherto pursued for the preparation of albuminate of iron. 



"^"^Xis^Bo^"'} Albuminate of Iron, i8i 

2. Aibumen is precipitated from its aqueous solutions by dilute sul- 
phuric, nitric, hydrochloric and pyro- and meta-phosphoric acids ; but 
4)y the ordinary tribasic phosphoric acid, or by organic acids, only upon 
the addition of chloride or sulphate of sodium, or other alkali salts. 

3. Albumen appears to form acid and normal salts, the first contain- 
'^ing one molecule of base, the second two molecules. It also appears 
to combine directly with some salts — principally basic — in the same 
(.proportions . 

4. The acid salts of albumen are sometimes soluble, the normal salts 
generally insoluble in water ; but neither are insoluble in excess of 
metallic salt or albumen. 

5. The formula for albumen is, according to Lieverhuhn, Cj^^Hj22 
^13^2^4/? so generally accepted. That of its acid salts would 
be represented by the formula MO,Cj4^Hi22N^3S204^ , and that of its 
normal salts by 2lVIO,Ci4^Hi22NigS2044. 

It becomes evident, from the above, that my inquiries gave no clue 
ito a precipitate for albuminate of iron, and it was therefore by a purely 
empirical process of reasoning that I decided to try the effect of a satu- 
rated solution of common salt upon a quantity of Donitz's solution of 
albuminate of iron, to which an excess of ferric chloride had been pre- 
viously added. The result was an immediate, copious and evidently 
^complete precipitate, which my experiments seem to prove to be an 
albuminate of definite composition, and which is obtainable from solu- 
tions containing an excess of albumen as well as from such that con- 
tain an excess of ferric chloride. The following is a brief account of 
kthe experiments made : 

I. To a quantity of Donitz's solution corresponding to one egg- 
-white, one fluidrachm liq. ferri chlor., U. S. P., diluted with water and 
partly neutralized with ammonia, was added, whereby no other change 
than a slight deepening in color was produced. On now adding a 
■quantity of saturated solution of chloride of sodium (hereafter desig- 
nated as " solution of salt "j, a copious, light brown precipitate was 
produced, while the supernatant fluid had a decided yellow color, gave 
abundant evidence of iron, and only faint evidence of albumen. The 
4)recipitate was collected, expressed, shaken with distilled water, in 
which it dissolved completely, and again precipitated with solution of 
rsalt. The filtrate now passed colorless, and gave only faint evidence 



The old notation is retained in this paper. 



i82 



Albuminate of Iron. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm^ 

t April, 1880. 



of iron and of albumen. The strongly expressed precipitate constituted 
a translucent mass, light brown in thin, dark reddish-brown in thiclc 
layers, very friable when dry, and then easily reduced to a very fine- 
powder having a light cinnamon-brown color. It was readily soluble- 
in water. Its quantitv was not determined. 

2. A quantity of Dtinitz's solution corresponding to one egg-white 
(one ounce, more or less) yielded, upon evaporation in a current of 
warm air, 56 grains of albuminate of iron in the form of friable, light 
yellowish-brown, translucent scales, which produced a very light cin- 
namon-brown powder. 

3. A portion of the same solution, corresponding to the same quan- 
tity of egg-white, was treated with one-third its volume of solution of 
salt, the precipitate collected, washed with a mixture of one volume of 
solution of salt and three volumes of distilled water (hereafter desig- 
nated " dilute solution of salt "), subjected to powerful expression andj 
dried. It weighed 34'grains and possessed all the characters of the- 
albuminate of iron obtained by Exp. i. The filtrate from the precipi- 
tate, however, gave but faint evidence of iron and abundant evidence 
of albumen, the washing being continued as long as decided evidence 
of the latter was given. Both the filtrate and washings appeared color- 
less. 

From these experiments it became evident that, while in Exp. i 
very decided excess of ferric chloride had been used, in Exp. 2 and 3 
albumen was in excess. This excess of albumen is represented in the 
dry albuminate obtained by Exp. 2, but is removed by washing in Exp. 
3, just as the excess of ferric chloride is removed by washing in Exp... 
I. The quantity of ferric chloride employed in Exp. i was therefore- 
reduced, some attempt being also made to establish a working formula. 

4. 10 troyounces of egg-white were diluted to 20 fluidounces witb> 
distilled water, a solution of 3 fluidrachms of liq. ferri chlor., U. S. P.^ 
in 10 fluidounces of distilled water was added, and the solution filtered.. 
10 fluidounces of solution of salt were now added, the precipitate col^- 
lected on wetted muslin, washed with dilute solution of salt, drained,, 
expressed powerfully, and dried. The product weighed 9 drachms (= 
1 1*25 per cent, of the egg-white employed) and had all the characters of 
the albuminate obtained by Exp. i. The filtrate was yellow, thougb 
much lighter than that obtained by Exp. i ; the washings finally gave 
evidence only of traces of iron and of albumen. The press cake„ 
though obtained by powerful pressure, was translucerut dark reddish- 



Am. Jour Pharm. ) 
April, 1880, J 



Albuminate of Iron, 



brown only in the centre, the margins, upon which the pressure was 
evidently not so strong, being opaque and light brownish. 

5. One troyounce of egg-white was treated precisely as in Exp. 4, 
but instead of precipitating the albuminate, the solution was evapo- 
rated to dryness. It yielded 60 grains (=i2"5 per cent, of the egg-white 
employed) of dry substance in the form of dirty dark-brownish scales, 
having a greenish tinge, and when powdered had a light brownish-grev 
color, very distinct from that of the products previously obtained. 

6. Experiments 4 and 5 having convinced me that the quantity of 
ferric chloride used was still in excess, a series of experiments were 
made, which are not necessarily given in detail, but which consisted in 
adding variable proportions of ferric chloride to solution of egg-white, 
precipitating the solutions, and selecting from among the proportions 
so determined that in which there was evidence of a decided but small 
excess of ferric chloride in the filtrate. This was found to be 50 
minims of liq. ferri chlor., U. S. P., to 4 troyounces of egg-white, and 
operating with these proportions at different times, the following yields 
of albuminate of iron were obtained, all of which corresponded in their 
physical characters, solubilities, etc., with the albuminate obtained by 
the first experiment : 

4 troyounces egg-white yielded 214 grs. = 11-23 P^r cent, albuminate. 
12 " « « 720 « = 12-50 « « 

22 " " « 1312 " = 12-42 " " 

With the above proportions the filtrate still had a faint yellow color 
and gave a decided ferric reaction, but only a faint reaction for albu- 
men, while, when completely washed with dilute solution of salt, the 
final washings failed to give any appreciable evidence of either. 

Assuming now, for the purpose of comparison, that albuminate of 
iron is a definite compound in which i molecule of ferric chloride (Fcg 
CI3) is united with i molecule of albumen (Cj^4Hj22Nj8S2044)/ the fol- 
lowing table will show the relation of the former to the latter in the 
different processes that have been suggested. 

^ A normal salt would require 2 molecules Yt^.^ to 3 molecules albumen. 



1 8 4 Albuminate of Iron. { ^ Vp 



Process. 


Liq. F'e 

U. S. Ph. 

sp. gr. 1-355 
= 12-8 p.c. Fe 


rri Chlor. 

Phar. Ger. 
sp. gr. 1-480 
= 15 p. c. Fe 


Natural 
Egg-white 
(taken to contain 
12 5 p. c. dry- 
albumen. 


Dry 
Egg-albu- 
men 


Excess of 
dry egg- al- 
bumen di- 
rected. 


Excess of 
Liq. Ferri 
Chlor., 
U. S. P., 
directed. 




Gram. 


Gram. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Grams. 


Gram. 


Theory, 


I 'O 


0-854 




3-669 






Friese's, 


i*o 


0-854 


2-628 


0-341 




0-907 


Bernbeck's, 


I'O 


0-854 


2-8oo 


350 




0-9047 


BiePs, 


I'O 


0-854 




3*570 




0-0272 


Merck's, 


TO 


0-854 




3-410 




0908 


Donitz's, <2, 


I o 


0-854 


40-960 


5*120 


I 451 




Donitz's, 


I'O 


854 


82-000 


10250 


6-581 




Hager's, 


I'O 


0854 


1-640 


0-205 




09442 


Diehl's, 


I'O 


0-854 


29'03o 


3-629 




O'OI I I 



An examination of the table will make it clear that in Friese, Bern- 
beck's and Hager's process the quantity of ferric chloride is largely in 
excess of that required to form an albuminate ; that Donitz directs a 
considerable excess of albumen when the smaller quantity {a) of the 
latter is employed, and a very large excess when the larger quantity {b) 
is used ; while Biel and Merck, whose processes are based upon the 
direct combination of ferric chloride and albumen, direct proportions 
that agree well with that theoretically required. The quantity used by 
me corresponds still more closely with that required by the formula 
provisionally accepted, and the proportion having been arrived at experi- 
mentally, before any calculation of the required quantity was made, 
seems to support the view that in the formation of albuminate of iron 
I molecule of ferric chloride and i molecule of albumen are concerned. 
The large excess of ferric chloride used by Hager is, as has been shown, 
unnecessary, and was probably adopted by him without proper reflec- 
tion. That employed by Friese and Bernbeck, however, seems to 
have been arrived at by practical observation, and, inasmuch as I had 
failed to obtain precipitates by the direct action of solution of ferric 
chloride upon egg-white, if the latter was at all diluted with water, the 
following experiments were made to throw some light upon this sub- 
ject, as well as upon some points embraced in the foregoing. 

7. To 204 grains of egg-white, beaten to destroy stringiness, 75 
minims of liq. ferri chlor., U. S. P., (corresponding to Friese's method 



Am Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1880, / 



Albuminate of Iron, 



^nd proportions) were added. A light-yellow turbid magma was pro- 
duced, which was mixed with an equal volume of water, transferred to 
a filter and washed with water until the washings passed colorless. The 
residue upon the filter, which was quite bulky, formed a gelatinous 
mass upon standing, and, when diluted with water after it had attained 
that condition, failed to pass through the filter. After several days the 
•contents of the filter were further diluted with water and transferred 
to a new filter, when, very slowly, the solution passed through the 
filter. The clear liquid yielded, on evaporation, an albuminate of iron 
in the form of transparent yellowish-brown scales. Owing to unavoid- 
able loss its quantity was not determined. 

8. Simultaneously with this experiment (7) a parallel experiment . 
was made in which liq. ferr. chlor. was evaporated to dryness, redis- 
■solved in water, filtered and then added to the pure egg-white (corres- 
ponding to Bernbeck's method and proportions). In this instance a 
copious precipitate was obtained which was quite distinct from that 
obtained by Friese's method, and may be described as granular. It 
was very readily washed, but when allowed to drain over night it had 
completely changed its character. A gelatinous thick liquid had formed, 

a portion of which had passed through the filter, and was consequently 
lost. The receiving vessel being changed, the liquid was further diluted 
with water, when it very slowly passed through the filter, forming a 
•clear liquid. This yielded a dry albuminate corresponding in appear- 
ance with that obtained by Exp. 7. It was not weighed. 

9. Two troyounces of egg-white were dissolved in 7 fluidounces of 
water, 5 fluidounces of solution of salt added and the solution filtered. 
The filtration proceeded quite slow when compared with the filtration 
of a similar solution of albumen to which ferric chloride had been 
added in place of salt. Upon the addition of 25 minims of liq. ferr, 
chlor., U. S. P., previously diluted with fluidounces of water, a 
precipitate of albuminate of iron was obtained, just as in the instances 
in which the inverse process was employed, and the filtrate and wash- 
ings gave very faint evidence of albumen, though the former gave 
decided evidence of iron. The albuminate produced had the same 
character as that obtained by Exp. i. 

10. The same quantity of the same egg-white was dissolved in 
water, the solution mixed with solution of salt, and filtered just as in 
Exp. 9. Diluted hydrochloric acid was then added drop by drop. When 
25 drops had been added, the liquid became permanently turbid ; with 



i86 



Albuminate of Iron, 



{Am. Jour. Pharn .. 
April, 1880. 



5 drops more a decided turbidity was produced, and after adding 5; 
drops more, a further addition failed to produce a precipitate in the 
clear, filtrate. The precipitated albumen was not subjected to nearer 
experiment, but it deserves a thorough examination since there were 
decided evidences of change, // being no longer coagulahle by heat. Its 
quantity, also, was not determined, but it appeared to be less, both in vol- 
ume and weight, than that obtained from the same albumen by precipita- 
tion with ferric chloride. 

The first two experiments (7 and 8) have shown, beyond a doubt^ 
that concentrated solutions of albumen (in the form of the natural! 
egg-white) are readily precipitated by ferric chloride, either in the pres- 
ence or absence of hydrochloric acid, but that the precipitates obtained 
under either condition again become soluble when the excess of ferric 
chloride has been removed by washing. They likewise show that 
while Bernbeck's view, that the solubility of the albuminate is due to 
excess of hydrochloric acid in the liq. ferri chlor. is probably incorrect, 
the condition in which the albuminate of iron is precipitated when 
lerric chloride, free from hydrochloric acid is employed, is of such a 
character that it can be readily washed so as to free it from excess of 
ferric chloride ; while that obtained by Friese's method, being in a 
very finely divided condition, cannot be washed with the same readi- 
ness, and that, therefore, a portion of the precipitate, being completely 
freed from excess of ferric chloride, may again enter solution before 
the remainder is sufficiently washed. 

Experiment 9 has shown that the process of precipitation, by the 
intervention of common salt, can be inverted so that the ferric chloride 
will act as the final precipitant.^ The method, however, has the dis- 
advantage in that the solution of albumen and salt filters very slowly,, 
while that of albumen and ferric chloride filters with comparative 
rapidity. It is not clear, on the one hand, why common salt should effect 
the precipitation in dilute solutions of albuminate of iron, and why, on 
the other hand, ferric chloride should only precipitate albumen when it 
is in its natural solution. Both propositions must for the present be 
accepted as facts, which may find explanation by further experiments. 
It may be, furthermore, inferred that the small quantity of chloride of 
sodium and other salts, naturally present in egg-white in its concentrated 
natural solution, is sufficient to effect precipitation upon the addition! 

1 This is already shown by Hager's method, but his method was not known io 
me at the time the experiment was made. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

April, 1880. j 



Albuminate of Iron. 



187 



of ferric chloride ; but in this event a much smaller quantity of the 
latter than that employed by Friese or Bernbeck should effect the same 
result. 

Experiment 10 was made simply to determine the probable effect of 
an excess of hydrochloric acid in the liq. ferri chlor., and is, perhaps^, 
of greater interest in its relation to albumen itself than in its relation 
to albuminate of iron. Judging from the action of ferric chloride, free 
from hydrochloric acid, upon albumen (Exp. 8), as well as from the 
evidently incomplete precipitation of albumen by the dilute hydro- 
chloric acid (Exp. 10), it seems justifiable to conclude that in the pre- 
cipitation of albuminate of iron in the presence of common salt the- 
action of the ferric chloride is independent of the presence of free 
hydrochloric acid. The whole question in these bearings is, however^ 
too intricate to be disposed of without further and comprehensive 
study, and may rest here for the present. 

In the foregoing a ready method for preparing dry albuminate of 
iron has been given. It remains to consider whether the product 
obtained by the method is uniformly the same. In order to satisfy 
myself on this point the ferric oxide was determined by a method,, 
which, for the purpose, appeared to me sufficiently accurate, but would 
not be sufficiently so if my object had been the establishment of a 
formula for the compound. 

I'O gram of albuminate of iron obtained by Exp. 4 was subjected to 
incineration, at a dull red heat, until it ceased to lose weight. The 
weight of the ash being ascertained, this was exhausted with water, the 
solutions obtained were evaporated, dried, and heated at an incipient 
red heat as long as it lost weight. The weight of soluble salts (prin- 
cipally chloride of sodium) so determined being deducted from the 
total ash, the quantity of ferric oxide in one gram of the original 
albuminate was ascertained, and from the figures so obtained the per- 
centage of ferric oxide in the pure albuminate was determined as shown, 
in the following : 

I'O gram albuminate, Exp. 4, incinerated until it ceases to lose 

weight = . . . . . o*i2i gram ash 

Ash yielded to water, .... 0*073 " ^^^^ 

Difference is ferric oxide, . . . 0-048 *' Fe,,0,. 

100 grams of the albuminate, therefore, contains 7*3 grams of salt 



i88 



Albuminate of Iron, 



A.m. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1880. 



and 92*7 grams pure albuminate of iron, representing 4*8 grams of 
ferric oxide. 

Then, if 927 grams of pure albuminate contain 4*8 grams of ferric 
oxide, 100 grams of pure albuminate contain 5*16 grams = 5'i6 per 
cent. FegOg. 

The experiment showed that the product obtained by the process of 
precipitation contains a considerable proportion of chloride of sodium. 
-Remembering that the expressed precipitate was translucent in the 
centre and opaque in the margin, a portion of the clear central mass of 
the press cake obtained by Exp. 6 was dried and treated precisely as 
the above. The result was as follows : 

H'o gram clear albuminate, Exp. 6, yielded, . . 0*105 gram ash 

Ash yielded, ..... 0*056 " salt 

Difference, ..... 0*049 " ^^^2^3 
100 grams of this albuminate, therefore, contains only 5'6 grams of 

salt, and the pure albuminate of iron, constituting the remainder, = 

5*19 per cent. Fe203. 

Equal portions of the three lots of albuminate of iron obtained 

according to Exp. 6 were now powdered together, and i gram of this 

powder treated as above. The result now was as follows : 

I o gram mixed albuminate, Exp. 6, yielded, . . 0*120 gram ash 

Ash yielded, ..... 0*072 " salt 

Difference, ..... 0048 " Fe.Oy 

Showing that 100 grams contained 7*2 grams of salt, and that the 
pure albuminate contained 5*17 per cent. Fe203. 

It remained now to subject the albuminates of iron obtained by 
Friese's (Exp. 7) and Bernbeck's (Exp. 8) methods to similar quantita- 
tive examination. But, inasmuch as the peculiar method by which 
these albuminates were obtained seemed to exclude the presence of 
saline components other than ferric compounds, these were simply 
incinerated, and the residue weighed as ferric oxide. 

I gram albuminate, Exp 7, yielded 048 gram = 4*8 per cent. FejOg 
I gram albuminate, Exp. 8, yielded 0*048 garm = 4*8 per cent. FegOg 

thus pointing to identity in their composition, notwithstanding that the 
one was obtained with normal solution of ferric chloride, and the other 
with ferric chloride which had been previously deprived of its excess 
of acid. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 1 
April, 1880. j" 



Albuminate of Iron, 



189 



As before stated, the method of determination is not such as should 
be employed to secure that degree of accuracy that is necessary to 
determine the chemical constitution of albuminate of iron. The results 
are, however, sufficiently accurate to show that the compound obtained 
by the method of precipitation is uniform in its composition, and points 
out very clearly that an albuminate of iron of definite constitution 
exists. 

What its precise constitution may be, however, is a question which 
I must leave to others, who have more time for such investigation, to 
decide ; and I will simply observe in this connection that, if the 
formula of albuminate of iron represents i molecule albumen (C^^^H^g^ 
^13^2^22=^^' 2) ^ molecule ferric chloride (Fe2Cl3=i62*5), the 
compound would represent 4*5 per cent, ferric oxide; or, if it represents 
I molecule each of albumen and ferric oxide (Fe203=8o), it would con- 
tain 4*728 per cent, ferric oxide. 

The following table shows the percentages of ferric oxide that have 
been obtained or are claimed for the different albuminates i 



Albuminate. 


Ferric Oxide. 


Corresponding to 


Metallic 


Iron. 


Ferric Chloride. 


If Fe,Cl3,C,,,H,,,N,3S ,0,„ . 


4-500 


p. c. 


3-147 


p c. 


9-150 


p. c. 


If Fe,03,Ci,,H,2,Ni3S,0,,, . 


4 728 


(C 


3-304 


(( 


9-600 


(( 


Friese's, . . . . 


3*998 


(( 


2-8oo 


(< 


8-122 


(( 


Blel's, 


4-769 


(( 


3-340 


(( 


9-719 


<c 


Hager's, . , . . 


6*500 


<( 


4'55o 


(( 


13-201 




DiehTs, Exp. 4, 


5-160 


<( 


3*612 


11 


10-479 


u 


Do. clear, " 6. . 


5-190 


« 


3*633 




10-540 


(( 


Do mixed, " 6, 


5-170 


(< 


3-619 


t( 


10500 


<( 


Friese's, " 7? • 


4-800 


<( 


3-360 


<< 


9'748 


(( 


Bernbeck's, <' 8, 


4*8oo 


(( 


3-360 


<( 


9-748 


<( 



Finally, my observations may be summed up as follows : 

1. Albuminate of iron, in a dry condition, can be obtained with 
great ease by a method of precipitating its solutions with common 
salt. 

2. So obtained, whether from solutions containing an excess of 



190 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1880, 



ferric chloride or an excess of albumen, it is constant in its composi- 
tion as regards the relation of albumen to iron. 

3. The dried and powdered product is readily dissolved by water. 

4. Obtained by the method recommended, it contains a certain per- 
centage of common salt, the presence of which, however, does not 
interfere with its solubility, nor, it is likely, with its therapeutic appli- 
cation. ^ 

5. The process recommended is rapid, and conducted under condi- 
tions in which the albumen cannot be unfavorably affected by exposure 
to the heat of summer; and, even if exposed for a longer period than 
is necessary, the presence of salt is calculated to prevent the changes 
to which albumen or its compounds, in a moist condition, are subject. 

6. The albuminate represents about 5 per cent, of ferric oxide, or 
10 per cent, of ferric chloride. 

Louis'Z'ille, Ky., March 20, 1880 



PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 

By R. F. Fairthorne, Ph.G. 

Emulsion of Codliver Oil and Phosphate of Calcium. — The following 
will be found to make a satisfactory and pleasant preparation : 

R Calcli phosphatis, .... ^ii gr. viii 

Acid, hydrochlor., . . . . , q. s. 

Liq. ammoniae, . . . . q. s. 

Aquae, ...... f^iii 

Mix phosphate with a small portion of the water, and the acid in 
sufficient quantity to dissolve, filter through cotton and add the remain- 
der of the water. Pour into this an excess of solution of ammonia, 

1 Dr. Hager recommends for his preparation, which is preliminarily obtained 
essentially like mine, that, after the addition of solution of salt, the mixture be 
diluted with a considerable quantity of water, the precipitate collected, and washed 
with water so as to remo've the salt as much as possible. I have not had opportunity to 
test the value of this direction, though my observations lead me to fear that the 
entire precipitate might by such procedure again enter solution. Some experiments 
made within tbe last few days show that a considerable quantity of the salt can be 
removed from the dry powder by shaking it with water and immediately throwing 
the mixture on a filter. The larger portion of the liquid passes colorless, and con- 
' . tains much salt ; but the residue on the filter very soon assumes a gelatinous condi- 
tion, and finally dissolves. It is my opinion that the larger part of the salt may be 
removed from the moist press-cake by immersing it in water until it begins to exer- 
•cise solvent action on the albuminate, then removing the cake and drying. 



^'^Ap'Jslo.'"'} Xanthoxylum Carolinianum, 191 

wash the precipitate on muslin until the washings are tasteless, and, 

after thoroughly squeezing it, mix it with the following ingredients, 
viz.: 

01. morrhuae, .... f^iii 

P. g. acacias, ..... 3vi 
P. sacchari albi, .... 

01. sassafras, . . . . . gttxv 

01. gaultherias, .... gttvi 

01. cinnamomi, ..... gttiv 

Aquae, q. s. ft., .... ^.S^iii 

Rub the phosphate of calcium with the sugar and gum in a mortar, 
and water sufficient to reduce it to the consistence of cream, add this 
to the oil previously put in a bottle and shake well for a few minutes. 
The rest of the water may then be poured in a little at a time. The 
•essential oils can be mixed with the codliver oil. 

Mow to Preserve Tragacanth Paste. — To half a pint of tragacanth 
paste are added 25 drops of oil of sassafras. This will be found to 
preserve it without spoiling for three months, even in warm weather. 

A quick way to make Paregoric. — If, instead of powdered opium, a 
•quantity of tincture of opium containing an equivalent proportion is used, 
paregoric can be made in ten minutes equal in every respect to the offici- 
nal, provided the laudanum used is of proper strength, thus: 

R Tinct. opii, . . . f3iss and 48 minims 

(which contains the medicinal virtues of i drachm of p. opium) 
Acid, benzoic, . . . sixty grains 

Camphorae, .... forty grains 

01. anisi, .... one fluidrachm 
Mel. desp., . . . two troyounces 

Alcohol, dilut., . thirty and one-half fluidounces 

Mix and filter. 



XANTHOXYLUM CAROLINIANUM. 

By George Havens Colton, Ph. G. 
[From an Inaugural Essay.) 
A quantity of the bark was carefully examined to insure its identity 
and freedom from admixture with other barks. A portion of the bark 
was exhausted with alcohol and the tincture evaporated to the con- 
sistence of a soft extract. This was treated with petroleum benzin 
until a portion of the benzin left no residue on evaporation. Upon 
evaporating, a residue was obtained, consisting of a greenish colored 
:fixed oil, of an intensely acrid taste, soluble in alcohol, ether and chloro- 
form, and mixed with a crystalline substance. 



192 



Xanthoxylum Caroiinianum, 



Am. Jour. Pharrri. 
April, 1879. 



These crystals, after freeing from oil by washing with benzin, and 
repeated crystallization from alcohol, were obtained in tasteless, color- 
less silky needles, readily soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, 
less soluble in benzin, insoluble in boiling water or solution of potassa. 
When heated on platinum foil they fused, and burned with a smoky 
flame. Gently heated on paper the substance fuses to a transparent 
resinous mass, which dissolved in alcohol, and can be obtained in crys- 
tals on evaporation of the solution. From these reactions it was con- 
sidered to be a crystallizable resin. 

The remainder of the extract, after treating with benzin, was repeat- 
edly washed with ether; the ether evaporated, and the residue dissolved 
in a little alcohol and poured into water, which precipitated a soft browo' 
somewhat acrid resin, soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform ; insoluble 
in benzin, and but sparingly soluble in solution of potassa. 

The undissolved portion of the extract was treated with water, which 
almost entirely dissolved it, leaving a tasteless residue. The aqueous 
solution was mixed with calcined magnesia, and carefully evaporated to 
dryness, and exhausted by repeated boiling with alcohol, which on eva- 
poration left a bitter yellowish mass. This was dissolved in water and 
solution of tannin added, as long as a precipitate was produced, which 
was collected, washed with a little water mixed with oxide of lead, and: 
carefully dried. This was treated with boiling alcohol, and the liquid, 
found to be free from bitter taste, and to leave no residue on evapora- 
tion. A portion of the precipitate which had been treated with alcohol,, 
was mixed with water, solution of acetate of lead added, and boiled for 
a few minutes and filtered. The filtrate, after removing the lead by- 
sulphuretted hydrogen, filtering, and evaporating to a small bulk, was 
free from bitter taste; the bitter principle appearing to have been 
entirely lost. 

The drug which had been previously exhausted with alcohol, was 
next percolated with water and yielded a very bitter infusion, which 
was evaporated to a small bulk and poured into alcohol, which precipi- 
tated a considerable amount of gum. After separating the gum, most 
of the alcohol was recovered by distillation, and the residue mixed with 
magnesia, and evaporated on a water-bath to dryness. This was then 
washed with successive portions of alcohol, until the washings ceased 
to have a bitter taste, and the washings evaporated. The residue was 
dissolved in water, and found to contain a small amount of tannin, 
which was removed by solution of subacetate of lead. The lead was 



Tests for Arsenic. 193 

removed with sulphuretted hydrogen and the filtrate, after boiling, 
allowed to stand for some time in contact with animal charcoal, which 
absorbed the bitter principle. 

The animal charcoal was then thrown on a filter and washed with 
cold water to remove sugar, which was found to be present by Trom- 
mer's test, and was obtained in an uncrystallizable condition on the 
evaporation of the washings. The residue on the filter was then dried 
and exhausted with hot alcohol, which on evaporation yielded a yel- 
lowish mass, having an intensely bitter taste ; soluble in alcohol and 
water, but insoluble in benzin, ether and chloroform. With concen- 
trated nitric acid it produces a bright red color, which slowly fades to 
yellow. Sulphuric acid gives a purplish-brown coloration. Molyb- 
date of ammonium, dissolved in sulphuric acid, produces a purple color 
with tinge of brown, changing to red, then orange, and finally pale 
yellow. Its aqueous solution yielded precipitates with the following 
reagents: With solution of iodohydragyrate of potassium, yellowish- 
white ; with mercuric chloride, white ; with platinic chloride, yellowish- 
white; with iodine, in solution of potassium iodide, orange, and with 
solution of tannin, greyish-white. From the above reactions the bitter 
principle of the bai;k was considered to be an alkaloid. 

A portion of the bark by distillation with water yielded a trace of 
volatile oil, enough of which could not be obtained for examination. 

Five grams of the bark were incinerated and vielded sixty-two centi- 
grams of ash, equal to twelve and two-fifths per cent., of which twenty 
per cent, was soluble in water, ^nd eighty per cent, soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. An analysis showed the presence of potassium, calcium, 
and magnesium, existing as chlorides, carbonates and phosphates. 



TESTS FOR ARSENIC. 

By Phil. Hoglan, Ph.G. 
In a recent trial of a woman in Coshocton county, for administering 
arsenic to her husband, who died August 13th, 1879, with all the symp- 
toms of arsenical poisoning, the toxicologist, who made an examination 
of the viscera of the deceased and found four-fifths of a grain of arsenic 
in the liver, and traces in the stomach and intestines, used Reinsch's 
and Marsh's tests, and proved the metallic spot on porcelain, produced 
in Marsh's test to be arsenic by the hypochlorite of sodium and the 
nitrate of silver tests, and the production of octahedral crystals in 

13 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

April, 1880 



194 



Tests for Arsenic, 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

t April, 1880. 



Reinsch's test, as distinguishing arsenic from antimony. The cross- 
examiner read from a work on jurisprudence, that the hypochlorite of 
sodium test was wholly unreliable, as it would also dissolve the antimonial 
spot^ though more slowly. This is in direct conflict with the U. S, 
Dispensatory, p. 34, fourteenth edition. Query: Which is correct.? 
The production of octahedral crystals, which is considered so charac- 
teristic of the arsenical sublimate, was shown to be unreliable from a 
recent statement of Prof. Wormley's, that antimony, under certain con- 
ditions, will produce octahedral crystals^ which cannot be distinguished in 
appearance from those of arsenic. This seems to destroy a distinguishing 
test for arsenic, hitherto considered as one of the most delicate and 
reliable. If antimony does act like arsenic under certain conditions, 
perhaps the "Journal" can give those conditions. The toxicologist 
should know what they are. The woman was acquitted, and we have 
no doubt, the fact that subnitrate of bismuth had been prescribed for 
the deceased had its weight with the jury. The arsenic might have 
been an impurity in the subnitrate of bismuth. Lesson : Every drug- 
gist should test his bismuth preparations and be sure of the absence of 
arsenic. 

Ne-xvcomerstoivn^ O., March 19th, 1879. 



Note by the Editor. — It is to be regretted that the author does 
not give the alleged authority for the solubility of antimony in hypo- 
chlorite of sodium. Taylor (On Poisons) states that *'a solution of 
chloride of lime does not dissolve the antimonial deposit." Dragen- 
dorff (Ermittelung von Giften) and Schwanert (Pharmaceutische Chemie) 
state that the antimonial spots are insoluble in hypochlorite of sodium, 
which is free from uncombined chlorine. Dragendorff calls this test 
an excellent (vortrefflich) one and recommends preparing the solution 
by decomposing chlorinated lime with carbonate of sodium. 

Regarding the production of octahedral crystals from antimony, Prof. 
Wormley has kindly sent us a reprint of his paper "Fallacies of 
Reinsch's test for arsenic," which appeared in the "Amer. Journal of 
the Medical Sciences" for October, 1877. It will be observed from 
this paper, which we reproduce in full as far as it relates to this subject, 
that while it is possible to obtain from an antimony deposit octahedral 
crystals, which in themselves are not to be distinguished from those 
obtained from arsenic, yet the general character of the antimony 



A.m. Jour. Pharrr. 

April, 1880. 



Tests for Arsenic. 



195 



iublimate differs widely from that produced from arsenic. We quote 
from Prof. Wormley's paper as follows : 

The statements in regard to the behavior of the antimony deposit, however, have 
been somewhat discordant. Thus, by some writers, it is stated that this metal fails 
to yield any sublimate whatever 5 by others, that it yields an amorphous sublimate; 
and by others still, that the deposit is either amorphous or granular. According to 
Professor W. A. Miller, however, the antimony deposit, when heated, "gradually 
'becomes oxidized, and at a higher temperature the oxide is volatilized, condensing 
in needles ; not, like arsenic, in octahedra." " Elements of Chemistry,'" ii, p. 602. 

This statement of Professor Miller was strongly urged a few years since in a 
•somewhat noted trial as evidence of the absence of antimony, since on the application 
of the copper test there was a failure to obtain crystalline needles. Immediately 
after this trial, in 1872, we very carefully examined this test in regard to the character 
of the sublimate produced by antimony. In over fifty consecutive experiments of 
this kind, in which copper, pretty heavily coated with antimony, but used in small 
portions at a time, was employed, we failed to obtain well-defined crystalline 
needles, except in some three or four instances in which a few needles were observed, 
and in one in which the sublimate consisted largely of large groups of prismatic 
needles with single prisms. 

But, what is of more importance in a forensic point of view, we found that the 
sublimate produced from antimony might contain octahedral crystals of antimonic 
oxide, and that under certain conditions it was almost sure to contain such crystals. 
In a number of instances sublimates were obtained, which, when examined under 
ihe microscope, presented fields which, taken alone, could not be distinguished from 
an arsenical sublimate by the most experienced eye. 

These octahedral crystals are more likely to form when the heat is applied very 
gradually, and especially when the reduction-tube is relatively large to the quantity 
of deposit submitted to sublimation. In no instances were octahedral crystals obtained 
when a very narrow or contracted tube was employed. It would thus appear that 
for the production of crystals, antimony required a more free supply of air than 
arsenic, although the absolute quantity of oxygen required is less. 

Although it is thus possible to obtain from antimony sublimates, certain portions 
of which, under the microscope, are not to be distinguished from the results obtained 
from arsenic, yet there is considerable difference in the general behavior of these 
metals under the action of this test. 

1. The antimony deposit requires a much higher temperature to volatilize it, 
vaporizing at little, if any, below a dull red heat ; whereas, according to recent 
investigations, metallic arsenic volatilizes at about 356°F., or, according to Professor 
•Guy, even so low, when in small quantity, as 23o°F. 

2. The position of the sublimate in the reduction-tube, as usually obtained, may 
serve at once to distinguish the antimonial from the arsenical deposit. In the case 
of antimony, on account of its less volatility, the lower margin of the sublimate (in 
which the crystals, when present, are found) is only slightly in advance of the slip 
of copper, or the sublimate may even form on the sides of the tube surrounding the 
copper, especially when the heat is restricted to the lower end of the tube; whilst, 
as is well known, in the case of arsenic the sublimate usually forms half an inch or 
more in advance of the copper foil. 



.96 



Chemical Notes, 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1880. 



3. The general appearance of the sublimate under the microscope, even when 
octahedral crystals are present, usually differs very greatly from that obtained from 
arsenic, the octahedra being confined to the lower margin of the sublimate, and 
many more appearing opaque than in the case of that metal, and there being many 
granular and opaque points interspersed among the crystals. Moreover, only a 
single field, or at most a very small portion of the sublimate will present crystals, the 
other portions being either wholly amorphous, or at most granular. 

A-s is well known, the arsenical sublimate, as usually obtained, consists wholly of 
octahedral crystals, which gradually diminish in size from the lower portion of the 
sublimate to the upper margin, where, under a low power of the microscope, they 
may appear as mere points 5 which, however, under a higher power of the instrument,, 
will be found to be perfect octahedra. 

In a large series of experiments, after the manner in which this test is ordinarily- 
applied for the detection of arsenic, we in no instance obtained from antimony a 
sublimate that could not readily be distinguished from a pure arsenical deposit; yet 
it must be borne in mind that, under certain conditions, it is possible to obtain from 
antimony a sublimate consisting largely, if not wholly, of octahedral crystals, and 
presenting to the naked eye the sparkling appearance usually presented by the 
arsenical sublimate. In the instance already mentioned, in which large groups of 
prismatic needles were obtained, very many octahedra were interspersed among the 
prisms. 

From the foregoing statements it is obvious that the mere production of octahedral 
crystals by this test is not, in itself, conclusive proof of the presence of arsenic. 
When examining this test in the preparation of the Micro-Chemistry of Poisons, we 
in a few instances observed minute octahedra, which at the time were attributed to 
the presence of a trace of arsenic in the antimony compound employed. The entire 
absence of that metal in the- present experiments was fully established. 

We also find that the deposit of metallic antimony formed in the exit tube of a 
Marsh apparatus by decomposing antimonuretted hydrogen by heat, may, when, 
the tube is detached and the deposit again heated, be in part at least converted into 
octahedral crystals of the oxide. 

If pure antimonic oxide be vaporized in a small tube, the sublimate usually con- 
tains octahedral crystals, but sometimes crystalline needles. According to our 
experiments, octahedra are much more likely to be present than needles ; the oppo- 
site result, however, is stated by several writers. 

Our experience has confirmed the observation first made by Mitcherlich, that when, 
a solution of tartar emetic is decomposed by excess of ammonia, the precipitated 
antimonic oxide is after a time converted, in part at least, into minute octahedra. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler. 
Inorganic Chemistry. — On Veshium^ a New Element, — A. Scacchi 
has communicated to the Academy of Sciences, of Naples, the result 
of an investigation of the green and yellow incrustations which coat 
the Vesuvian lava of 1631 in numerous fissures. These coatings con- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1880. / 



Chemical Notes. 



197 



-sist of silicates containing copper, lead, and a body which Scacchi con- 
siders to be new, and which he calls Vesbium^ from the old name of 
Vesuvius. As yet only a few tests have been made with it. He con- 
siders it as existing in the form of a metallic acid, of reddish color, 
which yields colorless salts with the alkalies, and these, on the addition 
of an acid, become yellow. The silver salt is red or yellowish-red, the 
copper salt yellowish-green. Hydrogen sulphide gives a brown precipi- 
tate and a bluish liquid, becoming brown on the addition of zinc. Salt 
of phosphorus gives a yellow bead in the outer flame and a green bead 
in the inner flame. Scacchi does not consider molybdium or vanadium 
to be present, although Rammelsberg, who reports the announcement 
to the Berlin Chemical Society, thinks these properties point to the 
presence of the latter element. — Berichte der Chem. Gesell.^ xiii, p. 250. 

Properties of Norwegium^ a recently announced New Element. — Dahll, 
the discoverer of this element (this journal, 1879, p. 447), communi- 
cates the following as to its properties : It is white, not very malleable, 
has a specific gravity 9*44, fuses at near 350°C., and dissolves in nitric 
acid with blue color, which on dilution becomes green. The reduc- 
tion of its brown oxide in hydrogen gave as the amount of oxygen 
.present 9*6 and 10*15 P^^ cent. On the supposition that the formula 
of the oxide is NgO, the atomic weight of Ng would be 150*6 or 
141 '6. The solutions are precipitated by alkalies, with green color, 
the precipitate dissolving, however, in excess of alkali, with blue color. 
Hvdj-ogen sulphide gives a brown precipitate, insoluble in alkaline sul- 
phides. Zinc reduces the sulphate solution, producing at first a brown 
•coloration, and on boiling yielding the metal. Before the blowpipe a 
vellow glass is obtained, which becomes blue on cooling, and treat- 
ment with soda or charcoal yields a yellowish-green incrustation. — Ibid. 

Organic Chemistry. — A Contribution to Knowledge of Protein Sub- 
stances. — A. Stutzer makes the announcement of his discovery of a 
method for the quantitative separation of albuminoids from other nitro- 
genous substances occurring in plants. He finds that the hydrated 
cupric oxide, recommended for the precipitation of dissolved protein 
matters, can be used for the separation of these protein materials from 
nitrogenous substances such as amygdalin, solanin, leucin, tyrosioj 
asparagin, from alkaloids, cnustard-oils, nitrates and ammonia saks. All 
'the protein materialc studied by him can be classified according to the 
action of acid gastric juice (pepsin and hydrochloric acid) L:pon them, 
into two groups of bodies. Ther^- are formed, on the one hand, the 



Chemical Notes, 



f Am. Jour. Pharm^ 

I April, 1880. 



icnown aecomposition products ot albuminoids, the soluble peptones, 
acid albuminates, etc., and on the other hand a portion, ot definite 
amount, remains completely indigestible. This last appears to contain 
phosphorus as well as nitrogen. — Ibid.^ p. 251. 

On Hyoscyamma. — Ladenburg has followed up his study of the tro- 
peins^ or artificial alkaloids, lately described (this journal, March, 1880,, 
p. 148), by a more specific study of this natural alkaloid. Its close- 
physiological relationship to atropia seemed to make this very impor- 
tant. The alkaloid on treatment with barium hydrate is decomposed,, 
in a manner analogous to that observed with atropia, into hyoscinic 
acid and a base hyoscina. The analyses of both of these decomposi- 
tion-products give figures identical with those gotten from tropic acid 
and tropin, the products of the decomposition of atropia by bariurr& 
hydrate. The fusing-points and other physical characters also agree. 
Ladenburg says that three explanations only are possible of the cer- 
tainly established difference between atropia and hyoscyamia : 1st, the 
hyoscinic acid may be different from tropic acid ; 2d, hyoscin may 
differ from tropin ; or, 3d, the decomposition products of the two alka- 
loids may be identical, but the component parts of the two natural' 
substances may be diff^erently united, so that their isomerism may^^be of 
a character analogous to that existing between oil of gaultheria and 
methyl-salicylate. The author thinks that his study of the tropeins " 
from the two bases will enable him to settle the question of identity. — - 
Ih'id., p. 254. 

On Duboisina. — This alkaloid, which comes from the Australian' 
plant Duhoisia myoporoides^ has already taken an important place among; 
the remedies of eye-clinics ; for, although similar to atropia in action,, 
it is capable of use under circumstances where this latter is forbidden. 
Ladenburg has proved the complete identity of the purified alkaloid 
with hyoscyamia. He establishes this by an analysis of both the gold 
salt and the purified alkaloid itself. The following reactions, more- 
over, hold true of both alkaloids. The addition of picric acid to the- 
dilute hydrochloric acid solution gives a yellow oil, which solidifies- 
almost immediately to beautiful and regular plates ; platinic chloride- 
produces no precipitate ; iodine in iodide of potassium solution pro- 
duces at once a separation of a crystalline periodide ; tannic acid pro- 
duces a slight turbidity ; double iodide of potassium and mercury pro- 
duces a white amorphous precipitate. — Ibid.^ p. 257. 

Technical and Applied Chemistry. — Fire-proofing Materials and 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
April, 1880. I 



Chemical Notes. 



Mixtures. — The following mixtures for rendering textile fabrics, paper, 
straw, etc., fire-proof, form the basis of a recent English patent, issued 



to Martin and Tessier, in Paris : 

No. I. Pure ammonium sulphat?, . . 8' kilograms 

Carbonate of ammonium, . . 2*5 

Boracic acid, . . .3* 

Pure borax, . . . I'y 

Starch, . . . . 2* 

Water, . . . loo" 

The articles are to be dipped into the boiling solution. 

No. 2, Boracic acid, . . .5' kilograms 

Sal ammoniac, . . . 15 

Potassium feldspar, . . .5* 

Gelatin, ... 1-5 

Flour paste, . . . 50* 

Water, . . . loc 



This is to be applied to wood, theatre accessories, etc., with a brush. 
— Chemische Industrie^ Jan., 1880, p. 25. 

Separation of Fats and Resins from Soaps. — This is effected, according 
to J. WolfF, by the use of commercial anilin, which, by conversion into 
the hydrochlorate, filtration of the aqueous solution through moistened 
filters, precipitation with caustic soda and removal of the salt, is freed 
from any admixture of benzol or nitro benzol. The product so 
obtained is distilled, and only the part boiling over i8o°C. used. This 
will dissolve fats and resins in the cold, but will not dissolvo soaps. 
The mixture to be treated is gotten into a finely-divided condition and 
then treated with 10 to 20 volumes of anilin, while the mixture is 
stirred and any hard lumps are broken. After one-half to three-quar- 
ters of an hour digestion on the water-bath it is allowed to cool and 
then filtered. The filtrate is treated with an excess of hydrochloric 
acid and then with three to four parts of water. The cold solution is 
then shaken up with ether and the etherial layer removed. This, on 
evaporation, leaves the fats and resins of the original mixture. — Ibid.^ 
p. 28. 

Manufacture of Carbon Disulphide. — The following interesting des- 
cription is of the manufacture of carbon disulphide as carried out on a 
large scale by M. Deiss at Marseilles, France. Four vertical fire-clay 
retorts, r8 meter in height and 0*4 meter in diameter, are placed 
together in an oven and are filled with charcoal. When this has been 
brought to a glow, crude powdered sulphur is introduced by means of 
a fire-clay tube reaching down to beneath ths double bottom of the 



200 Gleanings from the German Journals. {^'^ApXisso^''™' 

retorts. This tube, after each charging, is stopped with a ball of plas- 
tic clay. The escaping bisulphide vapors pass through wide sheet-iron 
tubes into large closed iron receivers, which are cooled from the exte- 
rior and have an exit tube for the uncondensed vapors. These pass 
into a second receiving chamber, which is provided with partition walls, 
and a circulation of the vapors is thus brought about, so that further 
condensation takes place. The uncondensed vapors then pass through 
water and out into the chimney. Each retort yields lOO kilograms car- 
bon disulphide per 24 hours, and of the sulphur used 90 per cent, is 
converted into disulphide. The product is shipped in iron casks of 
different sizes and special directions for emptying these are sent with 
them. The present price is 40 francs per 100 kilograms. The cur- 
rent production is 1,200,000 kilograms annually, but a considerable 
enlargement of the works is under way. — Ih'id..^ p. 8. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis von Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

Mercurial Ointment (see "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," March, 1880, p. 
138 to 142). — Dieterich states, as an addition to his numerous experi- 
ments, that the ointment may also be prepared readily without using 
old ointment, or any other addition, by first extinguishing a minute 
quantity of the mercury with the lard, and then adding, very slowly 
and gradually, larger quantities of the mercury. This method proved 
so successful that the author thinks it ought to be made officinal. He 
also endeavored to utilize Collier's method of separating mercury into 
minute particles with tincture of quillaia (see "Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 
Jan., 1880, p. 41), but was unsuccessful, the metal running together 
again as soon as an endeavor is made to mix with the lard. — Pharm. 
Centralh.^ Jan. 29, 1 880, p. 39. 

Extinction of Mercury with Soft Paraffin.— Dr. E. Weber cor- 
roborates Godeffroy's, and contradicts E. Dieterich's statements in 
regard to the use of vaselin for extinguishing mercury (see " Amer. 
Jour. Pharm.," March, 1880, p. 141). He prepared 1,500 grams of 
dark and uniformly colored ointment in less than one-half hour. He 
first triturated 500 grams of mercury with 160 grams of vaselin for 
five minutes, when globules of mercury were no longer visible either 
with the naked eye or by means of a magnifier, and then added grad- 
ually the almost cool mixture of 280 grams of suet and 560 grams of 
lard. — Pharm. Ztg.., Feb. 7, 1880, p. 79. 



^'"aS'isso^.'^"' } Gleanings from the German Journvis. 201 

American Nostrums. — Hager gives the following as the composi- 
tion of the nostrums advertised as Dr. August Koenig's family medi- 
cines. 

Hamburg breast tea is a mixture of marshmallow root, licorice root, 
red poppy petals, mallow flowers, marshmallow flowers, flowers of a 
stellaria, colored by safFron, and coarsely powdered rock candy, flavored 
with the oils of anise and fennel. 

Hamburg drops are similar to the well-known elixir of life or Swedish 
bitters, but contain more white agaric, and are rendered thicker by the 
addition of inspissated juice of juniper berries. 

St. yacob^s oil is a good oil of turpentine, to which a small quantity of 
oil of rosemary and oil of lavender has been added, and tinged light 
red with alkanet or red saunders. — Pharm. Centralh.^ J^n. 29, 1880, 
p. 42. 

Globuli Peptici, Dinner Globules or Dinner Pills. 

R Cinchonidias sulphatis, . . . . 5-0 

Pepsini, ..... 30*0 
Pulveris zingiberis, 
Pulv. pimentas, 

Pulv. cardamomi, . . . dd yo 

Pulv. gentianas, 
Pulv. althaeas, 

Pulv. tragacanthas .... dd 6-o 
Mix, and add a "mixture of glycerinse, , . . io"o 

Acidi muriatici, 

Aquas, . . . aa 6 o 

Mix into a pilular mass ; divide into 300 or 360 globules ; dry grad- 
ually, and coat with sugar or any other good coating. 

Dose, I or 2 pills (globules) to children, and from 4 to 6 to adults. 
These pills are warmly recommended by Hager for assisting digestion 
after a hearty meal. — Ibid.^ Jan. 29, 1880, p. 37. 

The Cinchona Alkaloids exist in the bark of the stem of Cinchona 
succirubra^ according to Dr. J. E. De Vrij, as cinchotannates, and may 
be partially extracted by cold water under the influence of a soluble 
acid or acid compound existing in the bark. Practically not more than 
three-sevenths of the total alkaloids can be thus removed, the remain- 
ing four-sevenths being, however, readily taken up with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid. The author's investigations show that the cinchotannates 
of the alkaloids, which rotate polarized light towards the right, are 
more soluble than those of the alkaloids, which rotate towards the left. 
The author makes — 



202 Gleanings from the German Journals. { ^"'Aprn'"i8?o^''°'' 

Extractum Cinchonas liquidum by mixing the powdered cinchona bark 
into a thin paste with water, adding sufficient normal hydrochloric acid 
(the quantity required is calculated from the known percentage'^of alka- 
loids in the bark used), transferring to a percolator, percolating with 
water and exaporating the percolate until the weight of the residue 
equals that of the bark used. De Vrij considers that quantity fof 
hydrochloric acid sufficient which transforms the alkaloids present in 
the bark into acid hydrochlorates, readily soluble in water ; the cincho- 
tannic acid is of course set free and dissolves in the water. As basis 
for his calculations he assumes that 320 grams of mixed alkaloids 
require 73 grams of anhydrous hydrochloric acid. The normal hydro- 
chloric acid of the author is a liquid containing 36*5 grams HCl in a 
liter. i 

Extractum Cinchona solidum is made like the fluid extract, except that 
the evaporation is continued until the extract has the proper consistence. 
— Archiv d. Pharm. ^ ]?in.^ 1880, p. 34, from Haaxmanns Tydschr. voor 
Pharm. 

Chinoidin is, according to Burdel, even superior to quinia as a 
remedy for malarial fever and quartan ague, and only has less efficacy 
than quinia in the treatment of acute intermittent fever. Hager modi- 
fies this statement ; he admits that chinoidin, if pure, is very efficacious 
as an antifebrile remedy and stomachic, but regards it as inferior to 
quinia as a tonic. He recommends the use of the other cheap cinchona 
alkaloids, because the appearance and other properties of chinoidin 
greatly encourage and facilitate adulteration, the detection of which is 
often comparatively difficult.^ Hager found chinoidin in doses of I'O 
to 1*5 gram, combined with an acid, a mild and painless but effective 
purgative, which does not apparently weaken the body. — Pharm. Cert- 
tralh.^ Feb. 5, 1880, p. 49. 

Quebracho Bark (see also "-Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1879, p. 192, 
309, 472, 554, 557, and Feb., 1880, p. 92). — O. Primke was informed 
by Dr. Hieronymus, who is connected with the university at Cordoba, 
Argentine Republic, that the wood and bark of the following four 
trees appear in commerce as quebracho. 

I. Aspidosperma quebracho, Schlechtendahl^ N. O. Apocynaceae, 
common name. Quebracho bianco. This tree grows in the province 
of Catamarca and is used by the natives for malaria and asthma. 

^ The possibility of adulteration is scarcely sufficient reason for discarding the use 
of a valuable remedy, which has the additional recommendation of cheapness. — 
Editor. 



^"^Ap^imo!""'} Gleanings from the German Jonrnals. 203 

2. Loxopterygium (Quebratschia) Y,ox^x\X.'L\\^\Grisehach ^ N. O. Tere- 
binthaceae, common name, Quebracho Colorado. The wood and 
bark are used for tanning purposes \ the tree grows particularly in the 
province of Corrientes. 

3. lodina rhombifolia, Hooker et Arnot^ N. O. Aquifoliaceae, com- 
mon name, Quebracho flojo. Wood and bark are often mixed with 
that of No. 2. 

4. Machaerium fertile, Grisehach^ N. O. Leguminosae Dalbergieae 
syn. Tipoana speciosa, common name, Tipa. This tree also yields 
wood and bark for tanning purposes, both of which possess less value 
than No. 2. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Jan. 31, 1880, p. 64. 

Extract and Tincture of Quebracho. — The " Journ. des Connaiss. 
Medic." recently published a formula for so*called quebracho extract, 
according to which the quebracho bark is exhausted by digesting for 
eight days with alcohol, when the liquid is evaporated to dryness, the 
residue dissolved in water, the filtered liquid again evaporated, and ulti- 
mately the residue is dissolved in sufficient water to obtain a prepara- 
tion having double the weight of the bark used. This preparation is 
of one-half the strength of the fluid extracts of the United States. Dr. 
Vulpius considers it a poorly-prepared tincture, which will not keep^ 
and is sold at a price fifteen times as high as the original bark. The foK 
lowing formulas are considered to yield far superior preparations: 

I. Tinctura ^ehracho spirituosa. — Quebracho wood, lOO'O; alcohol 
and distilled water, of each 225*0. After digesting for eight days,, 
express and filter. 

II. Tinctura Quebracho aquosa. — A convenient quantity of rasped 
quebracho wood is extracted on a steam-bath twice successively with 
10 times its weight of water; the mixed extractions are allowed to set- 
tle, strained and evaporated to the consistence of a thick extract, when 
sufficient water is added to make the total weight equal to the weight 
of the wood used. After allowing to stand in a cellar for a few days,, 
the liquid is filtered, and sufficient cold water is added through the 
filter to make the weight of the filtrate again equal to the weight of 
the wood used. Both of these tinctures have a handsome red color, a 
strong, bitter, astringent taste, and keep well. — Ihid,^ P'eb. 4, 1 880, p. 7O0 

Jaborandi leaves have again been carefully investigated by 
Miller and F. Budee. The so-called genuine (Pernambuco) jaborand 
of Dr. Coutinho consists of the leaves of a Pilocarpus, probably of P. pin 
natifolius and P. selloanus. The stems ought to be removed because 



2 04 Gleanings from the German Journals. { '^'"xiXisso^''"'* 

they contain no, or very little, pilocarpina, the active principle. The 
leaves of a plant belonging to nat. ord. Piperaceae, probably Piper 
laetum, appear in the market as Brazilian jaborandi. Budee endeavored, 
but was not able, to isolate an alkaloid from this plant. Those leaves 
of Pernambuco jaborandi, the lower side of which is hairy, are more 
efficacious, /. contain more alkaloid, than those that are not. The 
percentage of impure alkaloid amounts to almost i per cent, of the 
leaves, and the percentage of the pure nitrates obtainable varies between 
0*3 and 0*7 per cent. 

Pure pilocarpina is a thick, oily, light yellow liquid ; the nitrate is 
white and light; the chloride deliq-iesces and decomposes readily. 

Pilocarpus pinnatifolius grows in Brazil, principally in the provinces 
of Alattogrosso, Piauha, Ceara and St. Paulo. P. selloanus is indigen- 
ous to Southern Brazil and Paraguay, and principally enters commerce 
by way of Rio de Janeiro. Piper laetum also grows in Brazil, in the 
vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. — Archly d. Pharm.^ Jan., 1880, p. 1427. 

Adulterated Fennel. — During the past winter much of the fennel 
met with in the German market was adulterated with previously- 
extracted fennel. On account of the unfavorable weather but little 
fennel of handsome appearance was harvested, and as most of it pos- 
sesses such a poor color the addition of previously-extracted fruit is apt 
to escape observation. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Feb. 7, 1880, p. 80. 

Volatile Alkaloid in Aethusa Cynapium. — By distilling the con 
tused fruit of this plant with milk of lime, W. Bernhardt obtained a 
reddish-yellow liquid, floating like oil on the aqueous distillate. Both 
this oily liquid in alcoholic solution and the aqueous distillate possessed 
a strongly alkaline reaction, and an exceedingly penetrating, offen- 
sive odor, resembling the odor of rancid fish oil. The author con- 
siders the oily substance a volatile alkaloid, the formation of which is 
analogous to that of trimethylamin from Chenopodium vulvaria, when 
treated similarly. He intends to further investigate its nature. 

Ficinus first discovered this alkaloid, called it "Cynapin," and 
alleges to have obtained it in crystals, while Walz described an alka- 
loid very similar to that found by Bernhardt. — Jrchiv d. Pharm. ^ Feb., 
1880, p. 117. 

Coloring Matters of Grapes and of Huckleberries (Vaccinium 
myrtillus^ Lin.). — The extensive investigations made by A. Andree 
:show that : 

I. The natural blue coloring matter of grapes never varies. 



'^"'apt'ii.'Fsso'"' } Gleanings from the German Journals. 205 

2. It is not altered by fermentation, but is dissolved in the alcoholic 
acidulous liquid, the color being changed to red. 

3. The grapes grown in Southern France contain more coloring 
matter than is necessary to give the wines a very d^rk color. 

4. The shade of color is no criterion for the quality of wines. 

5. The color will not serve to distinguish fermented grape-juice from 
the-fermented juice of huckleberries. 

6. Young wines always have a bright colored foam. 

7. The coloring matter of wine is a mild acid, which will combine 
with lead oxide, and this compound is again destroyed by acids. 

8. The addition of ammonia changes the red natural color of wines 
to blue, and if used in excess, or too concentrated, destroys the color- 
ing principle altogether. The blue color produced by ammonia is the 
original natural coloring matter of the grapes, restored by neutralizing 
the acid which had turned it red. 

9. Old wines usually yield a green reaction with ammonia. 

10. The juice of fresh as well as of old huckleberries has the same 
behavior towards ammonia as young and old wines. 

1 1. The coloring principle of grapes is identical with that of huckle- 
berries. 

12. The coloring principle is not altered by age, the varying reac- 
tions of old and fresh juice being caused by other circumstances, the 
exact nature of which will be further investigated by the author. — - 
Ibid.^ Feb. 1880, p. 90-112. 

Canadian Castor. — Three sacs, having the well-known characteristic 
external appearance, were examined by Ed. Janota. Two of them 
possessed all the properties of genuine Canadian castor, while the 
third did not possess the peculiar odor of castor, and consisted of 
fibres, and a large quantity of hair, thoroughly saturated with a 
reddish-brown sticky fluid. A fraudulent adulteration seeming impos- 
sible in the closed sac, and improbable even if possible, because a 
heavier substance, less readily detected, would in such a case have been 
substituted in the sac for the removed castor, the author came to the 
conclusion that the altered condition of the contents was due to a 
diseased condition of the living animal. — Pharm, Post^ Feb. i, 1880, 
p. 48. 

Poisoning by Carbolic Acid. — A midwife was recently sentenced 
to two months' imprisonment at Frankfort for causing the death of a 
child, by applying liquid carbolic acid, containing 88 per cent, of the 



2o6 



Pure Emetia. 



( Am. Jour. Fharm. 

( April, 1880. 



acid, to an open sore. The child immediately fell asleep, and died a 
few hours later. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Feb. 7, 1880, p. 78. 

As an Antidote for Carbolic Acid Intoxication, caused by con- 
tinued external application of a 5 per cent, solution of the acid, Son- 
neberg recommends sodium sulphate, 5 to 8 grams of which he admin- 
istered in 200 grams of water to adults, and 2 to 5 grams in 200 grams 
of water to children. The urine is at first dark e;reen, and has a 
slightly brownish tint, but soon acquires again its normal color, when 
the carbolic acid application may be continued. — Ztschr. d. Allg, Oest, 
Jpoth. Ver.^ Jan. 20, 1880, p. 43, from Apoth. Ztg. 

Arsenic in the Animal Organism. — In contradiction to Scolo- 
subofF's statements. Prof. E. Ludwig claims as the result of numerous 
chemical analyses made by him, that in chronic as well as in acute 
arsenical poisoning the quantity of arsenic traceable in the brain is very 
minute, while much larger (frequently 90 times as large) quantities are 
found in the liver; and he therefore recommends the liver, and incases 
of acute poisoning, the kidnevs, as the portions of the body most suit- 
able for legal chemical investigations. — Pharm. Post^ Jan. 16, 1880, 
p. 25. 



PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF PURE EMETIA. 

By Dr. Podwyssgtzki. 
(Translated and abridged from " Pharm. Ztschr. f. Russl 1880, p. i-8, by Louis 

VON COTZHAUSEN, Ph.G.) 

I. Preparation. — Either one of the two following methods yields 
satisfactory results : 

1st method. — Treat the powdered ipecacuanha first with ether and 
then with petroleum benzin, in order to remove the liquid oil, the white 
fatty or waxy matter and those coloring matters which are soluble in 
the solvents named,^ then extract the powdered root two or three times 
successively, at a moderate heat, with 85 per cent, alcohol, without 
adding any acid ; evaporate the mixed tinctures to a syrupy consistence, 
add after cooling a very concentrated solution of as much ferric chloride 
as corresponds to from 10 to 13 per cent, of the weight of the powdered 
ipecac used, mix the mass well, add sodium carbonate in excess, boil 
the mass in a flask on a water-bath with successive small portions of 

^Some ipecacuanhas, yielding much emetia, contain a principle soluble in ether, 
crystallizing in straw yellow needles and forming with barium hydrate and with 
alkalies purple compounds 5 the principle might be called erythrocephalein. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, ) 
April, 1880. J 



Pure Emetia, 



207 



petroleum benzin (in which the emetia dissolves)^ shaking frequently, 
and continue to use fresh portions of the menstruum until no more 
emetia goes into solution ; the filtered benzin solutions are mixed, and, 
if concentrated, the mixture is allowed to stand for twelve hours in a 
very cool place, when almost all of the emetia will separate pure as a 
white precipitate. If, however, the mixture is not very concentrated, 
atmospheric air is blown through it for some time, when pure emetia 
will separate in white flakes. By concentrating or evaporating the ben- 
zin solution, however slowly, pure white emetia is never obtained. 
The emetia should be collected quickly on a filter and dried over sul- 
phuric acid. 

id method. — The first method may be modified by triturating the 
powdered ipecac into a thick paste with a little hydrochloric acid, add- 
ing sufficient ferric chloride and sodium carbonate, allowing to stand 
for some time, extracting successively with fresh portions of ether, and 
shaking the mixed etherial solutions with a small quantity of water, 
acidulated with acetic, sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, when the emetia 
goes into an acid solution, which after the addition of soda in excess is 
boiled successively with petroleum benzin, etc., as in the first method. 
The best kinds of ipecacuanha yield from three-quarters to one per 
cent, of pure emetia ; inferior kinds only one-quarter or one-half per 
cent. 

II. Properties. — Pure emetia, thus prepared, is readily soluble in 
cold ether, chloroform, acetic ether, amylic, methylic and ethylic alco- 
hol, carbon bisulphide, in ordinary alcohol of any strength, oil of tur- 
pentine, volatile oils, and, to a great extent, in olive oil, other fats, and 
in oleic acid ; it is scarcely soluble in cold, readily in hot petroleum 
benzin, and is still less soluble in cold water, 1,000 parts of which very 
slowly dissolve but i part emetia. From ether, petroleum naphtha, 
fatty oils and from similar liquids, which are scarcely or not at all solu- 
ble in water, it is separated by acids. Its taste and that of its com- 
pounds is very bitter. When exposed to light and air it soon turns 
yellow, but it remains white when protected from the light. On very 
slowly evaporating its solutions in ether or alcohol, emetia is deposited 
in thin agglutinating scales, but if the solutions are rapidly evaporated, 
it is separated in fine uniform granules. It melts at 62° to 65°C., has 
a strong alkaline reaction, and is neutralized by acids forming salts, 
which on evaporation in vacuo form brilliant colorless irregular crystals ; 
when evaporated in the air the salts remain as a dry yellow resin like 



2o8 



Ostrich and other Pepsins, 



f A.m. Jour. Pharm. 

t April, 1880. ■ 



mass. The salts are readily soluble in water, alcohol and fatty oils, 
and are insoluble in ether, petroleum naphtha, benzol, etc. With tan- 
nic acid emetia forms an amorphous white pulverulent precipitate, 
almost insoluble in water ; its compounds with gallic and other acids 
are readily soluble in water. All salts soon become yellow when 
exposed to light, except the tannate, which remains unaltered. When 
treated with concentrated sulphuric (nitric ? Edit.) acid, emetia yields 
oxalic acid, as has been observed by former authors ; when treated with 
dilute sulphuric acid in a closed tube for three hours at 150^0. it is 
transformed partially into a blackish brown, not bitter, substance, and 
partially remains unaltered. With all reagents for alkaloids emetia 
yields amorphous precipitates. Concentrated sulphuric acid, poured on 
pure emetia does not alter it. One drop of a freshly prepared solution 
of sodium phosphomolybdate in concentrated sulphuric acid, when 
added to a small particle of emetia, colors it brown \ this color is imme- 
diately changed to an intense indigo color on the addition of one drop 
of concentrated hydrochloric acid. 



OSTRICH AND OTHER PEPSINS. 

By I. R. James. 

At a meeting of the School of Pharmacy Students' Association 
(London), held Feb. 12, the author read a paper on the above subject, 
in which he alluded to the attention attracted by the pepsin obtained 
from the stomach of the South American ostrich, R.hea americana and 
Rhea Darw'in'ii. After giving a brief history of these birds the author 
refers to ingluvin prepared from the gizzard of the chicken, and which 
has been said to be superior to pepsin as a remedy for feeble, painful 
and imperfect digestion. Obtaining some of this preparation from the 
agents, the following experiments were made : 

Fresh eggs were kept in boiling water for one hour and then allowed 
to get quite cold ; after depriving them of their shells the whites were 
cut into the thinnest possible slices — not minced, as it is easier to 
observe the progress of the digestion of albumen if it be sliced than if 
it be minced — and care was taken to reject any portion of yolk. Fifty 
grains of coagulated albumen thus prepared was placed in each wide 
mouthed bottle and covered with 5 drachms of distilled water contain- 
ing I per cent, of hydrochloric acid, sp. gr. I*i6. The quantity o 
pepsin was then weighed out and added to the mixture of albumen and 



^\i°n,\^io!^'} Ostrich and other Pepsins. 209 

dilute hydrochloric acid. The bottles and their contents were then 
placed in a water-bath and kept at a temperature of 98° to I02°F. for 
four hours, when digestion was regarded as complete. 

Kind of pepsin employed. Weight of pepsin employed. Results. 

Pig pepsin, . . \ grain . Digested 

Ostrich pepsin, . . 2^ grains . Not digested. 

«< << ^ . 5 '* " 

(( « ^ , 10^ . " 

Ingluvin, . . 2* " . " " 

(C ^ ^ (< i( 

H jqI (< ^ << <t 

' From the results detailed in the foregoing table, and contained in 
the bottles shown, it will be seen that the albumen is scarcely acted 
upon at all, and that both ostrich pepsin and ingluvin are practically 
destitute of the power of digestion. 

We know how dominant ideas exercise a powerful effect on the 
bodily functions. Dr. Carpenter says, " A strong direction of the 
inward consciousness to any part, especially if attended with an expec- 
tation of something being about to happsn, is quite sufficient to change 
the physical action of a part." If the South American Indians' imagi- 
nation were similarly appealed to, it might be they would derive the 
extraordinary benefit attributed to ostrich pepsin after partaking of 7 or 
8 pounds of beef, which, on the authority of Dr. Symes, they are m the 
habit of indulging in. 

We have heard of late a great deal about elevating the position of 
pharmacists and chemists and druggists generally. As a step in this 
direction, and believing as I do that the examination of new remedies 
is a duty which we owe to medical' men, I would suggest that we pay 
more attention to the testing ot substances purporting to be remedial 
agents which from time to time find their way into our pharmacies and 
are prominently brought before the notice of practitioners \ for it is a 
matter of considerable importance that the accuracy of facts be well 
sustained before they are given to the profession, many of whom have 
no facilities for verifying them. If any of you wish to work in this 
direction, lest you should think, after excluding the above-named 
winged animals, that pepsin can only be obtained from the stomachs of 
pigs, calves and sheep, I have much pleasure in placing before you 
other kinds. I am indebted to Mr. Lloyd Bullock for the samples of 

F inding that twenty times as much ostrich pepsin and ingluvin had so little effect, 
I did not think it necessary to pursue the experiments further. 

14 



1 1 o Proximate Analysis of Plants. { '^"'AS'ir^o!''™' 

pepsins shown, which I have found to possess considerable digestive 
activity, although inferior in this respect to the pepsin of the pig. One 
of the specimens is unique of its kind, viz.: pepsin from a human 
stomach, which I need hardly say is not intended for medicinal use. 

In the stomach of the river crayfish is found a plentiful supply of a 
yellowish-brown, feebly acid juice, which possesses an energetic fer- 
menting power and rapidly dissolves fibrin, but the addition of a few 
drops of a dilute hydrochloric acid solution stops the action. Also, a 
somewhat similar ferment to pepsin, discovered by Fick and Murisier 
in the stomachs of frogs, pikes and trout, differs from it (pepsin) in 
being more active at a low temperature, as at 20°F., while it loses its 
digestive power at the temperature of the, blood (96° to gS^F.) — 
Phar. "Jour, and Trans. ^ Feb. 21, 1880, p. 662. 



A METHOD for the PROXIMATE ANALYSIS of PLANTS. 

By Henry B, Parsons.^ 

At the request of my friend and former instructor. Prof. Albert B. Prescott, of 
the University of Michigan, I have prepared the following scheme for the analysis 
of plants. This method will appear in substance in his new " Proximate Organic 
Analysis,'' now nearly completed. 

The plan submitted is the outgrowth of a quite varied experience in the proxi- 
mate analysis of plants; no claim to originality is made, the sole aim being to 
arrange in one simple scheme those methods best suited to insure accuracy. 

It must be premised that no one method is applicable in all cases, and that the 
operator will so modify and adapt the proposed processes as to best attain the truths 
he seeks. If the present scheme shall serve merely as an example, to be improved 
upon as discoveries multiply, it will at least have served to stimulate to the more 
thorough study, this side the Atlantic, of a much neglected, yet very important, 
branch of analysis. The American student, when first entering upon the study of 
plant analysis, is perplexed and disheartened, owing to the lack of any elementary 
treatise in which he may find directions for the quantitative estimation of the vari- 
ous plant constituents. The works of Rochleder and Wittstein, while giving most 
valuable assistance in the investigation of special constituents and their separation 
from large quautities of the crude herb, still fail to give clear and practicable direc- 
tions for the quantitative estimation of each constituent. Von Mueller's latest 
enlarged edition of Wittstein's "Plant Analysis" gives a scheme, most excellent in 
many respects, yet cumbered with tiresome methods of extraction and manipulation, 
which serve to unnecessarily lengthen the time required for making the analyses 
without increasing the accuracy of results obtained. 

Too many American analyses of plants have been summarized thus : " The plant 
contains gum, resin, tannin, a volatile oil and a peculiar bitter principle, to which 
may be ascribed its medicinal activity." The foreign journals bring occasionally 
1 Reprint from "American Chemical Journal," vol. I, No. 6. Communicated by the author. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1880. j 



Proximate Analysis of Plants, 



n I 



most excellent examples of accurate examinations of vegetable substances^ as 
instances may be cited, the examination of ginger, by J. C. Thresh,^ and of ergot,- 
aloes,^ and other articles by Prof. DragendorfF To these sources the student must 
look for his best models until a more thorough and systematic training is given 
American students in proximate organic analysis. 

In following the plan now presented, the use of the apparatus for repercolation is 
strongly urged for the extractions with benzol, alcohol and other volatile solvents. 
A very simple and inexpensive apparatus has been described by various American 
and foreign chemists.^ 

"In any convenient water-tight vessel is a worm of block-tin pipe, having an 
internal diameter of 9 mm., and a length of about 2*5 meters. The lower (external) 
part of this worm is fitted by an ether soaked velvet cork to a glass percolator, 
having a diameter of 4 cm., a length of 20 cm. to the constriction, and 5 cm. below. 
Within this percolator is a smaller tube, flanged at the top and bottom, and sus- 
pended by fine platinum or copper wires. This tube has a diameter of 2*5 to 2'8 
cm., and a length of 14 cm. 5 the bottom is covered by filter paper and fine washed 
linen,^ tied on by linen thread. The weighed sample of the finely powdered herb 
is placed within this tube for extraction. A light glass flask, weighing about 30 
grams, is fitted by an ether-soaked cork to the outer percolator."" Having intro- 
duced the solvent into this glass flask the connections are made secure, and heat is 
applied by a water-bath to the flask. If the liquid is too slowly volatilized the 
addition of a little common salt to the water in the bath serves to remove the trouble. 

Next in importance is the use of a good tared filter. The form originally pre- 
sented by F A. Gooch*' leaves little to be desired. It may be made by perforating 
with fine holes the bottom of an ordinary platinum crucible, and fitting it accu- 
rately to a perforation made in a large rubber cork; this cork connects It with a 
receiving vessel, which in turn is connected with a Bunsen's pump. Fine asbestus 
suspended in water is poured into the crucible, the air exhausted from the receiving 
vessel, and thus a firm, thin layer of asbestus is deposited on the bottom of the cru- 
cible. After ignition and weighing the crucible is ready for the reception of any 
precipitate which it is desired to separate and weigh. 

The use of these two pieces of apparatus will eliminate two grave sources of error, 
viz., incomplete extraction of soluble matters, and inaccuracies introduced by the 
use. of tared paper filters. 

The other necessary apparatus is simple, and includes one or more platinum cru- 
cibles and evaporating dishes, accurate burettes and graduated cylinders, a good 

1 "Phar. Jour. Trans." [3], 10, 81, Aug., 1879. "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1879, p. 519. 

2 " Phar. Jour. Trans." [3], 6, looi, June 17, 1876. "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1876, p. 413 ; 1878, p. 335. 

3 "Werthbestimmung," 1874, p. no. 

4B. Tollens, " Zeitsch. f. Anal. Chem." [17], 320, 1878; "New Remedies" [7], 335, Nov., 1878; W. 
O. AttVater, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc." [2[, 2, p. 85 ; S. W. Johnson, "Am. Jour. Sci. Arts " [13], 196 ; 
H. B Parsons, "New Remedies" [8], 293, Oct., 1879. 

5 In place of the linen and filter paper may be substituted fine brass or platinum wire gauze. Asbestus 
suspended in water may then be poured in to form a fine felt. The tube;Can then be dried and weighed, 
and the amounts extracted may be found by the loss of weight of the tube and substance. A little 
■experimentation will show the operator how to prepare and use the tube. It is but an adaptation of the 
Gooch's Filter here recommended. 

«"Proc. Amer. Acad. Sci." [13], p. 342, 1878; "New Remedies" [7], p. 200, Oct., 1878; "Am 
Chem. Journ.," p. i, 317. 



212 Proximate Analysis of Plants. { ^"•a&So!'"" 

balance, sensitive to at least '5 milligram, and the ordinary glass and porcelain- 
ware found in all laboratories. 

It is assumed that whoever attempts the analysis oF a plant is informed as to the 
normal constituents to be sought, that he has had considerable experience in inor- 
ganic analysis, and in the identification of the principal classes of proximate con- 
stituents, which he now undertakes to estimate quantitatively. Accordingly, tests 
for identification will not be here presented ^ they should, however, never be omitted. 
The necessity of recording in detail all physical and chemical peculiarities with 
every weight that is taken is self-evident. 

A Method for the Proximate Analysis of Plants. 

I. Preparation of Sample. 

The air-dry specimen should be carefully examined, and all extraneous substances 
removed. The entire sample should then be ground, or beaten in an iron mortar,, 
until it will all pass through a sieve having from 40 to 60 meshes to the linear inch. 
After thoroughly mixing this sample, take of it about 100 grams, which should be- 
further pulverized until it will all pass through a sieve having from 80 to 100 meshe& 
to the linear inch. From this smaller portion remove all iron, derived from mill or 
mortar, by use of a magnet. Then place in a clean, dry bottle, which should be 
labeled and securely corked. This small sample is for the analysis} the larger 
portion should be reserved for the separation of those proximate principles which 
seem, from the analysis, to be worthy of more extended investigation. 

II. Estimation of Moisture. 

Dry rapidly, at 100 to izo^C, two or more grams of the sample ; the loss of weight 
equals moisture and occasionally a little volatile oil. In some cases it is best to dry 
at a lower temperature, and at other titnes the drying should be conducted in a. 
stream of hydrogen or carbonic anhydride. 

Ill Estimation of Ash. 

In a weighed crucible gently ignite two or more grams of the sample until nearly 
or quite free from carbonaceous matter 5 the heat should not be permitted to rise- 
above faint redness, or loss of alkaline chlorides may occur. Weigh this residue as 
crude ash, and in it determine: 

a. Amount Soluble in Water, — This portion may contain chlorides, sulphates,, 
phosphates and carbonates of potassium and sodium; also slight amounts of chlor- 
ides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. 

b. Insoluble in Water:, Soluble in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid. — The residue from a 
should be treated with a slight excess of hydrochloric acid, and evaporated in a 
porcelain dish over a water bath until all free acid has been expelled ; it should then 
be again moistened with hydrochloric acid, water added, and be filtered from any- 
remaining insoluble substances. This treatment removes carbonates (with decom- 
position) and phosphates of calcium and magnesium, sulphate of calcium and oxides 
of iron and manganese, 

c. Insoluble in Water ,• Insoluble in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid j Soluble in concentrated' 
Sodic Hydrate. — Boil the residue from b with a solution containing about twenty per 
cent, of sodic hydrate. This treatment removes combined silica of the ash. The 
residue still insoluble is sand and clay which adhered to the specimen; this residue 
should be separated, washed thoroughly, and weighed. 



-^"AiXisso"""} Proximate Analysis of Plants, 2 f 3 

Always determine the amounts removed by the above treatment by weighing the 
dried, undissolved residues. The ash, as thus estimated, usually inludes a little 
imconsumed carbon, together with more or less carbonic anhydride (CO,^), most, or 
ail, of which was not originally present in the plant, but was produced by the com- 
^justion of the organic matter. For most purposes it is unnecessary to estimate and 
■exclude from the ash this carbonic anhydride 5 where great accuracy is desired, a 
complete quantitative analysis should be made, the amount of each base and acid 
l5eing determined, and in the statement of results only those should be included 
which existed originally in the plant. For this purpose it is necessary to burn from 
twenty to one hundred grams of the sample 5 for further directions consult text- 
books on agricultural and inorganic analysis. 

IV. Estimation of Total Nitrogen. 

In half a gram or more of the sample determine total nitrogen by combustion 
with excess of soda-lime, as directed by Prof. S. W. Johnson and E. H. Jenkins. 
If later in the analysis no other nitrogenous substances are discovered, calculate the 
total amount of nitrogen to albuminoids by multiplying by 6'25. When other 
nitrogenous compounds are present, their content of nitrogen should be determined 
directly or by difference ; after proper deductions have been made, the remaining 
nitrogen should be calculated to albuminoids. 

V. Estimation of Benzol Extract. 

In a suitable apparatus for repercolation completely exhaust five grams of the 
sample with pure coal-tar benzol (sp. gr. 85 — 88, boils at 80 to 85°C., leaves no residue 
^vhen evaporated). The extraction requires from four to six hours' continued action 
of the solvent. Carefully evaporate this liquid to dryness in a weighed dish, and 
record its weight as total benzol extract. This extract may contain volatile oils and 
other aromatic compounds, resins, camphors, volatile or non-volatile organic acids, 
wax, solid fats, fixed oils, chlorophyll, other colors, volatile or fixed alkaloids, giuco- 
sides, almost no ash. 

To the weighed extract add water, again evaporate on the water-bath, and com- 
plete the drying in an air-bath at i ro°C. In absence of other vaporizable substances 
the loss of weight approximates the amount of volatile oil. If the presence of a 
volatile alkaloid is suspected (from a characteristic odor or an alkaline reaction), 
add a drop of hydrochloric acid to prevent its volatilization Camphors are partially 
dissipated by this treatment 5 hence, when they are present, this evaporation should 
be dispensed with. 

Treat, now, the residue with a moderate amount of warm water, allow to stand 
until cool, then filter through fine paper by aid of a Bunsen's pump. In half of the 
aqueous filtrate determine total organic matter and ash test the remaining half for 
■alkaloids ^ glucosides and organic acids by salts of lead, silver, barium and calcium. 
Care must be taken not to mistake a slight amount of suspended matter, frequently 
•resinous, for other substances actually soluble in water. 

The still undissolved residue should be again removed from filters and dishes by 
^solution in benzole, the benzole solution being again evaporated to dryness. Treat 
this residue with warm, very dilute hydrochloric acid, allow to cool, and filter 



1 " Report Conn. Agric. Exp. Station," 1878; " Clieni. News," July 18, 1879, p. 28 ; " Amer. Chem, 
Jcurnal," i, p. 77. 



2 1 4 Proximate Analysis of Plants, { ^%J°iK xs^so""" 

through paper. The filtrate should be tested for alkaloids ?iX\d glucosides. The 
amount extracted by acid, if any, may be determined by weighing the still undis- 
solved residue. Treat this residue with several considerable portions of eighty per 
cent, alcohol (sp. gr. "8483 at i5'6°C.), allowing at least an hour for each treatment. 
Filter through paper and determine by evaporation the matter dissolved ; this usu- 
ally consists of chlorophyll with one or more resins, which may sometimes be sepa- 
rated by use of petroleum naphtha, chloroform or similar solvents Purified animal 
charcoal removes chlorophyll and some resins from alcoholic solution, while certain 
other resins are not removed, camphors wqvq present in the plant, the greater 
portion will be found in the alcoholic liquid. 

The substances undissolved by eighty per cent, alcohol may be fixed oil, solid fat, 
ivax, and very rarely a resin : their separation may be attempted by refrigeration and 
pressure, or by use of ether, chloroform, etc. 

Recapitulation. 

1. Loss by evaporation, with precautions : volatile oil. 

2. Soluble in water: alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids. 

f Insoluble in water. 1 ah 1 • 1 -i 1 / ■ i 

3. ■{ o 1 ui • j-i . -J \ '• Alkaloids, y^os.'ivoi'Sf plucosides. 
^ y Soluble m dilute acids, j » r j 6 

f T , , , . , 1 (Removed by animal charcoal r 

Insoluble in water: \ a. \ 11 ^1 ,1 
T I , , . - , ' [ chlorophyll, some resins. 

4. Insoluble in acids. \ : y • 1 • 1 u 

c 1 ui • o .111 / S Not removed by animal char- 

Soluble in 80 per cent, alcohol. \ b. < ^ • 

1^ * J ( coal : some resins. 

( Insoluble in water. "] 

5. < Insoluble in dilute acids. V : ^ax, fats, fixed oils. 
( Insoluble in 80 per cent alcohol. J 

It is frequently advantageous to extract the plant with petroleum naphtha (sp. gr. 
66 to "]o, boils at about 50°C., wholly volatile) before treatment with benzol 5 hj 
reference to the accompanying table of comparative solubilities it will be seen that 
this treatment may serve to separate fixed and volatile oils, and some resins and col- _ 
ors, from certain solid fats, wax, other rcNins and colors. 

Where benzol of sufficient purity cannot be had, pure chloroform is the best- 
substitute. The use of ether is objectionable in this place, as its solvent properties 
are less distinctly marked than are those of naphtha, chloroform and benzol; in 
other words, more plant constituents are sparingly soluble in ether than in the above 
mentioned solvents. Consequently many substances which should properly be 
extracted by 80 per cent, alcohol will be sparingly dissolved if ether were used^ 
while benzol, chloroform and naphtha would have no perceptible solvent action, 
upon them; tannic acids may be cited as instances illustrating this point. 

VI. Estimation of eighty per cent. Alcohol Extract. 

That part of the plant not dissolved by benzol should be dried at ioo°C., and then> 
completely exhausted by 80 per cent, alcohol (sp, gr. '8483 at 15-60.). This 
requires from 12 to 14 hours' continuous treatment with the solvent. Remove, dry^ 
and weigh any crystals or powder that may separate upon concentrating and cool- 
ing the alcoholic percolate. Make the clear liquid to a definite volume by adding; 
more 80 per cent, alcohol. In an aliquot part of this liquid determine total organic 
matter und ash ^ in another equal portion determine total organic matter and asb 
soluble in njoater, and, by difference, total organic matter insoluble in ivater. 

The remaining clear alcoholic liquid should bs evaporated cirefully to dryness^ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1880. 



Proximate Analysis of Plants. 



215 



o m 
■ tos m 



ft 



i - ■ 1 

13 "-^ 3 3 

O 1? O 

W Z P^J ' '2 



(5 (5 M 



SS£S||;m;o;o;o|;s|;o;o|SS|||;3;o 



C/Da)CA)C/DC/3C/DC/2H-i)— (hHC/DCAlt— ll-HI-HHHt-HI-HH-il-H»-ihH)-<l— IhH 



uijojoaojio 



•loqooiv 
•53 aad og 



,. -. - % 

: 



- > II 



2 1 6 Proximate Analysis of Plants. {^"aS'xsso^'"- 

pulverized and treated with several considerable portions of absolute alcohol (sp. gr. 
•7938 at I5-6C.). 

A. Soluble in Absolute Alcohol. 

a. Soluble in njjater. 

a^. Precipitated by subacetate of lead. 

Tannin and most organic acids 5 some extractives 5 some inorganic acids of 

the ash. Weigli in Gooch's filter, ignite cautiously, and again weigh; loss 

equals organic matter precipitated. 
a\ Not precipitated by subacetate of lead. 

Alkaloids, glucosides, some extractives and colors. Determine by-difter- 

ence between a and a^. 

b. Insoluble in ^ater. 

b^. Soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Alkaloids, glucosides (rarely), some extractives. Determine by difference 

between b and b'^. 
b^. Insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, 
b^. Soluble in dilute amnionic hydrate. 

Most acid resins, some colors. Determine by difference between b' and b^. 
bK Insoluble in dilute amnionic hydrate. 

Neutral resins, some colors, albuminoids (in some seeds). Re-dissolve in 

alcohol, evaporate and weigh. 
B. Insoluble in Absolute Alcohol. 

c. Soluble in njoater. 

c^. Precipitated by subacetate of lead. 

Some colors, extractives, albuminoids (rarely), organic acids, and inor- 
ganic acids of the ash. Weigh in Gooch's filter, ignite cautiously, and 
again weigh ; loss equals organic matter precipitated. 

<:'-. Not precipitated by subacetate of lead. 

Alkaloids, glucosides, glucose, sucrose, some extractives. Determine by 
diftVrence between c and c'^. Remove Pb by H.S, H^SO^, Na.^COg, or other 
means, and titrate for sucrose and glucose. 

d. Insoluble in njoater. 

d^. Soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Some alkaloids and glucosides. Determine by difference between d and d^ 
d-. Insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Few resins, some extractives 'and color substances. Dissolve in alcohol, 
evaporate and weigh in a tared dish. 
In some cases it may be preferable to use the following method for analysis of the 
80 per cent, alcohol extract; it is more desirable when the plant examined contains 
a considerable amount of sugars, tannic acid, etc. 

Alcohol Extract, dilute to 200 cc. with 80 per cent, alcohol. 

1. In 20 cc. determine total organic matter and ash. 

2. In 20 cc. determine total organic matter 3.r\d ash that are soluble in nvater^ and, 
by difference, total organic matter insoluble in ^ater. 

3. Evaporate the remaining 160 cc. to dryness, treat with water, filter, and make 
the filtrate measure 160 cc. Reserve the insoluble matter on the filter for examina- 
tion (10). 



aS'iss'o!'"'" } Proximate Analysis of Plants, ^ 217 

4. In 20 cc. of the aqueous solution determine tannin gravimetrically by A. 
Carpeni's method ;i precipitate by ammoniacal acetate of zinc, use a Gooch's filter, 
wash the precipitate with very weak ammonia, dry at i2o°C., weigh, ignite cau- 
tiously, again weigh. The loss by ignition equals tannic acid, in absence of certain 
interfering substances. 

5. Precipitate 20 cc. by normal acetate of lead, and determine, as before described, 
the amount of organic matter after drying at 100 to i2o°C. This precipitate will 
contain, if the substances are present in the plant, tannic^ gallic, and most other 
organic acidsy some colors, rarely albumitious substances, some extracti^ues, and most 
inorganic acids of the ash. Determine, by difference, the amount not precipitated 
by this treatment. 

6. In 20 cc. de.termine in like manner the amount precipitated by basic acetate 
(" subacetate") of lead. This reagent precipitates a greater number of acids, colors 
and extractives than are precipitated by the normal acetate, hence it is frequently 
possible to estimate such substances by subtracting the amount precipitated by one 
reagent from the amount precipitated by the other. To the filtrate add a slight 
excess of dilute hydrochloric acid, boil gently for half an hour, and determine in 
the liquid total glucose by use of Fehling's solution. 

7. Precipitate 20 cc. by subacetate, exactly as in 6, and use the precipitate as a 
duplicate to check the amount there estimated. To the filtrate add a very slight 
excess of solution of carbonate of sodium, filter from the carbonate of lead, wash 
well with water containing a little alcohol, and in the filtrate estimate actual glucose. 
If the glucose thus found is appreciably less than that in 6, subtract it from that 
amount 5 this glucose may be due to the presence in the plant of sucrose or some 
glucoside. If due to sucrose, the amount of the latter may be found by multiplying 
this residual glucose by '95 5 if to a glucoside, a fit subject for an extended investi- 
gation is presented. The properties, formula and decomposition products of the 
newly-found glucoside should be carefully studied. 

8 Precipitate 20 cc. with subacetate of lead, as in 6 and 7, employing the pre- 
cipitate as material from which to separate organic acids, after removal of lead by 
mlphuretted hydrogen. Acidulate the filtrate with sulphuric acid, add an equal 
volume of alcohol, allow to stand two hours, filter, wash the precipitate with 50 
per cent, alcohol, and evaporate the filtrate until all alcohol has been dissipated. 
Test the acid solution for alkaloids, glucosides, sugars, extracthues. 

9. Reserve the remaining 40 cc. for duplicating any unsatisfactory determinations. 

10 The residue mentioned in 3 as insoluble in water may contain resins, albu- 
minoids (especially from seeds), colors, alkaloids, glucosides. Dilute acids remove 
alkaloids and some glucosides; dilute ammonic hydrate will remove some r^'/zV/j, 
colors and glucosides. Any still insoluble residue probably contains albuminous or 
resinous substances. 

VII. Estimation of Cold Water Extract. 
That part of the plant remaining insoluble after treatment with alcohol should 
be dried at iio°C., and completely extracted by cold water. When the plant con- 
tains considerable mucilaginous matter this is best removed by placing the sub- 



1 "Chem. News," July 9, 1875, p. 19, from " Gaz. Chim. Ital.," 1875, No. 3 ; " Proc. Am. Ph. Asso.,' 
75, P- 341. See also "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1876, p. 219. 



2l8 



Proximate Analysis of Plants. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
April 1880. 



Stance In a flask or graduated cylinder, and then adding a measured volume of cold 
water. Allow to macerate, with frequent agitation, for from 6 to iz hour.s, then- 
filter through fine washed linen, and evaporate an aliquot portion of the solution. 
In this residue determine total organic matter and ash. This residue usually con- 
tains little but gum ,• in analysis of fruits and fleshy roots pectin bodies^ salts of organic 
acids, rarely a substance resembling dextrin, and small amounts of albuminous sub- 
stances and coloring matter. Usually the separation of these substances is very diffi- 
cult. The unevaporated liquid should be used for such qualitative reactions as are 
necessary to show the nature of the substances extracted. The insoluble residue 
should be well washed with water, transferred to a crucible, and completely dried 
atiio^C. This residue should be then weighed. 

VIII. Estimation of Acid Extracts. 

The dried residue insoluble in cold water should be transferred to a beaker con- 
taining 500 cc. of water and 5 cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid (sp. gr. i"84). 
Boil for 6 hours, on a gauze support, adding water to keep the volume of liquid 
unchanged 5 if the substance be very starchy a longer boiling may be necessary. 
This treatment will convert starch and its amorphous isomers to dextro glucose, and 
will occasionally remove some salt of an organic acid, with usually traces of albu- 
minous and indeterminate substances. 

The total amount extracted may be found by washing, drying at iio°C., and 
weighing the yet insoluble residue, and subtracting the weight from the one taken 
after extracting- with cold water. The amount of starch and isomers' may be found 
by determining in a given valume of the acid filtrate the amount of glucose, using 
Fehling's solution ; the glucose thus found multiplied by "9 equals starch and iso- 
mers. The total extract minus starch and isomers equals acid extract not starch. 
This includes a small amount of ash, which may be approximately determined by 
evaporating and igniting a known volume of the solution. 

Where it is wished to separate the extracted matter from the sulphuric acid, boil 
the liquid with an excess of powdered barium carbonate until no acid reaction 
remains. Filter and evaporate to dryness. The residue consists chiefly of hydiated 
dextro glucose (CgH^,Og.H.,0), with some ash. 

IX. Estimation of Alkali Extract. 
Wash well and dry at iio°C. the lesidue from treatment with acid, and record its 
weight. Boil this residue for two hours with 500 cc. of a solution containing 20 
grams of sodic hydrate to the liter. Filter through fine washed linen, and wash the 
residue thoroughly with hot water, alcohol and ether. Transfer it to a weighed 
crucible, dry at no to 120'^C., and weigh the residue as crude fibre and ash ^ this 
weight subtracted from the previous one shows the total alkali extract. This extract 
is largely alhuminous matter and various modifications oi pectic acid, Fremy's '•'■cutose^ 
and various coloring, humus and decomposition compounds in small amounts. Most of 
the extracted substances may be precipitated by excess of an acid with or withou 
the presence of alcohol. 

X. Cellulose. 

The crude fibre from IX should be treated with from 50 to 100 c. c. of U. S. P 
solution of chlorinated soda and allowed to stand twenty-four hours. If not ther 
bleached white, slightly acidulate with hydrochloric acid and set aside for anothe 



^'"aS'is^o!''"'"} Proximate Analysis of Plants, 2 1 9 

day. Flter through fine linen, or Gooch's filter, wash with hot water, dry at no to 
i2o°C., and weigh, ash free, as cellulose. The loss of weight by this treatnnent state 
as lignose and color. 

Remarks. 

It is advisable to determine always, in addition to what has already been directed, 
the amounts extracted directly from the sample by water, ether, alcohol of various 
percentages, methylic alcohol, naphtha, chloroform, carbon disulphide, etc. In each 
extract estimate total organic matter and ash, determine qualitatively, and quantita- 
tively when possible, its constituents, by treating with such solvents and reagents as 
are indicated. Each extract being composed of certain distinct substances, it is 
necessary to account for them in every case. 

The amounts present of some constituents may be found by subtracting the weight 
extracted by some one solvent from the weight extracted by some other. It will be 
seen that this is a method of limited applicability, which can only be applied in those 
cases where the difference between the solvent action of the two liquids is very 
sharply defined. Certain special methods for the estimation of single constituents 
may be used, care being taken that all interfering substances be first removed. The 
methods of preparation of known substances as given in Husemann's " Pflanzen- 
stolfe," and to a considerable extent in Watt's Dictionary, may serve as suggestions tor 
work. Treatment with benzol, eighty per cent, alcohol, and water, removes from 
nearly all plants the constituents of greatest chemical and medicinal interest, but in 
analyses of grains, fodder and food materials those compounds extracted by dilute 
acids and alkalies have great value. There are substances in plants, seemingly iso- 
mers of starch and cellulose, which have properties more or less resembling those ot 
cellulose, and are changed by boiling with dilute acids to glucose.- In absence of an 
established nomenclature it has seemed best to use the terms "starch isomers/' or 
"amylaceous cellulose" for these substances,^ while those constituents, not albumin- 
ouSy which are removed by dilute alkali have been termed "alkali extract." These 
substances have been investigated by various chemists, but no definite and authori- 
tative nomenclature has yet been adopted. Thomsen gives the name " holz-gum- 
mi,"^ nvood gum, to a white substance extracted from plants by dilute sodic hydrate, 
while Fremy regards these various compounds as modifications of pectic acid, pectin, 
and "cellulose bodies."^ Starch also may exist in some seeds (as of sweet corn) in 
a form soluble in water. ^ 

It will be seen that the field for investigation is limitless, and almost unoccupied 
as yet, and that there is great need for improved methods for proximate analysis. 
The analyst will find that a study of any common plant will require of him much 
more than unthinking, mechanical habits of manipulation, while every careful 
investigation will reveal to him some constituents deserving more full and accurate 
study. 



^ U. S. Dept. of Agric. Report, 1878, p. 189. 

2 Kolbe's "Jour. prak. Chem." Band 19, p. 146. 

^ "Compt. Rend." Ixxxiii, 1136; "Jour. Chem. Soc." 1877, p. 229. 

^U. S. Dept. of Agric. Report, 1878, pp. 153—155. 



220 



V arieties. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1880, 



VARIETIES. 



Poison for Rats and Mice. — A mixture of i part precipitated barium carbonate, 
3 parts barley flour and sufficient water to make a mass, is rolled into pills, having 
the size of beans. These are said to be fully as efficacious as phosphorus pills, and 
are decidedly cheaper. — Pharm Ztschr.f. Russel.y 1879, P- ^3^' from Drag. Ztg. 



A preparation for poisoning parasites on animals and plants, patented by J. 
Wilson, is made by melting 50 parts tallow, or another cheaper fat, and 25 parts 
rosin, adding 50 parts crude soda and 25 parts borax, boiling with water, adding 75 
parts carbolic acid and 30 parts calcium sulphide solution, and finally 80 parts extract 
of tobacco. The" inventor thinks that this mixture forms sulphoglycerol-carbolate 
■of nicotin. — Ber d. Deutsch. Chem. Ges., 1879, P- ^^95- 



Water Proof Leather A preparation for this purpose, patented by J. A. Rosa, of 

Paris, consists of a solution of ordinary rosin, or another resin, in turpentine, petro- 
leum ether, etc. — Ibid., p. 2194. 



Carbolic varnish, suitable for spreading on damp walls, and also on wood, for the 
purpose of preserving it, is made by dissolving, in an iron kettle, 100 parts borax 
and 50 parts caustic soda in 4,000 parts water, heating to the boiling point, gradually 
adding 450 parts shellac, stirring constantly, and, after cooling or when lukewarm, 
adding 200 parts 90 to 95 per cent, pure carbolic acid. This varnish is applied 
lukewarm, and is frequently diluted with one-third its bulk of hot water. — Pharm. 
■Centralb , Dec. 11, 1879, p. 463. 



An excellent paint for damp walls, highly recommended by D, Johannsen, con- 
sists of rosin, boiled linseed oil and oil of turpentine, each 5 parts, and white 
chalk 15 parts. — Phar?n. Ztg., 1879, P ^^5- 



Sulpho-Methylate of Sodium. — A New Purgative.— M. Rabuteau has investi- 
gated a new purgative, analogous to sulpho-vinate of sodium. It is obtained by treating 
methyl alcohol with sulphuric acid, when methyl-sulphuric acid and water are 
•obtained. This product is neutralized with carbonate of barium, when the excess of 
sulphuric acid is thrown down in the insoluble form of barium sulphate, and there 
remains in solution sulpho-methylate of barium, a substance which is very soluble, 
and which can be crystallized. It is then treated afresh with sulphuric acid, which 
liberates pure sulpho-methylic acid, which yields sulpho-methylate of sodium when 
neutralized with soda. The salt is white and very soluble, crystallizing with diffi- 
culty, of a feeble taste comparable to that possessed by sulpho-vinate of sodium, with 
a sweet after-taste. Unfortunately it decomposes very rapidly into sulphate of sodium 
and methyllc products of a slightly garlic-like odor. Ten grams of the salt in 25 cc. 
■of water injected into the veins of a dog produced constipation. Acting upon the 
observation that the substance when introduced into the blood gave rise to constipa- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. » 
April, 1880. J 



Varieties, 



221 



tion, M. Rabuteau believed that it should act as'a dialytic purgative when given by 
the mouth. He therefore administered it to two patients 5 in one case a woman took 
15 grams in two doses, when it produced three stools, of which two were copious 
in the second a man took 18 grams, resulting in two stools without colic. The taste 
of the purgative is hardly perceptible, but it is difficult to preserve it. — Chicago Med. 
Jour, and Exam., March, 1880. 



Thymolin Soap is a soap designed especially for the antiseptic cleansing of phy- 
sicians^ instruments. The soap contains a sufficient quantity of the disinfectant, and 
the odor of the thymolin is by no means unpleasant. In this day when so much is 
said respecting the transmission of disease by surgical instruments it will be a satis- 
faction to make use of an agent in cleansing them, which will at least assist in their 
disinfection. — Chicago Medical Jour, and Exam. — Virginia Med Monthly^ Dec , 1 879. 



Eucalyptus.— In the Italian Medical Gazette R. Rudolph reports eucalyptus 
as a specific for acute coryza, and declares that chewing the twigs and swallowing 
saliva secreted will result in rapid relief. His experience includes experiments upon 
his patients and upon himself It is probable that the fluid extract would be equally 
efficacious — Chicago Med. Gazette, Feb. 20, 1880. 



Paper Pulp from Poplar Wood. — The Worcester "Spy" says: It surprises 
people to see the great logs of poplar wood go through the powerful machine at the 
Connecticut river pulp mill at Holyoke. The wood as it is brought to the mill is 
about the size of cord wood used for fuel, and in this shape the machine takes it and 
gnaws it up very fine So rapidly does this process go that the machine eats about 
seven and a half cords of wood a day, and this makes between three and four tons of 
pulp. After coming from the machine the wood is put into vats and reduced by the 
action of chemicals. It is used for the manufacture of news and book paper, and 
pulp made from spruce wood, which has more fibre than poplar, is sometimes used 
in the cheaper grades of writing paper. Spruce is harder to reduce to pulp than poplar, 
and but little of it is used. The poplar trees in this vicinity have long since given 
out, and the wood is now mostly brought from Canada. — Gaillavd'^s Med. Journ., 
Feb , 1880. 



Jamaica Dogwood (Piscidia erythrina), is recommended in the " Pharmaceu- 
tical Journal " as a powerful narcotic, capable of producing sleep and relieving pain 
in an extraordinary manner. It has been used as an anodyne in toothache, curing 
the pain when introduced upon a dossil of cotton into the carious tooth. In Brazil 
it has an established reputation as a nervous sedative. Its action seems to be over 
the nerve centers j it causes sleep without producing the cerebral hyperaemia which 
succeeds opium and the active principles extracted therefrom. The sleep is tranquil 
and refreshing 5 It soothes bronchial cough and moderates the paroxysm of asthma 
and nervous coughs. It has been used with success in chronic hepatitis and obstruc- 
tions of the liver. 

The idiosyncrasies encountered in many cases in regard to the action of opium and 
its alkaloids compel the profession to seek an anodyne and hypnotic in other agents 



2 22 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, {"^""aS'issJ?'"'" 

We think this remedy worthy of a trial. The fluid extract is used in doses of five 
^rops. — Buffalo Med. Journ. — Nashville Journ. of Med. and Surg.., Feb., 1880 



Hard versus Soft Water. — Dr. Tidy, the well-known chemist, thus summarizes 
in the London " Medical Examiner " the results of his observations on the use of hard 
water for culinary and domestic purposes : 

1. Hard water is the best dietetically, because of the lime. 

2. It makes better tea, although not so dark colored, owing to the fact that soft 
water dissolves the bitter extractive matters which color the tea, but ruins the aroma. 

3. It relieves thirst, which soft water does not. 

4. It does not dissolve lead or organic matter, which soft water does. 

5. It is generally good colored, soft water being as a rule dark colored and un- 
pleasant looking 5 hence in places like Manchester, supplied with soft water, they 
always put it (in hotels) in dark bottles to hide the color. A soft water, however, 
is a better detergent and requires less soap. For a residential town a water which 
has over ten degrees of hardness would be best. For a manufacturing town a soft 
water would be the most advisable for commercial considerations only. — Pharmacist. 



A Plea for Oleomargarin as a Food Product. —Representatives of the oleo- 
margarin industry appeared before the House Committee on Agriculture and Manu- 
factures on March loth, in opposition to any legislation Injuriously affecting their 
product. They claim that oleomargarin is Identified with butter 5 that both the real 
butter and oleomargarin butter are simply animal fat, and the difference In the process 
of inanufacture makes no difference in the substance. They stated that the factory 
in New York is now making 40,000 pounds of oleomargarin butter per day, and that 
there are eleven such factories In Baltimore, Louisville, Chicago and other cities j 
that the exports of oleomargarin oils from the port of New York alone amounts to 
5,000 tierces per month. They protest against any discriminating legislation on the 
o;round that their product is a general food-product, pure and wholesome In Itself, 
and a fit substitute for butter. — Nen.v York Med. Record, March 20, 1880. 



MINUTES OF THE PHApACEUTICAL MEETING. 



Philadelphia, March i8th, 1880. 

In consequence of the fifty-ninth annual commencement of the College occurring 
on the third Tuesday of th2 month, the Pharmaceutical Meeting was postponed to 
Thursday, the i8th Inst. 

The meeting was called to order by Dillwyn Parrlsh, the President; the minutes 
of the last meeting having been read, were approved. 

Donations to the cabinet and library being the first business in order, the Registrar 
presented and described the advantages of a lozenge apparatus, designed by Mr. 
Francis E. Harrison, of the graduating class of this year. It will be figured in the 
May number of the '* Journal." 



''^"'■Ai°rii?i88o^'"''} Pharmaceutical CoLle^es and Associations. 223 

The Registrar presented to the library, on behalf of Mr. George W. Gray, a 
graduate of the class of 1877-78, a copy of the Pharmacopoeia of St. Thomas Hos- 
pital, London, dated 1781, for which the College returned their thanks. The recent 
addition? to the library were shown, consisting mainly of serial publications, received 
in exchange for the "American Journal of Pharmacy," and of several works bearing 
upon the sciences closely related to pharmacy. 

Mr. Gaillard exhibited a very handsome specimen of the sweet cassava root 
[Janipha Manihot), a native of Brazil, but now acclimated in Florida j when boiled 
it furnishes a good substitute for the potato 5 a , very beautiful starch can be prepared 
from it by the usual method, and a very fine article of glucose can be obtained by 
boiling with dilute sulphuric acid. 

Professor Maisch presented to the cabinet and exhibited samples of soft paraffin 
sold under the name of petrolina and made by the Binghamton oil refining company, 
of Binghamton, N. Y. It is of a uniform consistence, free from odor, and appears 
to be composed entirely of paraffins melting at about the same temperature. The 
thanks of the meeting were returned to the donors for their gift. 

Mr. J. U. Lloyd, of Cincinnati, lately sent samples of the root of Anemopsis 
Californica, Hooker, to Professor Maisch, which he exhibited. A singular peculiarity 
was pointed out, that a number of underground stems, of same species of grass, 
had completely grown through the root, sometimes transversely, sometimes diagonally 
and sometimes longitudinally. The root is possessed of a good deal of pungency 
and yields a large proportion of volatile oil, which gives a blue color with hydro- 
chloric acid, this being the only known volatile'oil exhibiting this reaction 5 several 
other products of the root, described by Mr. Lloyd in the January number of the 
** Journal," p. 4-6, accompanied the oil. An investigation of the medical properties 
of the root is being made. 

A specimen of sclerotic acid was shown by Professor Maisch ; this acid was dis- 
covered by Professor Dragendorff and is considered the most efficient principle in 
ergot 5 it has been used with considerable success in the hospitals of Russia and 
Germany. 

A number of the botanical plates^ published by Dr. Dodel-Port, of Zurich, Switzer- 
land, were exhibited by Professor Maisch, who stated that these handsomely executed 
plates are admirably adapted for illustrating lectures on botany. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 

T. S. WiEGAND, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS, 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The examination of the Junior Class was 
'held on the afternoon and evening of February 14th. The following were the ques- 
tions : 

MATERIA MEDICA AND BOTANY. 

1. What kind of tissue is called cork? 

2. Define the nature of tuber, and give an example. 



2 24 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. { ^"^pririsso^™' 

3. Explain the character of the venation of the leaves of monocotyledons and of 
dicotyledons. 

4. Give the characters of the natural order of Lobeliacea. 

5. Name the officinal drugs from the natural order of Gentianacea. 

PHARMACY, 

1. How many grams are there in an Avoirdupois Ounce, Kilogram, Troy Pound^ 
Fluid Ounce of Water at 6o°F , Cubic Centimeter of Water at 4°C. ? 

2. Explain the method of using the most accurate instrument for taking the spe- 
cific gravity of liquids. 

3. Define the following phartnaceutical terms: Extract; Suppository; Ointment;. 
Precipitate ; Saturated Solution. 

4. Explain briefly the theory of percolation. 

5. What is the Pharmaceutical meaning of the following terms : Filtrate; Dial- 
ysis; Menstruum; Desiccation; Water-bath. 

CHEMISTRY. 

I, Describe the barometer. How does it measure the pressure of the atmosphere ? 

1. Describe the Bunsen battery ceil, and state which is the positive and which the 
negative pole. 

3. Write the reaction for the production of Hydrochloric Acid. 

4. Mention some of the methods by which Ammonia is produced. 

5. Give the formulas and names of the several varieties of Phosphoric Acid. 

COMMITTEE. 

T. Describe, or illustrate by a diagram, any two of the following forms of leavesV 
Cordate ; Lanceolate; Orbicular; Ovate ; Obovate ; Peltate. ffeijiiLiJiii 

2. Give the botanical name and natural order of three plants which yield officinal 
leaves. 

3. Wiiat are the physical properties of Bromine? Write its symbol and give its 
specific gravity. What are its compounds with other elements called? 

4. State the source of Sulphur and its symbol. What is a compound of Sulphur 
with another element called ? What occurs wlien Sulphur is heated in contact with 
air ? 

5. State which is the heavier, an Avoirdupois or a Troy ounce, and how much ? 
Also, state the difference, in grains, between an Avoirdupois and a Troy pound,, 
and the number of ounces in each. 

Specimens for Recognition. 
"V'entha piperita, Vinum Ergotas, Sulphur praecipitatum, 

Lavandula, Syr. Pruni Virgin., Acidum Sulphurosum, 

Anthemis, Extract Buchu fluid, Acidum hydrochloricum. 

Arnica, 

The examination resulted in the passing of the large majority of the students and 
their admission to the senior course Those who failed in one or more branches 
will be granted another examination near the close of September next. 

Later on the same evening the Junior Class had a farewell reception at W. H. 
Shuster's, on which occasion the members of the faculty were present by invitation. 

The examination of the senior students commenced on Saturday, February 28, one 
series of questions being given on four consecutive days, and closed on March 4th 
with the practical exercises. 

QUESTIONS IN MATERIA MEDICA AND BOTANY. 

A. Give the source of Rhubarb z.^ to the plant or plants, natural order and country 
producing it. Describe the physical and the structural characteristics of the drug. 
Name a crjstallized Salt, and the important organic constituents of Rhubarb. What 
effect have the alkalies upon its liquid preparations? What other officinal root con- 
tains the same characteristic constituents as Rhubarb? 



^^aS'iS)^'^'"" } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 225 

E. Give the botanical name, natural order and habitat of the plant yielding Cala- 
mus. What part is used ? Describe its physical properties with the position and 
arrangement of the rootlets and its structural characteristics, naming the cause of 
the spongy appearance of fresh Calamus. Enumerate its medicinally important 
constituents, and give its medical properties. 

C What officinal Rhizomes are obtained from the order of Ranunculacea ? Give 
the botanical names of the plants, with their habitat. Describe each drug briefly, 
and give their medical properties and doses. 

D. Give the botanical name, natural order, habitat and part of the plant yielding 
^^uassia. Describe the drug, and the behavior to simple solvents of its bitter prin- 
ciple. What is the botanical source of Surinam ^assia, and how does this differ 
from the officinal drug ? 

E What is Prickly Ash? Give the names, natural order and habitat of the plants 
yielding the drug 5 als^o the commercial varieties, and describe the characteristics of 
each variety. What are its medical properties and dose? 

F. Which officinal leanjes are lohed? Give of each the name, natural order and 
habitat of the plant. Describe each drug briefly and name the important constitu- 
ents, medical properties and dose of each. 

G. Give the botanical characters of the natural order of Umhelliferae. Name the 
officinal fruits obtained from this order, and state to which sub-order each one 
belongs, and the number of oil tubes found in each fruit. 

H. What is Calabar Bean? From which plant, natural .order and country is it 
obtained ? Describe the physical properties of the drug and its structure. Name 
the active constituents, and give the medical properties and the dose of the drug. 

/. What is Copaiba ? Name the plants yielding it, their natural order and native 
country. Describe briefly the drug and its proximate constituents. State in what 
respects the principal commercial varieties differ and how adulterations may be 
recognized. 

K. Describe the officinal Opium^ and give the average amount of moisture con- 
tained in, and the amount of aqueous extract yielded by it. How may adulterations 
with extracts, gums and starches be detected } How much Morphia should dry 
Opium contain } Name some of the other Alkaloids 5 also, the Acid found in 
Opium, and give a characteristic reaction of the last named principle. 

.QUESTIONS IN PHARMACY. 

A. Write out the answers to the following, showing the method of obtaining the 
results : How many grams in a liter of Stronger Ether at 4°C. } in a centiliter of 
Monsel's Solution at 4°C. } in a hectoliter of Creasote at 4°C. } in a pint of Glyce- 
rin at 6o°F. } in a cubic centimeter of Mercury at 4^C t 

B. Define the following terms used in Pharmacy : Stearopten 5 Gum Resin j 
Glucoside j Balsams 5 Alkaloid; and name one officinal stearopten, three officinal 
gum resins, two officinal glucosides and five officinal alkaloids 

C Give the ingredients used in preparing and the officinal names of the follow- 
ing : Soap Cerate; Syrup of Almond; Tincture of American Hellebore (with pro- 
portions); Compound Iodine Ointment; Wine of Rhubarb ; Fluid Extract of Conium 
Fruit; Iodide of Ammonium; Yellow Oxide of Mercury; Donovan's Solution; 
Plummet's Pills. 

D. How are Sugars divided into classes, for convenience in studying their chemi- 
cal properties.? Give a prominent example of each class. Give a test to show the 
identity of each example which you have chosen. What variety of Sugar may be 
prepared from Starch .? From what other sources can this variety be prepared .? 

E. Name the Acid present in officinal Vinegar. From what source is the Com- 
mercial Acid obtained.? What impurities are usually present in the Acid .? How 
may they be detected t What is the U. S. Pharmacopoeia test for its strength ? What 
is the ehemical name for Pyroxylon ? How is it prepared? What are its properties ? 
State how two officinal preparations of it are made. Give the uses of these prepa- 
rations. 

F. Give the ingredients and English names for Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum,, 



15 



2 26 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. (^""xiriCissl^™' 

Confectio Opii, Emplastrum Ammonlaci cum Hydrargyro, Infusum Ros<e Com- 
positum, Liquor lodinii Compositus, Pilulse Aloes et Myrrhas, Spiritus Juniperi 
Conipositus, Syrupus Rhei, Tinctuia Cantharidis, Trochisci Sodii Bicarbonatis. 

G. Name two officinal liquids obtained directly from the Lemon. What Acid is 
present in this fruit? How is it prepaied ? What are the usual impurities? How 
may they be detected ? What other Acid does it closely resemble ? What chemi- 
cal tests serve to distinguisii them ? What is the quantivalence of each ? Name 
four officinal preparations of the Acid from Lemons. Name four officinal prepara- 
tions of the Acid which it most closely resembles, 

H. How is diluted Hydrocyanic Acid prepared ? What is the standard of strength 
adopted by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia ? How may it be preserved ? In what officinal 
Syrup is it found ? Why is it present in this Syrup ? What active substance is 
produced when Ground Black Mustard Seed is treated with water? Is the same 
substance produced when Tello=vo Mustard Seeds are similarly treated ? How are 
Prepared Sinapisms or Mustard Leaves usually prepared ? What precautions are 
necessary to keep them ? How are they used practically? 

/. How is Pyrophosphate of Iron prepared? What takes place when its solution is 
mixed with Diluted Phosphoric Acid in excess? How is Diluted Phosphoric Acid 
prepared ? What is its specific gravity? What are the officinal tests? 

K. Name three officinal preparations containing Metallic Mercury. What is the 
percentage of Mercury in each ? How may the quantities of Metallic Mercury in 
each be ascertained ? Name two officinal combinations of Iodine with Mercury. 
State how each is prepared. 

QUESTIONS IN CHEMISTRY. 

A. What is the officinal process for preparing Potassium Iodide ? Give the two 
reactions showing the two stages of the process. How may a trace of lodate 
remaining be detected ? Explain the reaction involved in this test. 

B. What is the composition of Ammonii Carbonas in the dry state, and what does 
it become when in solution ? Why is Ammonia Water to be added to this solu- 
tion in preparing Neutral Ammonium Carbonate? 

C. What is the difference between Carbo A?iimalis and Carbo Animalis Purifica- 
tus? Describe the mode of treatment by which the first is converted into the 
second. How does Carbo Animalis differ from Bone-Ash^ and how is each produced? 

D. What are the means of distinguishing between Ferrouszxidi Ferric Salts ? Give 
the chemical formulas of the several reagents used; also the formulas of the com- 
pounds they form with the Ferrous and Ferric Salts, respectively. 

E. Describe Marsh's test as applied to Arsenic and to Antimony, respectively, 
and enumerate points of difference in the two cases, giving the tests by which we 
may decide certainly as to which element is present, 

F. How would you test Calomel for a trace of Corroslue Sublimate^ and how 
would you remove any such trace from the Calomel? 

G. How is jEther made ? What precautions are necessary to insure a good yield 
and a pure product ? Give its chemical formula, and state its relationship to Alcohol. 

H. Describe Glycerin. To what class of organic compounds does it belong? In 
what naturally occurring compounds is it found, and how are these compounds 
decomposed ? What is formed at the same time that Glycerin is liberated? 

/. What is the source of Tartaric Acid ? Give its formula. Give the formula 
of Potassii Tartras, of Potassii Bitartras, of Potassii et Sodii Tartras, of Antimonii 
et Potassii Tartras. 

K. To what class of organic compounds does Acidum Tannicum belong? 
Whence is it obtained ? What are the characteristic reactions of it, as detailed in 
the Pharmacopoeia ? 

QUESTIONS BY THE EXAMINING COMMITTEE. 

A. Give the botanical name of the plant which yields Seneka. To what natural 
order does it belong? Describe briefly the physical and structural characteristics of 
the Root. What are the chief constituents of Seneka Root ? State the various 
names which have been given to the supposed active principle. In which portion of 



J 



^'"'Afeiyso!''"'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 227 



the Root does the activity reside? What other Roots have usually been found 
mixed with Seneka as impurities ? What entire substitution for Seneka has occurred 
within a few years ? What is the cause of the liquid preparations of Seneka becom- 
ing^ gelatinous? and what will prevent this, or remove it if' it has already occurred ? 
Write out in full three officinal names of preparations of Seneka. 

B. Give the officinal name of Gamboge. The botanical name of the plant which 
yields it. Its natural order. Habitat. How is the drug obtained from the plant ? 
To what principle is the activity due? What are its medical properties ? What is 
the dose for an adult? Name an officinal preparation into which it enters. What 
effect has an alkaline solution upon it ? 

C. Give the officinal name and parts used medicinally of the following drugs 5 
also the botanical name, natural order and habitat of the plants which furnish them : 
Camphor, Rhatany, Turpentine, Ipecacuanha, Squill, Galls, Arrow Root, Liquo- 
rice, Sago, Arnica. 

D. What is Bromine? From what source is it obtained? State the mode of its 
preparation Write its symbol. Give its specific gravity. What is its quantiva- 
lence ? Describe its physical properties. Name two of its officinal compounds. 
What is its compound with Hydrogen called ? Write the formula for this compound. 

E. What is the officinal name of Epsom Salts? From what source is it obtained ? 
How is it prepared ? Give its general characteristics, and a test of its purity. What 
is the officinal name of Glauber's Salts? From what source is it obtained ? How 
is it prepared? Give its general characteristics, and a test of its purity. How may 
these two Salts be distinguished from each other ? 

F. Give the officinal names and ingredients of the following preparations (omit- 
ting quantities), with the dose of those intended for internal administration: Fow- 
ler's Solution, Compound Spirit of Lavender, Antimonial Wine, Paregoric, Soap 
Liniment. 

G. Give the formulas and describe the process of making the following prepara- 
tions omitting quantities): Pilula Ferri Carbonatis, Pulvis Aromaticus, Liquor 
Sodas Chlorinatas, Syrupus Rhei Aromaticus, Emplastrum Plumbi. 

H. Give the officinal name of Muriate of Ammonia. Describe its appearance as 
found in commerce. What is the effect of lieat upon it ? What effect will be pro- 
duced by triturating it with Hydrate of Calcium ? Wliat impurity is usually pres- 
en tin the commercial article ? Name a test which will indicate this impurity in 
solution. What purified preparation is recognized by the United States Pharmaco- 
poeia ? Give the mode of its purification (omitting quantities). State the reaction 
which takes place during the process. What is the appearance of the purified article. 

/. Criticise the following prescriptions, in I and K, state how you would prepare 
them, and whether you would dispense them : 



R — Quiniae Sulph., . . • g^"- 

Acid Sulph. Dilut., 

Ext. Glycyrrh. Fid., . 

Aquae, q. s. ut. ft. 
Sig : — A leaspoonful every two hours 



f^ii 



R — Hydrarg. Chlorid. Mit., gr. ii 

Antim. et Pot. Tart., . gr. ss 
Pulv. Ipecac. Comp., . ^ss 
Tinct. Aconiti Rad., . gtt. xxiv 
Tinct. Verat. Virid.,. . gtt. xxiv 
Sacch Alb., . . . o\ 

Fiat pulvis, in chart, xii dividend. 

Sig : — One to be taken every three hours. 



R — Acid. Arsenios., . . gr. iii 
Pulv. Opii., . . . gr iv 
Extract. Gentian., . . "^i 

Misce, et fiat massa in pil. no, xx divi- 
denda. 

Sig : — One to be taken three times a day. 



R 



3iii 



-Potass. Chlorat., . 
Acid. Nitromuriatic, . 
Syrup., .... f5ii 

Aquas, .... ^o"^ 
Misce. 

Sig : — A dessertspoonful to be taken in 
water every four hours. 



22 8 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 



( Am. Jour. Pharrri: 
t April, 1880. 



R — Tinct. Cannabis. Ind., . 

Aquje Menth. Pip., . 
Ft. mist. 

Sig : — A teaspoonful to be given 
times a day. 

7. Oleaginous Mixture. 
R— Olei Tiglii, . . . . 
Tinct. Opii, 
Pulv. Acacias, 
Sacchari, 

Aq Menth Virid., 
Ft. mist. sec. art. 
Sig : — Shake the mixture, 

tablespoonful every two 

operates. 



t5ii 



three 



6. 

Write out a prescription containing at 
least three ingredients, using their of- 
ficinal titles in full. 



. . foil 
. HI XV 

da 3ii 
. . f5ii 

and take a 
hours till it 



Write out a direction for preparing this 
Prescription. When prepared, would 
you dispense it ? 
R — Acid. Arsenios., . . gr. xvi 
Potassii Bicarb., . . gr. xvi 
Spirit. Lavand. Comp., f3i 
Aquas Destillatae, . . ^51^ 
Liqua sec. art. 

Sig : — A teaspoonful to be taken three 
times a day. 

The following is the list of specimens selected for recognition : 

Materia Medica. Pharmacy. Chemistry. Examining Committee.. 

Taraxacum, Aqua creasoti, Amnionii chloridum purif., Cetraria, 

Filix mas. Infusuiii Pruni Virginianae, Potassii bichromas 

Podophyllum, Tinctura MyrrhcC. Magnesii sulphas, 

Serpentaria, Syrupus sarsaparillas compos., Zinci sulphas. 

Uva ursi, Extractum Taraxaci fluidum, Ferri phosphas, 

Caruiu, Linimentum saponis, ~' 

Juniperus, Spiritus sethens compositus 

Nux vomica, Glycerina, 

Lycopodium, Pulvis Rhei compositus, 

Mastiche. Acidum benzoicum. 



Plumbi acetas 
Atimonii sulphuretum, 
Alcohol amylicum, 
Acidum aceticum, 
Acidum gallicum. 



Canel 
Arnica, 
Anisum, 
Cubeba, 
Resina, 

Aqua CamphorfB, 
Spir. Lavandulae comp.. 
Ext. glycyrrhizae fluid. 
Cupri sulphas. 



The practical examination consisted in the spreading of a blistering plaster, and' 
in the preparation of a copaiba cmubion, of powders composed of zinc sulphate 
and lead acetate, and of suppositories containing extract ot opium and of bella- 
donna. 

The following candidates passed the examination and were recommended for the 
degree of Graduate in Pharmacy : 

John Frederick Oscar Agthe, North Carolina, Preparation of Phosphorus Pills. 

Charles Hamilton Ballantine, Pennsylvania, Unguentum HyJrargyri ISitratis.. 

Richard Calcott Barrington, New Jersey, Phosphorus. 

Fenwick Hazleton Bassett, New Jersey, Lactic Acid and its Compounds. 

Charles Beale, Pennsylvania, Chloroform 

Allen Leslie Belleville, Delaware, Salicylic Acid. 

Alexander Elvvell Bennett, New Jersey, Glycerin. 

George Mahlon Beringer, Pennsylvania, Caffeina. 

Edwin Hugh Bidwell, New Jersey, The Halogens. 

Edward George Boysen, New York, Emulsions. 

Lewis Colloredo Boysen, New York, The Miseries in Pharmacy. 

Mitchell Baxter Brooks, Pennsylvania, Plasma, its Pharmaceutic Value. 

Edwin Raughley Burdick, Delaware, Absence oj 1 annic Acid in Linjing Plants - 

Charles Blair Carl, Pennsylvania, Tincture of Kino 

William Henry Carslake, New Jersey, Cerasus Serotina. 

Harry Scott Clark, Pennsylvania, Pharmacists Sti;dy of Vegetation. 

Lewis Clay Collier, Ohio, Prinos Verticillatus. 

Thomas S. Collins, New Jersey, Chenopodium Anthelminticum. 

George Havens Colton, Massachusetts, Xanthoxylum Carolinianum. 

George Emil Dahis, Pennsylvania, Pills and Pill Coatings. 

Adam Clarion Daniels, Pennsylvania, Glycerin. 

August Jacob Detzer, Indiana, Chemical Affifiity in Compounding Medicine, 
William Crossett Dockstader, Delaware, Anamirta Cocculus. 



2 29 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {^''^Airn^S'o^™ 

Frank Frederick Drueding, Germany, Syrupus Ferri Jodidi. 

Charles William Elkins, Pennsylvania, Aralia Spinosa. 

George Bryan Evans, Pennsylvania, Physostigma 

Parker Hooven Famous, Pennsylvania, Euonymus Atropurpureus. 

George Adam Ferdinand, Iowa, Citric Acid in Cranberry. 

George Washington Fisher, Pennsylvania, Syrupus Ferri lodidi. 

Oliver John Freeman, Pennsylvania, Zinc. 

Frank Frisby, Kansas, Fucus Fesiculosus. 

GusTAV Adolph Fruh, Pennsylvania, Oil of Wintergreen. 

Daniel Joshua Fry, New Jersey, Olibanum. 

Samuel Wesley Gadd, England, Syrups and their Preparation, 

Thomas Mullin Galbreath, Maryland, Emulsions. 

■Samuel Franklin Garman, Pennsylvania, Pondered Ghinoidin. 

Robert Gibson, Jr., W. Virginia, Cornus Circinata. 

James Alexander Davis Hallowell, California, Fermentation. 

Frank Scott Harker, Pennsylvania, Aqua Purijicatio. 

Fbancis E. Harrison, Pennsylvania, Improved Lozenge Apparatus. 

Alfred Kerr Hartzell, Pennsylvania, Helianthemum Canadense. 

Conrad Gabriel Hoell, New Jersey, Cerates and Ointments. 

John Wilson Hoffa, Pennsylvania, Commercial Extract Krameria. 

Louis Henry Holden, Pennsylvania, Aralia Spinosa. 

William C Holzhauer, Wisconsin, Eriodictyon Californicum. 

'George Henry Jackson, Pennsylvania Fermentation. 

William Oscar Jacoby, Pennsylvania, Eupatorin. 

Washington William Jost, Pennsylvania, Polygala Senega. 

James Pecor Kern, Pennsylvania, Eupatorium Perfoliatum. 

Stirling Kerr, Jr., Pennsylvania, Pharmaceutical Manipulation, 

Thomas Franklin Keys, Pennsylvania, Failure of Medicinal Substances. 

W LLiAM John Killingbeck, New Jersey, Gum Arabic. 

John Klemet, Pennsylvania, Preservation of Drugs. 

John William Kohlerman, Delaware, Fluid Extracts. 

William Henry Lantz, Pennsylvania, Aralia Nudicaulis. 

George Latin, Ohio, Eupatorium Perfoliatum. 

Isaac Lavenson, Pennsylvania, Roots and Rhizomes. 

Arthur Everett Lewis, Pennsylvania, Meconic Acid. 

Frederick Loos, Jr., Pennsylvania, Glycerole of Cinchona. 

Amandus Julius Luethe, Wisconsin, Empiricism. 

John Edward McCambridge, Pennsylvania, Hydrargyri lodidum Viride. 

Andrew James McFeeters, Pennsylvania, Resina Podophylli. 

Joseph Summerfield Madison, Pennsylvania, Aristolochia Serpentaria. 

John Maier, Pennsylvania, Eupatorium Perfoliatum. 

Alfred Stanger Marshall, New Jersey, American Druggists. 

Arthur Robinson Milby, Delaware, Glass. 

William Leland Miller, Mississippi, Value of the Laboratory. 

William Moses Miller, New Jersey, Eriodictyon Glutinosum. 

Bernard James Murray, Pennsylvania, Rubus. 

George Henry Ochse, Pennsylvania, Liquor Ferri Acetici Ph. Ger. 

Andrew Allison O'Daniel, Pennsylvania, Elegant Pharmacy. 

Tho.mas Edwin Ogram, Pennsylvania, Chrysophanic Acid. 

William Maxwell Opdycke, Pennsylvania, The Apothecary. 

Horace Hildebrand Owen, Pennsylvania, Terebinthina. 

Oric Henry Paxson, Jr , Pennsylvania, Aralia spinosa. 

William Joseph Pechin, Pennsylvania, Pi?ius Palustris. 

Nathan Pennypacker, Pennsylvania, Salix Alba. 

Henry Eugene Peters, Pennsylvania, Eriodictyon Californicum. 

Louis Clark Pettit, Ohio. Eugenic Acid. 

LiNN/EUS S. Poley, Pennsylvania, Xanthoxylum Fraxineum. 

John Brewster Reynolds, Pennsylvania, Tinctura Opii Deodorata, 



2 JO Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {'^^ApXisso^''"'* 

Charles Haines Roberts, New Jersey, Botany. 

Edward Manning Roche, Jr , Pennsylvania, Jaborandi. 

George Redsecker Ross, Pennsylvania, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

Charles William Saalfrank, Pennsylvania, Syrupus Rad. Glycyrrhiza. 

Harry Schandein, Pennsylvania, Ungue7itum Benzoini. 

George William Schimminger, Pennsylvania, Comptonia Asplenifolia. 

Jacob Shelly, Pennsylvania, Fluid Extracts. 

Harry Huber Sherk, Pennsylvania, Polygonum Hydropiper. 

William Huntley Short, Pennsylvania, Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 

Silas Henry Shull, Ohio, Pharmacists and Physiciayis. 

Charles Edward Slough, Pennsylvania, Pharmacal Botany. 

Harry Leedom Smedlfy, Pennsylvania, Asclepias Syriaca. . 

George Farrar Smith, Jr., Tennessee, Ointments. 

William Harrold Smith, Jr., Pennsylvania, Glycerin. 

John Edward Sombart, Missouri, Suppositories 

Louis Joseph Steltzer, Pennsylvania, Castanea. 

Charles Pettit Stout, New Jersey, Spigelia Marilandica. 

Samuel William Strunk, Pennsylvania, The Metric System. 

Stephen Liversidge Talbot, Massachusetts, Equi^mlence of Drops. 

William James Thornley, Pennsylvania, (Enothera Biennis. 

Joseph Alexander Titcomb, Tennessee, Pills. 

William George Toplis, Pennsylvania, Gelatin Lo%enges. 

Herman Van Allen, Wisconsin, Viburnum Prunifolium. 

William Sampson Wallace, Ohio, Falsifications. 

Frank Stephen Warner, Ohio, Digitalis. 

Edward Warrington, New Jersey, Cosmolin and Vaselin. 

George C. Webster, Pennsylvania, Aristolochia Serpentaria. 

James Addison White, Ohio, Hydrastis. 

George Eli Williams, New York, Absorption of Moisture. 

George Byron Winebrenner, Maryland, Coccus Cacti 

Preston Reuben Young, Pennsylvania, Adulteration of Beer. 

Charles Frederick Zeller, Pennsylvania, Thalleioquin Test. 

Mason Wooward Zimmerman, Pennsylvania, Glycyrrhiza Glabra. 

The graduating class and the members of the Board of Trustees accepted aiD 
invitation tendered by the faculty for a reception at the College hall, on the even- 
ing of March 15th. A pleasant evening was spent, enlivened after supper by toastSj^ 
speeches and songs. 

The commencement was held at the Academy of Music on the evening of March 
16. The degree of Ph.G. was conferred by the President of the College, Dlllwy > 
Parrish. The Procter medal, which is awarded to the student presenting a meritor- 
ious thesis, attaining the highest general average at the examination, and receiving 
the mark ^ery satisjactory in each branch, was presented by Prof. Remington to 
Geo. H. Colton, of Springfield, Mass, Honorable mention was made of the follow- 
ing graduates whose general average at the examination was <very satisfactory : G. 
M. Beringer, L. C. Collier, D. Fry, Jr, T. M. Galbreath, R. Gibson, Jr., F. S. Har- 
ker, C. G. Hoell, J W. Hoffa, G. H. Ochse, H. C. Peters, J. E. Sombart, C. P. 
Stout, S. W. Stnsnk, S. L. Talbot, C. F. Zeller and M. W. Zimmerman. 

Prof. Sadtler presented the prize of ^100 off"ered by Henry C. Lea, Esq., for the 
best thesis, to Stephen L. Talbot, of Boston, Mass. The thesis of the following 
gentlemen were deemed worthy of honorabie mention : G. H. Colton, L. C. Col- 
lier, G. A. Ferdinand, F. Frisby, R. Gibson, Jr., F. E. Harrison, J. W. Hoffa, L. 
H. Holden, W. C. Holzhauer, G. Latin, J. E. McCambridge, L C. Pettit, L. J. 
Steltzer, H. Van Allen and C. F. Zeller. 



''^'"Airii'\88a'"'"} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 231 

The valedictory address was delivered by Prof. Maiscti. At the close of the 
address Prof. Sadtler was surprised with a handsome silver tea set, presented to him 
by Thos. L. Collins on behalf of the class. As usual the exercises, which had 
attracted an unusually large audience, were interspersed with music and closed with 
the distribution of bouquets, books and other presents sent upon the stage\by the 
friends of the graduates. 



The Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy gave its 
annual reception to the graduating^class on the afternoon of March 15. After some 
introductory remarks by the President, W. E. Krewson, the recent graduates were 
admitted to membership, and the alumni gold medal was presented to G. H Colton. 
The annual address was delivered by Jos. L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa., of the 
class 1854, and was well received. The graduates having passed the best examina- 
tion in the different branches were presented with alumni certificates, namely: R» 
Gibson, Jr., Materia Medica 5 S. W. Gadd, Pharmacy 5 C. G. Hoell, Chemistry; 
J. E Sombart, General pharmacy, and Geo. Latin, Pharmaceutical manipulation. 
The spokesman of the graduating class was G. A. Ferdinand, whose valedictory 
address was very creditably delivered. The certificate for having attained the highest 
mark in the junior examination was awarded to Geo. Goebel, and after announcing 
the names of both the senior and junior students, who, in the resent examinations, 
received the general average <very satisfactory^ the audience dispersed. 



I 'The Essex County, Mass., Pharmaceutieal Association met in Plummer hall, 
Salem, Wednesday forenoon, Feoruary 18, at 10 o'clock. About 30 members were 
present when President Frothingham, of Haverhill, called the meeting to order. 
He spoke briefly, urging an increased efix)rt to bring into the organization all the 
druggists of the county. He also urged that some action be taken to secure the 
repeal of the stamp-tax on many articles sold by the pharmacists. The president 
and secretary were constituted a committee to prepare a memorial to Congress, urg- 
ing the repeal of this tax. Mr. Whitney, of Lawrence, read a valuable paper on 
ointments. Mr. S. A. D. Sheppard, of Boston, delivered an address on the history 
and objects of pharmaceutical associations. He thought that the pharmacists should 
give up the traffic in cigars, soaps and the like, cease to be merchants and become 
what they were by right, members of a profession. A discussion followed on the 
metric system, after which the members adjourned to the Essex House to dinner. 

The entire company, after dinner, paid a visit to the " Marine Museum, ^ and 
investigated all tbe attractions which their limited time allowed. The "first 
church," which was built in 1627, was among the objects of interest visited. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — At the Commencement held at Chickering 
Hall, on the evening of March i6th, the following gentlemen received the degree 
of Graduate in Pharmacy : 
John Albert, Jr., New York, Percolation. 
Emilio Bergara, Trinidad, Cuba, Salicylic Acid. 
J. A. Biskey, New York, Water. 
W. P. Blair, Columbus, Miss., Fermentation. 
Herman Breiting, Germany, Phosphorus and Acid. 



2^2 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {'^'^AiXiss'o'l'"'' 

J. C. Comstock, Windsor, N. Y., From Seed to Seed. 

J. Dahlbender, Mainz, Germany, Mercury. 

Eugene W. Denton, New York, Osmose. 

W, S. Disbrow, Newark, N. J., Copper. 

Ch. H. Duffy, England, Antimony. 

Joseph Feil, Cleveland, O., Podophyll'in. 

W. Frank Fiero, New York, Glycerin. 

H. F. Frank, Rah way, N. J., Digitalis. 

Fr Aug. Grenzebach, Peekskill, N. Y., Glycerin. 

Joseph A, Herb, New York, Cathartics 

Ferd. Julius, New York, Camphor and Preparations. 

A. A. Kirschner, New York, Chloride of Sodium. 

Otto Klinkenberg, Jonesville, Ind., Volatile Oils. 

Alvin Geo. Koehler, Brooklyn, N. Y., Iodine. 

A, Th. Koertge, New York, Opium. 

Hy. M. Kolasky, Augusta, Ga , Lead Plaster and Compounds . 
George Kraft, Jr., Newburgh, N. Y., Essential Oils. 
Salvador J. Lahey, Ireland, Belladonna . 
Albert H. Lins, Mount Vernon, N, Y., Acetic Acid. 

B. H. Livingston, Brooklyn, N Y., Benzoin. 
Albert A. Merritt, Pawling, N. J., Xanthoxylum. 
Charles Meyer, New York. Opium. 

Frank L. Morris, Newark, N. J., Iron. 

Frank Nadler, Peru, Ills., Valerianic Acid. 

Samuel Nauheim, London, Eng , JAnc. 

J. J. R. Paulsen, Yew' York, Digitalis. 

J. A. Proben, Hessen, Germany, Copper. 

Ph. Scheu, New York, Paraffin. 

H. C. Schmidt, Hoboken, N.J, Digitalis. 

Ch. J. Schneider, Germany, Vaporization and Condensation. 

F. T. Schultze, New York, Pepsin. 

Oscar W. Stiebeling, New York, Arsenic. 

F. G. E,, Strahlemann, Oldenburg, Germany, Volatile Oils. 
W., Tack, New York, Seidlitz Ponvder. 

Hy. C Thomm, Oswego, N. Y., Cork. 

G. A Van Deinse, Holland, Hydrargyrum. 
John A. Whitttrt, New York, Jaborandi. 
Max \\'^ustrow, New York, Stra?no?iium. 

H. S. Zeuschner, New York, Belladonna. 

Ol this class, we have been informed, the highest average was obtained by Joseph 
Fell. At the junior examination, which was held this year for the first time, ninety- 
one students were successful, the class being headed by Rene Ravenel Snowdcn. 



Maryland College of Pharmacy — The 28th Annual Commencement exercises 
took place at the Academy of Music on the evening of March 22, when the degree 
of Ph.G. was conferred by the President, Joseph Roberts, upon the following gen- 
tlemen : 

Joseph Ayd, Maryland, Distillation. 

Royal H. Bussler, Pennsylvania, Pharmacy. 

Erne>t F. Hein, Germany, Sulphur. 

John Herr, Maryland, Physostigma. 

John H. Frames, Maryland, Antimony. 

Chas. H. Lee, Louisianc^, Syrup of Iodide of Iron. 

Zebulon Lowe, Maryland, Petroleum. 

A. B. Reese, Virginia, Emulsions. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1880. 



} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 



233 



Chas. Schmidt, Maryland, Carbon. 
Frank E. Stoiigh, Ohio, Podophyllin. 
Wm. F. Thiede, Jr., Maryland, Iodine. 
M. J. Wolf, Maryland, Belladonna. 
Gustav Woltereck, Germany, Bromine. 

The following prizes from tiie College to the Graduating Class were presented by 
Dr. Roberts : The gold medal to Charles Schmidt, the second prize, consisting of 
copies of "Fresenius' Chemistry," "Wohler's Organic Chemistry" and "Armstrong's 
Organic Chemistry," to Chas. Hill Lee, and the third prize, consisting of copies of 
the " National Dispensatory" and the German Pharmacopoeia," to Ernest F. Hein. 

The recipient of the College prize to the Junior Class, consisting of " Shake- 
speare's Complete Works," was William Caspari, Jr. The gold medal from the 
Alumni Society was presented by Prof. Simon to Chsrles Hill Lee. 

The following Junior Class students are entitled to honorable mention : Wm. 
Caspari, Jr. (Prize), R. P. C. Scheldt, E. H. Kabernagle, A. H. Shultze, Cameron 
Piggot, Hammond Mason, Clarence F. Moore and R. S. McKinney. 

The valedictory address was delivered by Rev. Julius E. Gtammer, D.D. The 
exercises were enlivened by choice music and a number of floral' and other gifts 
were presented by the friends of the graduates. 



Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy — The first graduating class of this institution 
received their diplomas on the evening of March ti, the commencement exercises 
being held af Lafayette Hall. The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was conferred 
by the President, Geo. A. Kelly, upon the following gentlemen : 

George Fry {Syr. Glycyrrhizee), Charles L, Kuhn {Evaporation)^ Adolph Henry 
Kraeling {Pill Excipients), James Macbeth Little {Syr. Phosphates Conip.\ SamueJ 
McElroy, Jr. {Pharmacy Lanx)s)^ James Clancy McElroy {Calisaya Bark), Jame? 
Sansom McRride {Eucalyptus Globulus), A. C. Robertson {Berberis AquifoUum).. 
Oliver C, Sarver {Pharjnaceutical Cleanliness), David Franklin Sawhill {Emulsions), 
John Wurzell {Pure Sulphate of Copper). 

Mr. W. D. Moore addressed the audience, dwelling mainly on some abuses which 
are sometimes practised under the cover of pharmacy. The valedictory address on 
behalf of the class was delivered by J. C. McElroy, and on behalf of the Faculty 
by Prof. W. G. Reiter, M D. 

Louisville College of Pharmacy. — The commencement exercises were held at 
the Hall of the College, on Green street near First, Monday, March' 15. The 
valedictory address, delivered by Prof. C. L. Diehl, was full of sound advice. The 
degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was then conferred upon two gentlemen, Messrs 
Wagner and Mehringer, and the following gentlemen, Messrs. Stahl, Shelly, Bus- 
chemeier, Seiler, Johanboecke, Struby, having successfully passed the junior exami- 
nation, were granted certificates to that effect. 

Mr. Jacob Flexner, on behalf of the Alumni of the College, then presented the 
prizes offered by that association, consisting of a gold medal to the graduate hav- 
ing the highest average (Mr. Wagner), and of a copy of *' Pharmacographia " to 
the senior student (Mr. Stahl) passing the best examination, and delivered an address 
appropriate to the occasion. 



234 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {'^'"Aprn^sso^'"'' 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy.— The Commencement exercises closing the 
ninth session of this college were held March i6th, at Melodeon Hall, when the 
degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was conferred by the President of the college 
upon the following gentlemen : 

Julius Eichberg, Petersburg, Va., Hard and Soft Water. 

John Fabing, Cincinnati, Analysis of Conchelaqua, or ^{nine Plant. 

Francis Grieme, Cincinnati, Alstonia Constricta. 

Rob. Groenland, Cincinnati, Commercial Carbonate of Soda. 

G A. Hans, Cincinnati, Hydrastis Canadensis 

Arthur Heinemann, Cincinnati, The Mexican Vine. 

E. F. Hallenbeck, Cincinnati, Collinsonia Canad. 

John W. Honaker, Owinsvilie, Ky , An Examination of the Root of Helleborus. 
Jacob W. Jones, Cincinnati, O., Emulsio7is. 
Chas. R. Judge, Cincinnati, O., Dialyzed Iron. 

F. E Kline, Cincinnati, O., Ailanthus Glandulosa. 
J. M. Long, Cincinnati, O., Soaps of Pharmacy. 

Chas. C. Reakirt, Jr., Cincinnati, O , Suppositories of the U. S. P. 
Henry I. Schulte, Cincinnati, O., Cascara Sagrada 

Edward Speidel, Cincinnati, O., Ferro-phosphated Elixir Calisaya Bark. 
H. G. Westplial, Germany, Benzoate Sodium. 

Otto S. Weusthoff, Dayton, O., Robinia Pseudacacia [common Locust). 

The exercises were enlivened by music, and addresses were delivered on behalf of 
the faculty by Prof. E, S. Wayne, and on behalf of the Board of Trustees by Thad. 
Reamy, M.D. 

The professors' prizes, consisting of gold medals, were awarded to Jul. Eichberg- 
(Chemistry), Otto S. Weusthoff (Materia Medica and Botany), Charles R. Judge 
(Pharmacy), and the Alumni gold medal, for the best general examination, to Julius 
Eichberg. 



St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — The Fourteenth Annual Commencement 
exercises were celebrated Tuesday evening, March i6tli, 1880, at Germania HalL 
The President, Mr. George Ude, addressed the select and numerous audience in a 
few well-chosen remarks, and handed to each graduate the diploma of the college 
conferring the degree of " Ph.G." Their names are : Messrs. E. G. Bauer, V. E. 
Eilbracht, Zeno Felder, Julius Feickert, S. F, Flint, F. A. Graichen, E, T. Gieen^ 
Erwin Grimm, A. Hamel, H. Hoyer, John P. Huhn, L. Kempf, Theo. Klipsteini^ 
Thomas Knoebel, A. A. Krusskopf, F. T. McAulitfe, A, Pohrer, A. Rohlfing, 
Benjamin Saenger, Emil A. Sennewald, H. Stubbemann, A. Temm, A. Troxell, 
Chr. Van Zandt, F. Vedda and A. Wellmeyer. The silver medal of the Alumni 
Association, to be awarded to the graduate who attained the highest average in all 
the branches taught, was presented by Prof. J. M. Good to Mr. Emil A. Senne- 
wald. The following received honorable mention : Messrs. A. A. Krusskopf, Theo. 
Klipstein and Thomas Knoebel. The valedictory address, delivered by Proh Chas. 
O. Curtman, wa-; a masterly effort. The valedictory address in behalf of the class 
was delivered by Mr. S. F. Flint. 

The addresses were interspersed with choice pieces of music. After the numer- 
ous bouquets and other floral offerings had been distributed, the balance of the 
evening was spent in a social reunion, the devotees of Terpsichore enjoying them- 
selves until the wee small hours. 



■""Airii:-.88''„""} Editorial. 235 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The Diploma Swindle — It was recently reported to a committee of the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, that the Massachusetts Medical Society had proof positive of 
the following so-called colleges and universities, selling their diplomas without any 
evidence of study or fitness : American University of Medicine and Surgery, of 
Philadelphia 5 Philadelphia University of Medicine and Surgery 5 Physio-Eclectic 
Medical College, of Cincinnati, O. 5 Physio-Medical College (new issue), of Cin- 
cinnati 5 American Eclectic Medical College, of Cincinnati ; St. Louis Homoeopathic 
Medical College 5 St. Louis Eclectic Medical College 5 New England University of 
Medicine and Surgery, of Manchester, N. H. ^ University of Medicine and Surgery, 
of Haddonfield, N, J. ; and American Vitopathic College, of Cincinnati, O. 

Whether the list is complete, we do not know ; but we remember that the names 
of the notorious Dr. John Buchanan and Wm. Paine were connected also with other 
concerns besides the first two mentioned above. Although the charters of these 
Philadelphia institutions [}) were repealed by the legislature for gross fraud, the busi- 
ness of diploma selling continued to flourish, until on February 28th last two repor- 
ters of the Philadelphia " Record" exposed the traffic, having obtained for the sum 
of ^25 from the dean of the so-called Philadelphia University, Rev. T. B. Miller, 
a certificate that they were entitled to practice medicine, and the promise of a di})loma 
for an addiiional consideration. Two other ministers. Revs. Ingraham and 
Major, figured, the former as president, the latter as secretary of the institution. On 
March i8th Miller was expelled from the membership and ministry of the church to 
which he belonged, and Major was svispended from the ministry for one year. 

It seems almost as if the law was powerless to reach such offenders. Years ago 
the attorney-general was officially requested to proceed against the fraudulent con- 
cerns. Notwithstanding this, they have not been molested, and it may be assumed 
that, although the shop has been closed for the present, the same institutions (:), per- 
haps under different officers, will again take up the old business as long as there is 
any money in it. 



The Percentage Business and Cipher Prescriptions in California. — A bill 
has been introduced by Mr. Braunhart into the legislature of California making it 3 
misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of from $50 to $500, for any apothecary and 
physician to pay or receive any money or property as a commission or reward for 
prescriptions. At a meeting of the California Pharmaceutical Society this bill was 
endorsed, and amendments were proposed making it a misdemeanor, punishable bv 
a fine of ^50, for a physician refusing, upon the application of a competent pharm- 
acist, to give the proper name or formula for ' any article or preparation of medicine 
which he may have prescribed by arbitrary signs, names or numbers, and for a pharm- 
acist refusing in like manner, if he has knowledge of the proper name or formula. 

Every reputable physician and pharmacist will acknowledge that there is notliing- 
in this law but what is required by the codes of ethics of the medical and pharm- 
aceutical societies 5 yet the *' Western Lancet " opposes the measure, as we learn 
from a pamphlet by Prof. Emlen Painter, of the California College of Pharmacy. 
To what extent the discreditable practise is carried on will be seen from the follow- 
ing extracts from Prof. Painter's reply: 



236 Editorial— Reviews, etc. {^"a&x^""' 

"At this very moment, in summing up, and without any references, I can call to 
•mind as many as twenty physicians who are in the habit of writing cipher prescrip- 
tions, several of whom are classed among the leading physicians of the city, and who 
write by far the largest number of prescriptions of any practising here. If we may 
judge from such prescriptions as fall into the hands of druggists who are not in col- 
lusion with such physicians, at least 90 per cent, of them are written in that unpro- 
fessional manner. Some of these doctors, occupying public positions of honor and 
trust, some occupying professorships in our medical schools — especially in the med- 
ical department of the University of California — are, I am grieved to say, included 
in that category, and their influence is felt to such an extent that not a few of the 
young graduates seem to think that being paid a percentage on their prescriptions is 
.a legitimate business transaction. . . . . . 

*' And some professors, too, are in the habit of not only writing in cipher, 
but also of giving the prescription to the patient in a sealed envelope, with 
the printed address of a certain druggist upon it. It would appear that moral 
suasion is not sufficient in the other five cases out of the ten. Perhaps the 
fears that the patient might discover the important fact that he could get the 
same medicine at any other store for one-third of the price, impels these vampires to 
adopt this sealed envelope and the secret cipher plan." 

The resolutions approving of the bill have been signed by 94 out of the 98 apoth- 
ecaries of San Francisco, and it is to be hoped that a large proportion of the medical 
profession will likewise favor a measure for the suppression of the dishonorable col 
lusion, having for its purpose the fleecing of the sick. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Lehrbuch der Pharmaceutischen Chemie. Von Dr. Hus^o Schwanert, ordentl. Pro- 
fessor der Chemiean der Universitat zu Greifswald. In drei Banden. ErsterBand. 
Mit 146 Holzschnitt-Illustrationen undeiner Spectraltafel. Braunschweig: C. A. 
Schwetschke und Sohn. 1880. Svo, pp. 756. 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry, in three volumes. Vol. I, with 146 wood-cuts and a 
spectral chart. 

A work on chemistry, intended for the special use of pharmAcists, may be written 
from diff'erent stand-points and with different objects in view. Aside from such, 
which merely aim at teaching the most approved methods of manufacturing the 
various definite compounds employed in medicine, it may assume a certain knowl- 
edge of physical and chemical laws, and thus adapt itself to the wants of the more 
advanced student j or, it may endeavor at teaching chemistry to the novice who has 
yet to master those lawb upon a knowledge of which tlie correct understanding ot 
processes and reactions depends, A full and accurate knowledge of the^pharm- 
aceutical chemicals can doubtless be obtained only through an insight into the more 
important physical laws and into the importance of physical and chemical properties, 
and through a familiarity with the fundamental chemical laws, and with the pro- 
duction, constitution and behavior of elements and compounds, including such, 
which though not medicinally employed, are of importance on account of analogy, 
or because of being utilized in the preparation of medicinal chemicals. It'is obvi- 
ous, therefore, that among the material of a work on pharmaceutical ^^^chemistry 
many bodies may be omitted which for the theoretical chemist are of importance, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1880. 



Reviews^ ete. 



^31 



while, on the other hand, compounds possessing little theoretical interest, but inter- 
esting and important on account of iheir practical application in medicine, should 
be treated more in detail than is usually done in woiks on theoretical chemistry. 

The work, the first volume of which is now before us, aims to develop the recog- 
nized theories and the accumulated facts of chemistry in its special application to 
pharmacy and medicinal compounds 5 and this object is continually kept in view by 
the author, who was formerly a practical pharmacist, and occupies a prominent 
position as teacher of chemistry. 

The introductory chapter of the work defines the domain of pharmaceutical 
chemistry and the fundamental theories of natural philosophy, which are further 
developed in the chapter on the physical properties of bodies, embracing crystal- 
lography, alteration by temperature, latent and specific heat, absolute and specific 
gravity, influence of light, electricity arrd galvanism. The next chapter treats of 
the chemical properties of bodies, explaining the nature of elements, chemical com- 
pounds, equivalents, atoms, molecules, symbols, chemical equations and stcxchio- 
metric calculations, quantivalence, formulas, isomerism, metamerism, polymerismy 
chemical constitution, nomenclature and electrolysis. 

After these general considerations, which occupy one-fourth of the present vol- 
ume, the author proceeds to the description of the various elements and their com- 
pounds, reserving what is known as organic chemistry for a separate volume. The- 
arrangement of the elements by the author is based in the first place upon the electro- 
chemical afl[inities of hydrogen and oxygen, with which two all other elements may- 
be arranged in two series 5 considering, at the same time, the quantivalence of the 
elements, they are placed into well-known natural and simple groups. But while 
these are generally recognized, the majority of chemical text-books depart in their 
arrangement from these groups, to which the author adheres, securing thereby the 
consecutive consideration of those elements most nearly related. While pointing 
out the fact that the definition of metal is based upon purely physical properties,, 
the division into non-metallic and metallic elements is adhered to because con- 
venient, and the members of the former division are treated of in this volume in 
the following order: Hydrogen, chlorine, iodine, bromine, fluorine, oxygen, sul- 
phur, selenium, tellurium, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, boron, silicon 
and carb'on. 

Throughout the book the familiarity of the author with the wants of the pharm- 
acist is evident, the definitions and descriptions are clear and to the point, and there 
is a detail of matter which renders the book a most acceptable one as a text-book 
for the pharmaceutical student and as a work of reference for the practical pharm- 
acist. Although there is no lack in the English language of good works on sys- 
tematic chemistry, we are not acquainted with one of similar scope and usefulness 
in the special branch to which it is devoted. It is to be hoped that the remaining 
two volumes are sufficiently far advanced to secure their early publication. 



Report on the Revision of the U. S. Fharmacopceia Preliminary to the Convention of 
18805 being a rough draft of the general principles, titles and working formulas 
proposed for the next pharmacopoeia. Prepared and compiled by Charles Rice, 
chairman of the committee. New York: 1880. pp. 202. 

This is the committee report which the American Pharmaceutical Association 



Reviews, etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
April, 1880. 



ordered to be printed after receiving the necessary funds by subscriptions. Our 
readers are aware that we highly appreciate the invaluable services of the chairman, 
and the efficient labors of the various contributors. Notwithstanding this, we have 
been opposed to the publication of the report; but, although we see no reason to 
change our views, we sincerely trust that our misgivings may ultimately prove to 
have been unfounded. 



Sore "Throat, its Nature, Varieties and Treatment ; including the connection between 
affections of the throat and other diseases. By Prosser James, M.D., Lecturer on 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics at the London Hospital, etc. Fourth edition. 
Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1880. i2mo, pp. 318. Price, $2. 
The intrinsic value of this work, and the researches of its author in the class of 
diseases of which the book treats are well known to our medical readers, and need 
no further comment. The typography is unexceptionable, the wood cuts are instruc- 
tive and the copper plate engravings, colored by hand, are excellent The present 
enlarged and partly rewritten edition will doubtless be hailed with the same satisfac- 
tion, by every laryngoscopi^t, that has been accorded to the preceding ones. 



Brain Work and Over Work. By Dr. H. C Wood, Clinical Professor of Nervous 
Diseases in the University of Pennsylvania, etc. Philadelphia : Presley Blakiston. 
1880. i6mo, pp, 126. Price, 50 cents. 

This is one of the volumes ot the American Health Primers, which were 
formerly published by Lindsay & Blakiston. The little book before us should be in 
the hands of all using their mental faculties in their daily labors. It discusses all 
questions connected with brain work in a forcible and suggestive manner, and we 
feel confident that all interested in the .^^uhject will study it with profit to themselves. 



Our Homes. By Henry Hartshorne, A.M., M.D., formerly Professor of Hygiene 
in the University of Pennsylvan'a. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. i6mo, 
pp. 150. Price, 50 cents. 

Another volume of the American Health Primers, and one in the subject matter 
of which every one is interested, since it discusses the all-important question : How 
shall we have healthy homes ? Situation, construction, light, warmth, ventilation, 
water supply, drainage, disinfection, population and workingmen^s homes are the 
topics considered. More than 30 w^ood cuts have been introduced in illustration of 
the correct and improper systems of ventilation and drainage. 



On the Internal use of Water for t/ie Sicky and on Thirst, A clinical lecture at the 
Pennsyh'ania Hospital, October 25, 1879. By J. Forsyth Meigs, M.D., one of 
the attending physicians to the hospital, Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. 1880. 
pp. 54, Price, 25 cents. 

The pamphlet wdiich bears on its title page, as a motto, the old English proverb : 
"Drinking water neither makes a man sick, nor in debt, nor his wife a widow" — 
discusses a subject of the utmost Importance in which all are interested. Though 
delivered before medical students, this lecture may be read with profit by others, and 
more particularly by those to whom the care of sick people is intrusted. 



Sulphate of ^ifiia. Statement of the American manufacturers regarding the 
repeal of the duty on the foreign article. January, 1880. pp. 12 
This pamphlet, which we suppose may be obtained from any one of the four 

manufacturers of quinia in New York and Philadelphia, furnishes much food for 

thought to the advocates of the hasty and injudicious legislation by which the duty 

on foreign quinia was repealed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1880. / 



Reviews, etc. 



239 



The Foisoti Register and Poisons and their Antidotes. By John H. Nelson, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

As the title indicates, this book is intended for the registration of the sale of poi- 
sons. It is conveniently ruled so as to give the date, time, name of poison, quantity, 
purchaser, residence, witness, etc.; and this is preceded by an account of the various 
poisons, their antidotes, symptoms and tests, and by a compilation of the various 
State laws regulating the sale of poisons. The latter are not quite complete, several 
have been overlooked by the compiler, which were published in the Proceedings of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association since 1868. Apothecaries will find the 
book serviceable and well adapted for the purpose for whicli it is intended. 

Deutsch-Amerikanische Apot/ieker-Zeitu/ig [Germdin-AmeviC3.n Apothecaries'' Gazette). 

The first number of this semi-monthly paper is dated March 1 5, and consists, 
exclusive of the advertisements, of 13 large quarto pages. It is edited by Dr. Geo. 
W. Rachel, and published by the Pharmaceutical Publishing Company, 5 Gold 
street, at $2.50 per year. It is very creditably edited, printed upon good paper and 
in clear type, and, to judge from the initial number, deserves the support of the phar- 
macists, physicians, chemists and druggists who are conversant with the German 
language. 



Index Medicus. New York : F. Leypold. 

This excellent journal has entered upon its second year, and is in reality what it 
professes to be, a complete classified record of the medical literature of the world. 
Its price is $3 per year. 



We hereby acknowledge the receipt of the" following pamphlets: 
The Calendar oj the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 1880, pp. 4.56. 
Valedictory Address to the Graduating Class of the Medical Department of California, 

by Prof. W. F. McNutt, M.D. 
Microscopical Fungi Infesting our Cereals. By Wm. Barbeck. Reprint from the 

"American Naturalist," October, 1879. 
The Sanitation of small Cities. By David Prince, M D. From " Transactions of 

the Illinois State Medical Society." 
■Color Blindness and Defecti^ve Sight Among Railroad Employees. 

The Fallacies of Popular Clinical Medicine. By Prof. Jarvis S. Wight, M.D., of 
Brooklyn. 

The Anatomical Relations of Uterine Strictures. By T. H. Buckler, M.D., Balti- 
more, Md. 

The Nenv Anathetic, the Bromide of Ethyl. By R. J. Levis, M.D., Philadelphia. 
Researches on Hearing through the Medium of the Teeth and Cranial Bones. By 

Chas. H. Thomas, M.D., Philadelphia. 
A Plea for Cold Climates in the Treatment of Pulmonary Consumption. By Talbot 

Jones, M.D., St. Paul, Minn 
Therapeutic Action of Mercury. By S, V. Clevenger, M.D., Chicago. 
Nitro-Glycerin as a Remedy in Angina Pectoris. By Wm. Murrell, M.D,, M. R. C. 

P. (from the " Lancet 

Annual Renjie^ of the Drug Trade oJ New York, for the year 1879. By D. C. 
Robbins. 

Sur Vusage et Vabus du The. et du Cafe, suinji d'une note sur le Mate. Par Adrien 
Nickles. On the use and abuse of tea and coffee, with a note on mate. 
This is an interesting communication made to the society for sciences, agriculture 

and arts of Lower Alsace. 



240 Obituary. {^""Afes^o'™ 

Reponse d une note de M. le Dr. Phipson, i?2tituice : On the Nascent state of Bodies. 
Par le Dr. D. Tommasi. 

A reprint from " Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences." 



OBITUARY. 

Heinrich August- Ludwig Wiggers, Ph.D., Professor of Pharmacy at the 
university of Gottingen, died in that city February 23d, in the seventy-seventh year 
ot his age. Wiggers was born in the village of Altenhagen, June 12th, 1803, w^here 
his father labored as minister He served his apprenticeship in pharmacy from 181 7 
to 1822, and in 1827 went to the university of Gottingen to complete his studies. 
In the following year Professor Stromeyer^induced him to accept the position of 
assistant at the chemical laboratory, in which capacity he labored, since 1835 under 
Professor Wohler, until 1850. In 1835 received the degree of Ph.D., and in 
1S37 he became private lecturer on pharmacognosy, and in 1846 also on pharmacy. 
In 1848 he was promoted extraordinary professor, and in 1850 inspector-general of 
the pharmacies of Hannover in place of Professor Wohler, whom and his predecessor 
Stromeyer he had assisted in these duties since 1828. He resigned his inspectorship 
in Hannover in 1868, but continued to act in the same capacity in the county of 
Lippe until disabled by sickness. In 1864 he received the title of medical councillor 
and in 1870 a fund was created by the pharmacists of the province of Hannover, 
which is known as the Wiggers fund, and used for aiding deserving pharmaceutical 
students at the university of Gottingen. Early in 1879 he had a severe attack of 
pleurisy, which developed into dropsy of the chest, the immediate cause of his death. 

Wiggers made a number of important chemical investigations, chiefly during the 
earlier period of his connection with the university of Gottingen. His researches on 
ergot, pareira brava and quassia are perhaps those best known in America. Of still 
greater importance are the literary labors of Wiggers, which commenced with the 
translation from the Swedish into the German language of the last sixteen annual 
reports on chemistry, commenced by Berzelius and continued by Svanberg, and of 
Berzelius' Handbook of Chemistry in ten volumes ; these translations were made under 
the supervision of Professor Wohler. In 1844 he commenced the publication of the 
celebrated annual report on the progress of pharmacognosy and phirmacy in all 
countries, in which he also embodied his own observations. This report was at first 
issued as a part of Cannstatt's Annual Report on Medicine j but since 1866 is 
published as an independent work, edited since 1874 by Professor Dragendorff. 

As teacher of pharmacognosy, he was indefatigable in improving the material for 
instruction, and acquired a collection of drugs which is regarded as one of the most 
complete ones in Europe It is now in the possession of the state for the use of the 
university, and was used by him in writing the descriptions for his "Grundriss der 
Pharmacognosies (Outlines of Pharmacognosy), of which several editions have been 
published. 

Modest and kind in disposition, industrious and conscientious in the discharge of 
his duties, he was respected and beloved by his pupils, and secured the esteem of the 
intelligent pharmacists of all countries. By his death the American Pharmaceutical 
Association and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy lost one of their most favor- 
ably known honorary members. 



r 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MAT, 1880. 

ETHYL BROMIDE. 

By Lawrence Wolff, M. D. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting April 20. 

Progressive medicine has again confronted the pharmacist in this 
substance with a new remedial agent, which promises fair to stand the 
test of time much better than the host of new remedies which are almost 
daily pressed into the ranks of our therapeutic allies, and it is therefore 
I think it merits closer investigation, in order that it be offered to 
the medical profession in its highest possible perfection. 

In view that already our literature shows a great deal of research 
and a thorough knowledge of the production of this new agent, I do not 
claim to here propose radical innovations, but merely desire to call 
attention to such modifications as will assist in obtaining it in its pure 
state at the lowest possible price* 

Ethyl bromide, the hydrobromic ether of older chemists, discovered 
by SeruUas in 1827, shortly after the discovery of bromine itself, 
received but little attention as a therapeutic agent until Dr. Nunnelly, 
of Leeds, England, called attention to it as a useful anaesthetic in 1865. 
Rabuteau, of Paris, again created considerable interest by his experi- 
ments with it on the lower animals in 1876, but the credit of bringing 
it out prominently and, as it now seems, permanently, is due to Dr. 
Lawrence Turnbull and the hearty co-operation, persevering efforts 
and experiments of Dr. R, J. Levis, both of this city. The latter has 
already used it in hundreds of cases, and as yet no untoward accident 
has occurred at his hands. 

Its early preparation by the discoverer was based upon the action of 
phosphorus on bromine in presence of alcohol, which Personne, in 
186 1, modified by substituting amorphous phosphorus instead, and 
which was subsequently more rationally conducted by Prof. Remington* 
The process of De Vrij, by decomposing potassic bromide with sul- 
phuric acid in presence of alcohol, was an improvement which was 

16 



242 Ethyl Bromide. {""^fcf^S"'- 

followed out by Dr. Greene, biat which never served me, in the pro- 
portions mentioned, to obtain any appreciable quantity of the ethyl 
bromide. • 

Its chemical composition was early determined to be C2H5Br, its 
specific gravity i"40, and its boiling point io6°F. ; it will not burn, and 
its vapors even will extinguish flame. 

Finding considerable objection to. the product of the earlier process 
on account of its alliaceous odor, probably due to free phosphorus or 
an ethyl phosphide, I was soon led to produce it by De Vrij's method, 
which, however, I found deficient in the amount of sulphuric acid, and 
It was not until I had almost trebled its quantity that I succeeded in 
completely converting the entire amount of alcohol into ethyl bromide. 

The process I employed and, after various experiments and modifi- 
cations found to answer best, is as follows : 

24 ounces of potassic bromide, coarsely powdered, are added to a 
mixture of 64 ounces of sulphuric acid and 32 ounces of water. After 
the mixture has sufficiently cooled, 16 fluidounces of alcohol (95 per 
cent.) are added thereto, the whole placed in a large flask contained 
in a sand-bath and connected with a Liebig's condenser, heat applied 
sufficiently that the contents of the flask should be at about 200°F., 
and there to be maintained until the reaction, which will go on quite 
lively for a while, shall have ceased, and the ethyl, which has rapidly 
been gathering in a receiver containing about one ounce of water, has 
ceased to come over, as can easily be detected when it fails to further 
sink to the under surface of the layer of water. The ethyl bromide so 
obtained will amount to about 20 ounces, and should be shaken with a 
solution of potassic bicarbonate, subsequently washed with water and 
purified by redistillation, as described below. 

The chemistry of this proces is quite plain, the sulphuric acid form- 
ing acid potassium sulphate, the bromine taking the place of the oxygen 
in the ethyl oxide, forming water with the hydrogen present, which 
expressed in symbols would read as follows : 

KBr + H^SO.H-aHgO^KHSO^+H^O + C^HgBr. 
The operation is in itself so simple, so rapid and so totally devoid of all 
danger, that its advantages over the earlier ones are readily obvious. 
It can easily be conducted on the laboratory table of most any phar- 
macy, and will yield a product which possesses all the characteristics 
as described above. Its cost is an item of the greatest importance to 
the pharmacist, in view of the very high price*asked for it at one time, 



*"'^L°y:•Z""' } Ethyl Bromide. 243 

-and perhaps yet. The potassic bromide at 68, the sulphuric acid at 
15, and the alcohol at 30 cents, will make the expense for material per 
^pound only 90 cents, while any young man can make this amount in 
two hours' time, besides attending to his various other duties, and it 
will enable him to emancipate himself from the manufacturing chemist, 
adding by it to his self-esteem and the elevation of his profession. 

But when larger quantities are 'required, and when it is a matter of 
importance to reduce the price as much as possible, I have found it to 
advantage to deviate from the above process, which, however, to the 
.pharmacist may prove most suitable for its preparation on a small scale. 

As the first step in the manufacture of potassic bromide is that of 
ferrous bromide, I made use of the latter at once to obtain the desired 
ethyl in the following manner : 

In a stone jug containing about i gallon of water and pounds of iron 
turnings or wire, 5 pounds of bromine are gradually added, care being 
taken not to allow the temperature to rise too high, the jug besides 
being placed in cold or iced water, and as soon as the reaction has 
ceased the solution of the green ferrous bromide is filtered off, the 
remaining iron being well washed out with warm or boiling water, and 
to it, in a leaden or glass flask (I have found the acid globe of a carboy 
a most useful vessel), 15 pounds of commercial sulphuric acid are 
added ; after the mixture has sufficiently cooled, 6 pints of alcohol 
(95 per cent.) are intermixed, the mixture well agitated and distilled at 
a temperature as in the before-mentioned operation. I have in this 
way obtained from these amounts 7 pounds ethyl bromide at a cost of 
material of not over $4.30, or about 60 cents per pound. 

Again, in this reaction the chemistry is quite simple, the sulphuric 
acid uniting with the iron to form ferrous sulphate, while the two 
bromine again take the place of two oxygen in the two ethyl oxide, the 
four hydrogen with the two oxygen of the ethyl oxide forming two 
water, and may be expressed in symbols as follows : 

FeBr^+iC^HgO + H^SO.^FeSO.-hiH^O + iC^H^Br. 

Although the ethyl bromide thus obtained is by far purer and has 
less odor than most of the articles found in the market, I have observed 
that, on evaporating a quantity of it, it left a heavy acrid odor behind 
which in anaesthesia was bound to prove objectionable if not actually 
deleterious, and I concluded, therefore, that, after washing, I would 
re-distill it at a low temperature, which I effected by placing it in a 
gallon bottle contained in a water-bath and connected with a condenser. 



244- 



Ethyl Bromide. 



/ A.m. Jour. Pharm 

\ May, 1880. 



The bath was heated to a temperature of not over I25°F., at which 
brisk ebullition ensued and a stream of pure ethyl bromide was received^ 
a sample of which I here exhibit, which is devoid of any and all disa- 
greeable odor, colorless and limpid, of a specific gravity of i'40, boils 
at io6°F. and does not burn. 

The remains in the bottle were about one-half ounce of a brown 
acrid liquid, which I here exhibit, but of which I have not yet recov- 
ered a sufficient amount to make a more complete examination. To' 
the taste it is extremely unpleasant, pungent and representing the disa- 
greeable odor generally found in the ethyl bromide offered in the market. 

As regards the stability of pure ethyl bromide, which has been ques- 
tioned, I can fully confirm Dr. Levis' experience. 1 have kept samples- 
of my earlier experiments, made almost two^months ago, which to day 
present the same appearance they had then \ and far from a sponta- 
neous decomposition, I have not succeeded, by either alkalies or 
acids, or other chemical means, to liberate the bromine from this ethyl 
or to effect its exchange in double decomposition,^ and cannot say, 
therefore, that it deserves the name of a loosely molecular article. 
(Dr. Squibb, ^'Medical Record," April 3d, 1880, p. 379). 

In concluding my remarks on its manufacture, I would point out the 
simple and cheap manner in which, by my process, a pure and reliable 
article (which already has been thoroughly tested by many physicians) 
can be produced by the pharmacist himself, without having to submit 
to the exorbitant prices generally asked for it. 

Actuated by a desire to further study the effects of the ethyl bro- 
mide, I was led to make a series of experiments on the lower animals 
and on ourselves, conjointly with my friend Dr. J. G. Lee, the phy- 
sician to the Coroner of this city. Regarding the safety of it as ark 
anaesthetic, as well as to after effects produced by its use, we made 
numerous investigations, the results of some of which I will give con- 
densed below. 

As an article from the pen of Dr. J. Marion Sims seems to indicate 
that a most disastrous result has recently occurred from its use ("Med- 
ical Record," April 3, 1880, p. 361), and that being the only and first 
instance of the kind reported, the ethyl bromide used in that 
case, as well as the most of it produced heretofore, was presumably 
obtained in a very imperfect manner, and it seems but reasonable to 
review the case. 

That death occurred only twenty-one hours after the use of the 

have since observed a reaction with a strong solution of ammonia, yielding 
ethylaniine bromide. 



Am, Jour. Pharm. { 
May, 1880. J 



Ethyl Bromide, 



245 



anaesthetic seems to imply that it was not its immediate presence which 
caused this lethal effect. The presence of an odor of ethyl bromide 
forty-one hours after its administration is hardly in conformity with its 
volatile character, but seems to point to the presence of a heavier and 
less diffusible substance contained therein. 

Judging fromi these facts that the deleterious effects might be due to 
the heavy distillate above mentioned, we gave 20 drops of it to a rabbit, 
with the result of causing gastro-intestinal irritation, general malaise 
and subsequent death in 18 hours afterwards; while, in the same ani- 
mal, 30 drops of pure ethyl bromide, given on a previous occasion, 
(produced no worse effects than slight intoxication. A post mortem 
examination showed the decided odor of the acrid heavy distillate per- 
vading the intestinal tract and kidneys, while the brain, which unfor- 
tunately in the autopsy of Dr. Sims' case has not been mentioned, pre- 
sented a congested appearance, explaining probably the cerebral trouble 
which Dr. Sims' patient complained of so much. This congestion is 
toiallv absent in immediate death produced by the anaesthetic on ani- 
mals, the brain in such contingencies being generally pale and some- 
what anemic. The abdominal viscera also showed signs of irritation 
and congestion. 

To further satisfy ourselves as to the effects of pure ethyl bromide, 
we continued our experiments as follows. 

A rabbit of 4 pound 3 ounces weight; anaesthesia induced in one 
minute by 20 drops of ethyl bromide; pupils first contracted and then 
dilated; heart acting well, with slight increase in number of beats. By 
withdrawing and reapplying the anaesthetic as required, the animal was 
(kept under the effects of it for 20 minutes, and on withdrawing it the 
animal recovered entirely in five minutes. 

Another rabbit, weighing 3I pounds, was made to inhale i drachm 
of ethyl bromide, producing complete anaesthesia in one minute, caus- 
ing first contraction, followed by dilatation of the pupil; heart beating 
'normally; voluntary muscles relaxed. The anaesthesia being pushed 
on by the use of another drachm of the ethyl, the beating of the heart 
was accelerated, number of respirations increased, and in six minutes 
heart ceased to beat, after losing preceptibly in impulse. Attempts at 
resuscitation proved fruitless, but electromotoric sensibility well pre- 
served. Post mortem examination showed the brain in a state of anemia, 
lungs pale and healthy, right ventricle and auricle distended and filled 
with ante mortem clots; no odor of the ethyl perceptible after death. 



246 



Ethyl Bromide, 



(Am. Jour. Pharin„ 
\ May, 1880. 



The above experiments demonstrate that with the cautious use of 
ethyl bromide, rabbits, which are with difficulty maintained in anaesthesia^, 
can be successfully ethylized without much danger to their lives. 

Satisfied as to this, we were determined to obtain information as to 
its action when administered internally, and for that purpose gave tO' 
three of the animals respectively 10, 20 and 30 minims of the ethyl. 
While producing in the larger doses more markedly a slight intoxication,, 
no other serious symptoms arose. Encouraged by this, we commenced 
taking it ourselves, well diluted, first in doses of 5 and 10, and then' 
25 and 30 drops, without discovering any noticeable effect, save that of 
slight sleepiness induced by the larger doses. A nervous headache,, 
existing during these experiments, seems by the ethyl to have been 
entirely relieved, which however might have been the case had any 
other bromide been taken instead. That it may prove of decided! 
benefit in nervous irritation and hysteria is readily to be inferred here- 
from. 

To the taste it is sweet and pleasant, but heating to the mucous sur- 
faces, and it should be well diluted before it is administered. 

The next case for experiment was that of a rabbit, which we injected 
hypodermically with 5 minims of the ethyl, producing, however, no 
marked effect, save a very slight intoxication. Another, subsequently 
injected with 10, 15 to another and 30 to still another, had again the effect 
of producing intoxication, with a decided somnolence and relaxation of 
the muscles, all of the animals recovering, however, completely within 
one hour. As a comparative experiment, another rabbit was injected 
with 15 minims of chloroform, which produced most marked and 
threatening effects and complete somnolence, from which the animal 
could not be roused, and only recovered after three hours, remaining, 
for hours afterwards in a stupefied condition. 

It is to be remarked here, that in all cases where the animals were 
injected with ethyl bromide the number of respirations were largely 
increased. 

Determined to ascertain the manner in which the ethyl bromide 
should prove fatal if injected hypodermically, we injected into one of 
them, a healthy female rabbit of 5 pounds weight, within half an hour, 
in broken quantities, 2f drachms of the article, failings however, tO' 
inflict death, nor more serious symptoms within the next three hours 
than those above noted ; found, however, that the animal had expired 
during the following night. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1880. J 



Ethyl Bromide, 



247 



A post mortem examination revealed a congested brain, but showed 
nothing beyond that to account for its death. 

The inference from these experiments may be set down that, inter- 
nally as well as hypodermically, the ethyl bromide has no toxic effect 
on the animal organism beyond that of ether or alcohol. 

The absence of any odor of it in intestines, kidneys and liver admits 
the theory that it is totally eliminated through the lungs ; that by its pres 
ence in large quantities in the system, and if not readily eliminated 
through the lungs, it acts as a decided stimulant, and may, when used 
in excess, like ether and alcohol, cause death by cerebral congestion. 

Finally, and with a view to test its adaptability and safety as an 
anaesthetic in comparison with ether and chloroform, we experimented 
on three healthy rabbits of about the same weight, simultaneously 
administering by inhalation to one ether, ethyl bromide to another and 
chloroform to the third, sufficiently being used to maintain profound 
anaesthesia. 

The first one, under ether, was completely under its effect in one 
minute; heart's action rapidly increased in number of beats, diminished 
in impulse, death occurring in 3 minutes. 

The second one was in complete anaesthesia from ethyl bromide in 
30 seconds ; pupils first contracted then dilated; muscles relaxed; 
accelerated action of heart, gradually failing impulse; death in 7 
minutes. 

Third rabbit received chloroform, producing rapidly anaesthesia in 50 
seconds; heart feeble; at the expiration of i minute 50 seconds heart 
suddenly ceased to beat. 

Post mortem appearance showed the animal killed by ether presenting 
congested membranes and investments of brain, heart apparently arrested 
in diastole, clot in right auricle and ventricle, which were largely dis- 
tended; odor of ether thought to be faintly perceptible on opening 
abdominal cavity; post mortem hypostasis well marked in lungs. 

Rabbit died of ethyl bromide presented on post mortem examination 
a brain somewhat paler than normal, clots in both ventricles and auri- 
• cles of heart; death apparently from overstimulation of this organ; 
lungs normal; no odor of the ethyl perceptible in viscera. 

Chloroformed animal showed on post mortem examination an anemic 
brain, small clots in right auricle and ventricle, heart apparently arrested 
in incomplete systole, due to clot ; lungs markedly congested; no odor 
of chloroform noticeable. 



248 



Bromide of Ethyl. 



.Vm. lour. Pharm. 

May, 1880 



The inferences from these cases seem to impress us as follows: 

The first and second rabbits, which had been treated with respec- 
tively ether and ethyl bromide, died under similar circumstances. The 
modes of death appear to have been occasioned by a gradual paralysis, 
of the cardiac inhibitory motor centres, while the sudden heart failure 
in the third, which is typical of chloroform accidents, seems to indicate 
paralysis of the cardiac motor centres. 

While it is hardly justifiable to infer from experiments on animals as 
to the eff'ect on the human organism, it is not to be denied that they go 
far, along with the many trials on human beings and those upon our- 
selves, to show that a direct toxic influence from pure ethyl bromide 
on the organism need not be apprehended, 

That pure ethyl bromide is per se an absolutely safe anaesthetic can 
as yet not be positively stated, but that its action appears to be quite as 
safe as ether, and certainly more so than the treacherous and dangerous 
chloroform, seems to us, as deduction from above-related experiments, 
out of question. 

We can certainly hail this new-comer as another agent destined to 
alleviate sufferings, which, by its own merits, will win its way into the 
ranks of those we now hold as recognized measures for combating dis- 
ease, and as such, propose that by this body it be recommended for a 
position in the National Pharmacopoeia about to be revised. 

Philadelphia, April, 1880. 



BROMIDE OF ETHYL (Hydrobromic Ether). 

By Joseph P. Remington. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 20. 

This anaesthetic, which has attracted considerable attention lately, 
was the subject of a paper by the writer in 1877, which was read before 
the American Pharmaceutical Association at its meeting at Toronto, 
Canada. At that time- the process which was recommended was a 
modification of that of Personne, and served well on the small scale to 
make the preparation experimentally ; it was not expected that the 
demand would at any time be so great as to require a process adapted to 
a manufacturing scale ; but the calls became so frequent that it was 
found necessary to devise a more practicable method than the one then 
recommended. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Alay, 1879. 



Bromide of Ethyl. 



De Vrij's process/ which depends upon the decomposition of potas- 
sium bromide by sulphuric acid in the presence of alcohol, was again 
looked to as a basis for a working; formula, and the process recom- 
mended by Dr. E. R. Squibbb^ for preparing hydrobromic acid by dis- 
tilling from a mixture of potassium bromide, sulphuric acid and water, 
suggested a plan by which the contamination of ordinary ether could 
be avoided, and this process was subsequently recommended by Dr. 
Greene.^ 

In a series of experiments intended to ascertain practically the pro- 
cess which could be adopted if it be deemed advisable to introduce the 
new agent into the U. S. Pharmacopaeia, the following is selected as 
the best (cut of the apparatus will appear in the next number) : 

Potassium bromide (not powdered), . . .58 parts. 

Sulphuric acid, sp. gr., 1838, . . ; 4+ " 

Alcohol (clean) 95 per cent., . . . 44 " 

Water, . . . . . 28 " 

Pour the water into a flask having double the capacity of the 
liquid ingredients above, and gradually add the acid; when the liquid 
has become cool add the potassium bromide, and having placed the 
flask in a sand-bath, adjust a thermomeier, and with a bent glass tlibe 
connect the flask with a well cooled condenser, insert a narrow glass 
tube in the cork of the flask, and by means of a short rubber tube con- 
nect it with a narrow glass tube which is terminated by a syphon ; the 
shorter limb of this syphon is inserted in the bottle containing the 
alcohol, which is elevated three feet or more above the flask. Heat 
the contents of the flask to ii6°C., and having attached a screw 
pinch cock to the short rubber tube of the syphon, allow the alcohol to 
<irop or flow in a sm.all stream into the flask, carefully regulating the 
rate of flow so that the temperature should not fall below 100°C., nor 
rise above ii6°C. When all the alcohol has passed into the flask 
continue the distillation until the temperature rises to ii6°C., and then 
disconnect the receiving flask. Agitate the distillate with an equal 
bulk of distilled water, to which has been added five parts of solution 
of soda (or suflicient to render the liquid slightly alkaline), and when 
the mixture has clearly separated into two layers, pour off" the upper- 

^ Watts' "Dictionary of Chemistry," vol. ii, p. 528. 
^"American Journal of Pharmacy," March, 1878, p. ij6. 
'"American Journal of Pharmacy,''' June, 1879. 



250 Gum-Hogg. {""'^i^r.^o'™- 

most layer, and having introduced the heavier liquid into a clean flaslc 
containing a few fragments of chloride of calcium, redistil it. 

Bromide of ethyl is a colorless, very volatile liquid, not inflammable^, 
having an agreeable odor, and a hot, saccharme taste. Its specific 
gravity is 1*420. It boils at 40°C. (i04°F.). It is very sparingly 
soluble in water, freely soluble in strong alcohol and ether. When a 
small portion is evaporated from a porcelain plate by causing it to flour 
to and fro over the surface, little or no foreign odor is yielded as the 
last portions pass off, and the plate is covered with a slight deposit of 
moisture. 



GUM-HOGG. 

By Chas. L. Mitchell, Ph.G., M.D. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings April -zoth. 
Under the above title a peculiar form of gum is described in the U^ 
S. Dispensatory, p. 1664 ; it was obtained from the establishment of 
Messrs. J. B. Lippincott & Co., where it was used in one of the pro- 
cesses for the manufacture of books. As described by Dr. Wood, "it 
is in lumps of various sizes, from that of a chestnut to that of a wal- 
nut or larger, of an extremely irregular shape, often much contorted^ 
appearing frequently as if consisting of several pieces which had become 
agglutinated in their soft state, translucent and nearly colorless, with a 
slight reddish-yellow tint in some places, of a rather dull though some- 
what shining surface, very hard, brittle, with a glassy fracture, inodor- 
ous and nearly or quite tasteless. With water it swells to a soft trans- 
parent mass, which retains this condition long without change, and if 
now stirred, instead of forming a consistent mucilage, breaks up inta 
minute, irregular, transparent fragments, which retain this form 
indefinitely." 

Chemically examined by Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., it was found to be 
only very slightly soluble in water, both cold and hot, the solution giv- 
ing a precipitate with sol. subacetate lead, but none with oxalate of 
ammonium, in the latter respect differing from gum arable. The 
insoluble portion was dissolved by strong sulphuric acid, and was con- 
verted by boiling dilute sulphuric acid into a soluble gum. He con- 
sidered the insoluble substance to be bassorin, the insoluble constituent 
of tragacanth, and the gum itself probably the same as Bassora gum. 
The gum was obtained from the East Indies, but its botanical source 
was'unknown. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 1 

May, 1880. J 



Gum-Hogg, 



(25B 



The attention of the writer was recently called to this article, and a? 
few experiments and a number of inquiries made with a view to- 
determine its true relation to Bassora gum. A quantity of the drug 
was accordingly obtained from the same house which furnished the 
specimens to Dr. Wood. Upon examination it does not present quite 
the same physical characteristics which are described by him, but 
appears to be more a collection of gums from different species bearing; 
a general similarity to tragacanth. It occurs in fragments of irregular 
shape and varying from the size of a chestnut to much larger ; its color 
in different samples varies from a dirty white to a yellowish brown ; it 
is hard, inodorous, tasteless, and breaks with a short glassy fracture. 
Some fragments have still adhering portions of the bark of the tree 
from which it has been obtained, while the general appearance of the 
gum shows it to have been deposited in successive exudations, similar 
to tragacanth. 

A portion of the gum was set aside with a quantity of cold water,, 
when, after the expiration of twenty-four hours it had swollen up into> 
a soft, white, transparent mass, occupying the lower half of the vessel. 
When agitated, this mass showed no disposition to form a uniform^ 
mucilage, but separated into small, soft, transparent, and rather granu- 
lar fragments resembling pounded ice ; this subsided to the bottom of 
the vessel again when it was set at rest. The whole was now thrown 
on a filter, and the filtrate examined; it gave a very faint precipitate 
with sol. subacetate lead, and no reaction whatever to solution oxalate 
ammonium ; it was neutral in reaction and had neither taste nor smelL. 

A second portion of the gum treated by prolonged boiling with water 
gave the same result as obtained with cold water. The insoluble por- 
tion was next examined. Alcohol and ether had no solvent action upon 
it ; boiled with dilute sulphuric acid it was soon dissolved, the resulting; 
solution showing no reaction with tincture of iodine, and not responding 
to Trommer's test for sugar. When boiled with a weak solution of 
an alkali or alkaline carbonate it was speedily converted into a uniform 
thick mucilage of a pinkish color. When this was treated with an. 
acid it did not again precipitate, although the mucilage lost its color and 
became perfectly transparent. The loss of color may be probably 
accounted for by the presence of iron in very small quantity. These 
tests, with the exception of perhaps the last, on which there is little 
information, correspond with those for bassorin, and show the close 
similarity of the present gum with that previously described by Dr.. 



252 Gum-Hogg. { ""M™:,?8r""- 

Wood, and to the Bassora gum of other writers, and they are all prob- 
ably identical and the same. 

While the solubility of bassorin in alkaline solutions has been but 
•brieHy alluded to in various works, it seems to indicate certain proper- 
ties whicli might almost entitle it to be considered as an acid similar in 
ats oature to the arable or gummic acid of gum acacia. 

Its commercial history is quite interesting. It was brought into this 
coyotry about thirty years ago at Salem, Mass. At that time Salem 
was the headquarters of the East India trade, and this gum came with 
a lot of tragacanth imported to that place from Calcutta. It was sup- 
iposed that it might be used in place of tragacanth as a cheaper article 
by the shoe manufacturers of Lynn and others. It came, however, 
(into the hands of a noted drug garbler of the place by the name of 
Whipple, and was rejected by him immediately as an unsuitable and 
iioferior gum. It was next shipped to Boston for sale, and after a 
-number of ineffectual attempts to foist it on the market (for its worth- 
iessness scMDn became known), was finally put up at public auction and 
■sold for two or three cents a pound to Geo. Loring, at that time one of 
its principal booksellers. Mr. Loring made a number of ineffectual 
attempts to utilize it for different purposes, and finally, rather disgusted, 
placed it in the hands of a Prof. Jackson, a chemist of Jamaica Plain 
{one of the suburbs of Boston). Prof. Jackson experimented with it 
ior some time, and discovered its property of forming a good non- 
adhesive mucilage when boiled with an alkali, and being quite intimate 
with Mr. Loring, they soon utilized it for the manufacture of marbled 
,paper, which was just then commencing to be known in the country. 
•Gradually the secret became known, and as there was a slight demand 
for the article, at different times small lots were brought into the coun- 
try. Up to the time of Jackson's experiments the gum had received 
no name, but afterwards it was known through the trade by the name 
of gum-hogg, and it is believed he gave it this name on account of its 
obstinacy in resisting the different efforts for its 'solution, and thus 
behaving like a well-known domestic animal of similar perverse and 
wilful habits. 

The different gums varied very much in price, being at various times 
from 25 cents to $1.25 per pound, and I have been informed by those 
who have used the article for a number of years, that the character and 
similarity of the specimens varied as much as its price. They all 
seemed, however, to have a certain resemblance to tragacanth. The 



Am Tour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1880. J 



Gum- Hogg. 



25J 



mucilage formed by this gum possesses no adhesive qualities, and thiis 
is well fitted for its peculiar use, although not superior to simikr mucil- 
ages obtained from flaxseed, elm bark, quince seed, etc. 

Of late years, it has gone considerably out of use on account of the 
irregularity and scarcity of the supply, being substituted by some of the 
other mucilages before mentioned. 

From all these facts, the writer concludes, that gum-hogg is not the 
product of any particular tree or plant, but is a trade-name applied t©> 
various cheap and inferior gums, all probably identical with Bassora gum,, 
and containing and consisting almost entirely of bassorin. 

In this connection, before concluding, it might be interesting togsve 
a short account of its use in the manufacture of books. The process 
in which it takes a part is, that of "marbling," as it is termed, which 
consists of staining paper and the edges of books in a peculiar aod 
variegated manner. The gum is first allowed to soak in cold water 
until swollen, and then boiled with a weak solution of pearlasb untal 
a thick consistent mucilage is obtained, which is strained. This forms 
the basis or vehicle for receiving the colors and transferring them to the 
paper, and is placed in a shallow tank on legs; the tank being about five 
feet long, three feet wide, and four inches deep. This body must be 
renewed as often as fermentation in the mucilage renders it liquid ; \m 
cold weather this is not so frequent, but in hot weather it must be 
replaced with fresh at least twice daily. The colors used are the 
ordinary -paint colors, ground to a cream with thin mucilage of gym 
arable. The workman, standing over the tank, first takes a large brosli' 
with spreading bristles, and dipping it in his color, sprinkles it over she 
surface of the tank by twirling the handle between his hands. The 
value of the mucilage is now shown, for the color does not either mix 
with It, or spread over its surface, but retains the circular form the drops 
would assume upon first striking a -plane surface. The first color is 
then followed in a similar manner by a second, using a fresh brush, aod 
this in turn by a third, and so on at the pleasure of the operator, eacli 
particular drop showing no disposition to mix with its fellows The 
pattern thus made is mostly of round drops, but should it be desired t» 
vary it, combs of different degrees of fineness are drawn in differepr 
directions gently over the surface, producing beautiful wavy lines asu^i 
figures. The paper is now floated gently upon the surface of the taok 
for a few seconds, when the color is transferred from its surface to that 
of the paper, and after being hung to dry is burnished by hot steel roS- 



254 



Improved Troche Board. 



Am. Four. Pharm. 

May, 1880. 



^ers. No particular quality of paper is needed, the only requisite being, 
it should not be too highly calendered. A smooth piece of board is 
(HOW drawn over the surface of the tank when it is ready for a fresh 
operation. The edges of books are stained in a similar manner ; the 
book being taken unbound and pressed between boards tightly together 
so chat none of the color shall penetrate beyond its surface ; they are 
afterwards when dry, burnished with a hot iron tool by hand. The 
|>roducts afforded by this process are of infinite variety, and, as can be 
imagined, no two products are ever exactly alike, and by varying the 
•colors an almost endless and kaleidoscopic change can be produced. 
Philadelphia^ April 20, 1880. 



IMPROVED TROCHE BOARD AND ROLLER. 

By Francis E. Harrison, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The demand for troches having of late so largely increased, it has 
become necessary that we should seek some means of facilitating their 
•manufacture. With a view to that end, I have devised an entirely new 
form of board, which I think will obviate the objectionable points of 
the one now generally in use-. The present board is similar to that 
used by housekeepers as a bread or pie board, with the addition of two 
■strips, one of which is tacked upon each side of the upper surface, 
within the range of the roller ; so that when the medicated mass is 
rolled it will be reduced to the thickness of the space intervening 
between the roller and the board. Such an arrangement answers very 
well for troches of one thickness, but, as different troches vary in thick- 
ness, such a board is of only limited use, and it may be necessary to 
have a different one for each kind of troche ; or, when using only one 
board, to change the strips in each case, unless the operator relies 
chiefly on his skill in rolling a mass to a uniform thickness without 
such mechanical guides.^ 

The following is a description of the troche board devised by me, 
upon which all sizes of troches can be made : 

The Board is 16 inches long, 1 1 inches wide and f of an inch thick ; 
attached to it on the under surface are two beveled pieces, 1 1 inches 
in length, so as to run entirely across the board ; these pieces are f of 

^ An improved troche board was described by F. L. Slocum in "Amer. Jour. 
Phar.," 1879, page 589- — Editor. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
May, 1880. i 



Improved Troche Board, 



an inch on one edge, tapering to \ of an inch on the other, and are 
firmly attached to the board, one on each end, the bevels both tapering 
an the same direction. The board is surrounded by a frame, i inch 
thick, 3 inches in height on the sides, and 2f inches upon the ends, so 




Troche Board and Roller. 



that the sides project f of an inch above the ends. There is a second 
frame inside the outer one, and beneath the board, which is made to 
move back and forth in two grooves cut in the outside frame, one on 
■each side ; upon this inner frame there are two beveled pieces firmly 
secured, and corresponding to the strips attached to the board. When 
the inner frame is caused to move forward (by a screw which is fast- 
ened by a plate upon the frame) the beveled strips attached to the inner 
frame press against the beveled strips attached to the board, and by 
continued force the board is caused to ascend in the frame ; by turn- 
ing the screw in the opposite direction the frame is drawn back to its 
former position and the board falls again, in a horizontal direction. It 
is impossible for the frame to spring from its position, as it is firmly 
held by the grooves. The board may be taken out at will and cleaned 
after use. The beveled strips serve to keep the board from twisting. 
The board can be raised or lowered f of an inch, the entire capacity ; 
it requires 15 complete revolutions of the screw to raise it the entire 
distance, or 40 to the inch j by turning the screw but one-half of a 
revolution the board is raised -^-^ of an inch, and, in fact, any desired 



256 =- Gleanings from the German Journals. {^"^Mty^mo"^' 

height m^y be obtained. This troche board forms a neat and*attrac- 
tive piece of furniture for the store, there being no projections to inter- 
fere with the working of it. 




Section of Troche Board. 



The Roller is so constructed that the handle forms a continuous piece^ 
running through a hole | of an inch in diameter; thus the handles can 
be firmly held while the roller revolves. Upon each end of the roller 
there is a flange, f of an inch high and i inch wide, keeping: the roller 
in place upon the board, and preventing the surface of the roller from 
becoming soiled or bruised as the flanges raise it from the point of 
contact. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis VON Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

Mercury and Soft Paraffin.— E. Dietrich corroborates the state- 
ment of Dr. Weber, that mercury may be readily extinguished with 
vaselin under certain conditions, but states that under the same 
conditions an excellent ointment can be prepared with lard, simple 
cerate, old ointment, etc., which shows that vaselin, although 
much more expensive, possesses no advantages whatever over the 
other vehicles ; on the contrary, old ointment is by far preferable, 
because the smallest quantity of it is required to kill the cohesion 
of the mercury, as can be proved by mixing 50 parts of it with 100 
parts mercury, when it will yield quite an uniform and satisfactory 
ointment, which is not the case with any of the other vehicles, includ- 
ing vaselin. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Feb. 28, 1880, p. 125. 

E. Dietrich's New Mustard Plasters are spread on paper, shirt- 
ing and silk, and are highly recommended by C. A. Jungclaussen, who 
states that while being fully as flexible as American mustard plasters, 
they are much quicker and energetic in their action. He further 
remarks, that by extracting an American mustard plaster with 
petroleum ether, decanting, and washing the residue, Dietrich 



^""MaT'isso^'"' } Gleanings from the German Journals, 257 

obtained as a residue 3*2 powdered mustard, deprived of its oil, while 
the decanted solution evaporated left a soft residue, which, when 
treated with acetic ether, yielded 0*167 caoutchouc and 0*5 fatty oil, 
thus proving that the powdered mustard used contained 13 5 percent, 
objectionable fatty oil, which, in connection with the caoutchouc, 
increases the flexibility and adhesiveness of the plaster, but decreases 
its rubefacient power and promotes rancidity. Dietrich's improved 
method of preparation is not published by Jungclaussen, but probably 
differs from the American only in using mustard deprived of all its 
fixed oil. — Ihid.,^ Feb. 25, 1880, p. 117. 

Dr. Heller's Caustic Pencils consist of long, thin sticks of lunar 
caustic, encased in wood ; they look like ordinary lead pencils, and are 
resharpened like the latter whenever the point is worn off. A metal 
cap is used for protecting the point, when carried. The pencils are 
well adapted for cauterizing the throat, whenever the application of 
nitrate of silver is desired. — Ibld.^ Feb. 11, 1880, p. 86. 

Artificial Karlsbad Salt is made by Dr. Brunnengraeber by mining 
100 parts of sodium sulphate, 70 parts of sodium bicarbonate, 40 parts 
of sodium chloride and 5 parts of potassium sulphate, all coarsely 
powdered. This mixture is dispensed in bottles having a hollow 
wooden stopper, which, holding just 6 grams (which is sufficient for 
making i liter of Karlsbad Water), serves as a handy measure for the 
consumer. — Pharm. Centralh,^ Feb. 26, 1880, p. 73. 

Karlsbad Salt (see also "Amer. Jour. Pharm." 1878, p. 474; 1879, 
p. 454; 1880, p. 133). — Genuine Karlsbad Salt contains, according to 
Ragsby : Traces of potassium sulphate, 85 parts of crystallized sodium 
sulphate, 15 parts of crystallized sodium carbonate (probably sesqui- 
carbonate), and 0*4 parts of sodium chloride. — Artificial Karlsbad Salt 
is made by Schlickum^ in close imitation to the above by dissolving in 12 
parts of lukewarm water : i part of sodium chloride, i part of sodium 
bicarbonate, ji part of neutral sodium carbonate, and 6 parts of crys- 
tallized sodium sulphate, decanting the clear liquid, setting aside at 8^ to 
io°C. for crystallization, and stirring several times while crystallizing j 
on decanting the first mother-liquor, dissolving in it 3 parts of Glauber 
salt, and again allowing to crystallize, a second yield is obtained. — - 
Pharm. Ztg^ Feb. 14, 1880, p. 93. 

Pure Hydriodic Acid. — C. Winkler dissolves iodine in carbon 
bisulphide in a tall glass cylinder, adds sufficient water, which forms a 
distinct layer on top of the deep violet-colored solution of iodine, and 

17 



2 5^ Gleanings from the German Journals. {^'^•^^^•Jto" 

passes a stream of hydrogen sulphide through the latter solution. The 
iodine is converted into hydrogen-iodide, and this is absorbed by the 
supernatant water, forming aqueous hydriodic acid, while the separated 
sulphur is dissolved by the carbon-bisulphide, forming a heavy oily solu- 
tion. As soon as the violet solution of the iodine acquires a wine-yellow 
color the transformation is complete, the two distinct layers are sepa- 
rated, and the aqueous hydriodic acid is boiled for a few minutes iti 
order to expel hydrogen sulphide if present; it is then chemically pure, 
atid can be used for preparing the various iodides. — Schw. Wochenschr. 
f. Pharm.^ Feb. 13, 1880, p. 54, from Jahresber. d. Phys. Ver. z. 
Frankf. 

Borocitric Acid and its Salts. — Ed. Scheibe proved that citric 
acid forms with boracic acid a soluble compound, the two constituents 
always uniting in the proportion of 2 molecules of citric and i mole- 
cule of boracic acid. The corresponding proportions by weight are: 
I part by weight of boracic acid, and 7 parts of citric acid. Boro- 
citric acid can be prepared either by adding the boracic acid, with con- 
stant stirring, to a solution of the citric acid in boiling water, or by 
adding the citric acid to the boracic acid suspended in boiling water, 
and continuing to heat until a complete solution is obtained, or by mix- 
ing both acids with water, and heating. On evaporating an aqueous 
solution of borocitric acid to dryness, a solid, amorphous, light gray 
mass is obtained, which is readily soluble in water and in strong alco- 
hol. When subjected to dialysis it dialyzed unaltered. While evap- 
orating, some of the boracic acid volatilized with the water. By allow- 
ing a very concentrated solution of borocitric acid to evaporate very 
slowly, the acid was obtained as a decidedly crystalline ribrous mass. 
The crystalline borocitric acid differs from the amorphous only in being 
less compact and having a snow-white color; in all other respects it 
closely resembles the amorphous acid into which it is soon transformed, 
even when kept in closed vessels. Both compounds are not altered 
by the air, unless the atmosphere is very moist, when they deliquesce. 
The borocitrates of the alkalies are permanent salts, soluble in water, 
while the salts of the heavy metals are partially soluble in water and 
partially insoluble, the boracic acid apparently not being combined very 
firmly. All salts of borocitric acid color turmeric paper brownish-red, 
and are decomposed by stronger acids, which separate the boracic acid. 
Potassium bihorocitrate is the only salt which has been obtained in crys- 
tals so far. — Phar. Zeits. f. Russland ; Schw. Wochenschr.^ Feb. 13, 
1880, p. 50-53. 



'^'\i^y%s8o^''"'' } Gleanings from the German Journals, , 259 

Morphia Muriate. — The extensive investigations of Dr. H.Tausch 
prove that : 

1. The coiTimercial morphia muriate is very rarely chemically pure, 
but usually contains a varying percentage of resinous substances. 

2. When morphia muriate is dried for some time, and the heat is 
raised to ioo°C., it not only loses the hydrochloric acid, adhering to it 
mechanically, but also its total water of crystallization, and it is there- 
fore necessary to prescribe either the morphia muriate dried in the air, 
and therefore containing water of crystallization, or the morphia muriate 
■dried at ioo*^C., which contains no water of crystallization, but about 
15 per cent, more alkaloid than the former. 

3. Pure morphia muriate when heated at 130° is not altered, while 
'the impure commercial salt exhibits a brown or even black coloration. 

4. In all cases in which morphia muriate is to be used, it is important 
to remember that the i molecule of water of crystallization, with which 
it separates from its solutions, can be removed by heating to 100°. — 
Zuchr. d. Allg. Oest. Apoth. Ver.^ Feb. 10, 1880, p. 65-69, and Feb. 
20, i88o, p. 82-85. 

Morphia Muriate, relation of Bulk and Weight. — The appar- 
ent difference in weight and the plainly-visible difference in bulk of 
different lots of commercial morphia muriate were hitherto considered 
due to a difference in the percentage of moisture or water contained in 
the different lots. Hager recently reinvestigated the cause, and found 
that this depends solely upon the difference in the size of the crystals. 
Pharm Centralh.^ Feb., 12, 1880, p. 55. 

Monobromated Camphor. — C. C. Keller dissolves 300-0 camphor 
in I50'0 or i8o'0 chloroform, filters the solution into a large tubulated 
retort, adds 320*0 pure bromine, and sets aside for several hours in a 
cold place until a crystalline paste of camphor dibromide, C^oH^gOBrg, 
is formed ; the tubulure of the retort is now closed with a safety tube, 
and heat is applied by means of a water-bath, when the camphor dibro- 
mide is decomposed into monobromated camphor and hydrogen bro- 
mide, the latter escaping, a portion of the chloroform and a little bro- 
mine distilling over at the same time. After being heated for 2 or 3 
hours the dark brown colored contents of the retort turn light yellow. 
When but minute portions of hydrogen bromide vapors escape, the 
retort is removed from the water-bath and is allowed to stand in a cold 
place for about 24 hours, when the monobromated camphor separates 
in light yellowish crystals, which are freed from the mother-liquor. 



26o Gleanings from the German Journals. { ^"kaTis^so^'""' 

washed with a little absolute alcohol, until they appear white, then? 
recrystallized from ether, and, in case the solution was acid, are washed 
with solution of sodium carbonate, and then recrystallized from alcohol. 
By evaporating the wash-water and the etherial mother- liquor, another 
small yield of monobromated camphor is obtained. The total yield 
obtained by the author from 300*0 camphor amounted to 340 grams. 
The liquid, which distils over, and consists of hydrobromic acid, bro- 
mine and chloroform, may be decolorized with sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and utilized for making potassium bromide or some other bromide. — 
Schw. Wochenschr. f. Pharm.^ Feb. 13, 1880, p. 50. 

Theobromina, from Cacao Shells, is obtained by Donker, Treu- 
mann and Dra^^endorfF, by extracting them with boiling water, filter- 
ing, expressing, precipitating with subacetate of lead, removing the 
lead with sulphuric acid, filtering, concentrating, evaporating with cal- 
cined magnesia, and extracting the residue with 80 per cent, alcohol^, 
which extracts the theobromina. This is then purified by recrystalliz- 
ing from water. By this process 4 to 5 kilograms of shells yielded 
I3'5 grams of colorless theobromin. — Pharm. Ztg.^ Feb. 28, 1880 p. 
125, from Jahresber ueher d. Fortschr. d. Chem. 

Gastrolobin, a New Glucoside. — By extracting the leaves and 
young branches of Gastrolobium bilobum with boiling water, treating 
the evaporated extract with alcohol in order to remove gummv sub- 
stances, separating the aqueous solution from a blackish resin, precipi- 
tating with neutral lead acetate after adding a little free acetic acid,, 
decomposing the lead precipitate by dilute nitric acid, filterings evapo- 
rating the filtrate, redissolving the extract, again precipitating with lead 
subacetate, washing the precipitate, decomposing under water with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, and evaporating the liquid to dryness, F. v, Muel- 
ler and L. Rummel obtained ''gastrolobin," as a blackish, brittle,, 
hygroscopic substance, having an odor and taste resembling sassafras, 
soluble in hot water and alcohol, precipitated from the aqueous solu- 
tion by lead subacetate, readily decomposed by boiling with minerai 
acids, and partially with organic acids, and dissolving in liquor ammo- 
niae, forming an intensely yellow solution. The authors obtained a 
yield of i per cent, glucoside from the dried herb, but consider it pos- 
sible that the blackish resin mentioned above is a decomposition pro- 
duct of gastrolobin ; whether the latter is the poisonous principle of the 
herb must be determined by future investigations. A similar poisonous- 
principle has been found in other species of Gastrolobium, in Oxylo- 



Tour. Pharm 

May, t88o. 



Chemical Notes. 



261 



bium, in Isotropis striata, Bth.^ etc. — Ztschr. d, Allg. Oest. Ap. Ver.^ 
Feb. 20, 1880, p. 81 

An Adulteration of Powdered Cloves, with a large percentage of 
stems, a little starch, and a fatty oil, the latter of which had been added 
by the wholesale dealer in order to impart a darker color to the powder, 
is reported by E. Heintz, who further states, that the odor and taste of 
the cloves were as usual, that the stems and starch were detected by 
means of a microscope, and that, when ihe cloves were treated with 
carbon bisulphide, 19 per cent, of a substance was extracted which on 
•evaporation was found to consist principally of fatty oil. — Pharm. 
Handelsbl.^ Feb. 11, 1880, p. 6. 

False Quebracho Bark (see also Am. Journ. Pharm.," April, 
1880, p. 202). — This bark is found in the German market in large 
•quantities, and is described by Dr. J. Biel, as follows : It consists of 
pieces of different length, J to 2 inches in width, 2 to 5 millimeters in 
thickness, usually rolled, and covered externally with the yellowish- 
white periderm which exhibits numerous deep longitudinal furrows and 
faint transverse fissures ; internally the bark is dark brown. The 
fracture appears in the outer bark granular, and in the inner bark long- 
iibrous ; the taste is bitter, but not aromatic. The outer bark consists 
of numerous regular layers of tabular leathery cork cells, covering an 
equally thick spongy cork layer, composed of tangentialiy stretched 
wide and thin-walled cells. A light, continuous circle of stone cells,' 
with strongly thickened walls, forms the inner limit of this layer, and 
can he seen with the naked eye. The middle bark consists of paren- 
chyma cells, filled partially with a dark brown substance, and besides 
contains scattered groups of 10 to 20 stone cells and scattered bast-cell 
bundles, which are more numerous towards the inner layer, and finally 
form the inner bark, consisting almost entirely of these bast-cells, and 
of narrow, radially placed medullary rays, containing a dark substance. — 
Pharm. Ztg.^ Feb. 25, 1880, p. 118. 



CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 
Inorganic Chemistry. — On the Artificial Formation of the Diamond. 
— J. B. Hannay, in the course of an elaborate investigation made jointly 
with J. Hogarth, on the solubility of solids in gases, has succeeded in 
obtaining carbon crystallized in the form of the diamond. He noticed 



262 



Chemical Notes. 



Am. Jour. Pharira 
May, 1880. 



first that many bodies, such as silica, alumina and oxide of zinc, which 
are insoluble in water at ordinary temperatures, dissolve to a very con- 
siderable extent when treated with water-gas at a very high pressure- 
It occurred to him that a solvent might be found for carbon, and as 
gaseous solution nearly always yields crystalline solid on withdrawing; 
the solvent or lowering its solvent power, it seemed probable that the 
carbon might be deposited in the crystalline state. Ordinary carbon,, 
such as charcoal, lampblack or graphite was found not to be acted 
upon. It was found, however, that carbon could be gotten in the 
nascent state by the following reaction. When a gas containing car- 
bon and hydrogen is heated under pressure in presence of certain metals,, 
its hydrogen is attracted by the metal and its carbon left free. When- 
the carbon is set free in presence of a stable compound containing 
nitrogen, the whole being near a red heat and under a very high pres- 
sure, the carbon is so acted upon by the nitrogen compound that it is 
obtained in the clear transparent form of the diamond. The carbon sa 
obtained is as hard as natural diamond, scratching all other crystals, and 
it does not affect polarized light. The crystals have curved faces 
belonging to the octahedral form ; they burn easily on thin platinurrb 
foil, leaving no residue, and after two days' immersion in hydrofluoric 
acid they show no sign of dissolving even when boiled. — Chem. NewSy 
March 5th, 1880. 

Dissociation of Chlorine^ Bromine and Iodine. -^^hG. first results of Victor 
Meyer on this subject have already been noted (this Journal, Sept.^ 
1879). J. M. Crafts has repeated these experiments, working with 
slightly modified apparatus. Using free chlorine, instead of the nas- 
cent chlorine evolved from platinum chloride, he found no change in 
the vapor density of the gas even at the highest temperature of the fur- 
nace. With iodine, however, he did find the change in vapor-density 
referred to by Victor Meyer, viz , a reduction to two-thirds the normal 
value. With bromine he got results giving a value intermediate between 
the normal and the two-thirds value. 

Victor Meyer and Lliblin now publish results obtained by them 
prior to the publication of Craft's paper bearing upon the same subjects 
They found also that free chlorine gave a normal density under all 
changes of temperature, so that it is only when nascent chlorine is tried 
rhat the abnormal density or dissociation, as they view it, is gotten. 
Iodine, however, taken in the free state, showed dissociation at all 
temperatures over about i,ooo°C. With bromine, if the free element 



'^"•iviri8^8o"'"-} Chemical Notes. , 26 j 

was taken, great difficulty was experienced in getting satisfactory deter- 
minations, owing to its volatility. The results agreed in general with 
those of Craft's. When the bromine was liberated in the nascent 
state from platinic bromide, PbBr^, they got results agreeing exacdy 
with I Br2, showing dissociation. They say nothing as yet of the 
nature of the dissociation products of the three halogens. — Nature^ 
March i8th, 1880, p. 461. 

Manufacture of Glauber s Salt in the south of France. — The following 
interesting description of the extraction of Glauber's salt from the sea- 
brines, as now practiced at the large salines at the mouth of the Rhone 
River, contains several items of interest to the chemist. 

The sodium sulphate is obtained by decomposing a liquor which 
contains common salt and magnesium sulphate in proper proportions 
by the aid of artificial cold. The Carre ice machine is used for this 
purpose. The crude material, the sel mixte^ crystallizes out at a cer- 
tain stage in the evaporation of the mother-liquor left after common 
salt has crystallized. This special liquor is then cooled by an ingenious 
application of the refrigerating process until — 6°C. is reached, when 
Glauber's salt separates out as a crystalline scum, which is removed 
and carried by elevators to large draining casks. Here the salt is freed 
from adhering water and is now ready to be made anhydrous. This 
operation had given great difficulty, as the evaporation in iron pans was 
not possible, on account of the tendency of the separating anhydrous 
sulphate to burn, and calcination with the aid of a reverberatory flame 
was also extremely difficult to carry out. The difficulty has been 
overcome very simply. The water of crystallization is not driven ofF 
by heat, but is displaced. For this purpose the crystallized Glauber's 
salt, in quantities of 1,500 kilograms, is fused with a small amount 
of the mother-liquor in a wooden tank heated by a copper worm and 
provided with stirrers, when 250 kilos of common salt are added. In 
the degree that the salt dissolves, anhydrous Glauber's salt is precipi- 
tated, and at the end of the operation about 85 per cent, of the Glau- 
ber's salt originally used is gotten as an anhydrous precipitate. The 
salt so obtained has at most 5 per cent, sodium chloride and 5 per 
cent, of water present. — Chem. Industrie^ Jan. 1880, p. 9. 

Organic Chemistry. — Extraction of Fresh Flower Perfumes zvith 
Methyl Chloride.- — C. Vincent, who has prepared methyl chloride 
recently in such large amount from the residues of beet-root molasses 
(this Journal, March, 1879, p. 126) has made exper/ments on a large 



264 



Chemical Notes, 



Am. ^our. Pharm. 
May, 1880. 



scale as to its use as a means of extracting the perfunne of flowers. 
Using this solvent, which evaporates at very low temperature, for 
extraction in closed vessels, the perfumes are obtained perfectly unal- 
tered and in fresh condition, mixed with fat and wax like substances. 
This mixture gives up to alcohol the perfume perfectly pure. The 
methyl chloride, to be used for this purpose, must be previously treated 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, to free it from traces of a bad-smell- 
ing compound which may sometimes accompany it. — Ibid^ Feb., 1880, 
p. 59. 

0?i the Reaction of Ferric Chloride with Salicylic^ Carbolic^ Gallic and 
Tannic Acids. — H. Hager gives the following means of distinguishing 
between these acids by the aid of the ferric chloride test. The sub- 
stances which interfere with the violet coloration which terric chloride 
gives with these acids are numerous, and by noting them we may 
obtain a clue as to which of the acids may be present in a solution. 
Thus with salicylic acid the reaction is not disturbed or hindered by the 
presence of acetic, boracic, sulphuric, nitric or hydrochloric acids (all 
acids in dilute condition), common salt, nitre, glycerin, alcohol, amyl 
alcohol or ether. It is hindered by caustic alkalies, alkaline carbon- 
ates, sodium acetate, ammonium acetate, borax, potassium iodide, 
sodium phosphate, oxalic, citric, tartaric, phosphoric and arsenic acids. 
With carbolic acid the reaction is not hindered by boracic acid, common 
salt or potassium nitrate. It is hindered by acetic, oxalic, tartaric, 
citric, sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric acids, sodium ace- 
tate, ammonium acetate, borax, sodium phosphate, glycerin, alcohol, 
amyl alcohol and ether. 

Phosphoric acid decolorizes both with salicylic and carbolic acids 
and with gallotannic and gallic acids as well. The officinal sodium 
phosphate, however, hinders the reaction with salicylic and carbolic 
acids, but not with tannic and gallic acids. 

For a preliminary distinction between salicylic and carbolic acids the 
solution is to be treated in abundance with alcohol or glycerin, or with 
dilate acetic acid, and then tested with ferric chloride, Salicylic acid 
will give the reaction, carbolic acid will not. 

To distinguish whether gallotannic or gallic acid be present, add 
sodium phosphate to the solution, and then test with ferric chloride. 
The violet coloration will show their presence, but is not produced by 
salicylic or carbolic acids. — Dingier' s Polytechn. Jour.^ 235, p. 407. 
Note on the Action of the New Diastase^ Eurotin^ on Starch. — R. W . 



^"^■^y'/Jso^"""-} Diffusive Properties of Iron. 265 

Atkinson, Professor of Chemistry at Tokio, Japan, describes the action 
of the ferment which the Japanese use instead of malt in brewing pro- 
cesses. The fermenting body is called Koji, and is prepared as follows: 
Washed rice is soaked in water until soft ; it is then steamed for some 
hours, until the starch has gelatinized. When lukewarm, the mass is 
sprinkled with spores of the fungus Eurotium ory%ea. The grains are 
then well mixed and exposed in trays to a temperature of about 25°C. 
In three days the mass is cemented together by the silky filaments of 
the mycelium and forms the "koji" which is used instead of malt in 
the brewing process. When extracted with water, koji yields a solu- 
tion reducing the Fehling test. When digested with water for about 
ten minutes the solution gives about 12 to 14 per cent of glucose. 
Korschett has shown (" Dingler's Polytech. Jour.," 230, p. 76) that 
the cold aqueous extract of koji has properties resembling those of 
malt, and when added to gelatinized starch renders it limpid and forms 
sugar. He also concluded that the temperature of 40° to 50°C. was the 
most favorable to this change. The author of the present paper comes 
to the conclusion that the starch breaks up in this process into glucose 
and dextrin instead of maltose and dextrin, as in our mashing operations. 

A mixture of koji, steamed rice and water is made in the cold. On 
the 5th to the 7th days the mash is warmed by introducing tubes filled 
with hot water. Further additions. of steamed rice and water were 
made between the 14th and 17th days, and again on the i8th day, a 
fourth addition of steamed rice, ferment and water took place. The 
mash was then pressed, and during the interval the small quantity of 
dextrin underwent fermentation, and the specific rotatory power of the 
filtered liquid became almost nil. The filtered liquid (Sake), which 
contains the water used to rinse out the fermenting tubes, contains 11-14 
per cent, alcohol; glycerin and resin, i"99; fixed acid, 0*13; volatile 
acid, 0"02; water, 86'72. The fermentation is probably spontaneous. 
The size of the ferment cells is a little less than that of beer yeast. — 
Chem. News., April 9, 1880, p. 169. 



THE DIFFUSIVE PROPERTIES OF SOME PREPARA- 
TIONS OF IRON. 

By Proeessor Redwood. 
Attention has recently been directed to the properties possessed by 

1 Read at an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
March 3, 1880. 



266 



Diffusive Properties of Iron, 



Am. jour. Pharm. 

May, 1E80. 



oxide of iron as it exists in dialyzed iron, and founded on the observa- 
tion of these properties it has been inferred that dialyzed iron is a very- 
inert preparation. The iron exists here in u^hat Graham has desig- 
nated the colloidal state, in which it has a very lou^ diffusive power. 
It was observed by Graham that substances which in solution possessed 
very low diffusive power were characterized by the absence of the crys- 
tallizing property and that they generally formed gelatinous hydrates^ 
while substances of high diffusive power generally belonged to the class 
of crystalline bodies. Hence the names colloid and crystalloid applied 
to these two classes of substances. 

But although substances of very low diffusive power are always 
found to be uncrystallizable, it cannot be inferred that the absence of 
crystalline property will be necessarily attended with low diffusive 
power. I proved this experimentally many years ago, and briefly stated 
the fact in a communication made to this Society on Dialysis in 1862* 
Yet the opinion appears to be often entertained that the diffusive pro- 
perty of substances in solution bears some relation to the power they 
possess of assuming a crystalline condition ; and as we have now sev- 
eral preparations of iron, largely used and considered to be efficacious 
medicines, which are entirely devoid of the power of crystallizing, it 
may be of use to show the position which these and some other prepa- 
rations occupy with regard to their, diffusive properties. 

If, as stated by M, Personne in his recent communication to the 
French Academy of Medicine, a notice of which appeared in the 

Pharmaceutical Journal " of last November, dialyzed iron is inca- 
pable of being absorbed during its passage through the intestinal canal^ 
and is therefore inactive, and if this is due to the colloidal state of the 
iron, it might be expected that other preparations of iron would, at any 
rate to some extent, owe their activity as medicinal agents to their dif- 
fusive properties. 

Now, among the preparations of iron which have become most 
largely used in medicine are the scaled preparations, which, in com- 
mon with dialyzed iron, are often preferred to the crystalline salts of 
iron on account of the absence of the inky taste which characterizes 
the latter. The absence of inky taste and strong styptic property may 
tend to induce a belief that the scaled preparations of iron are either 
colloidal, like dialyzed iron, or at least that they are deficient in diffu- 
sive power, for colloids are usually marked by absence or deficiency of 
taste. 



^^"iv/aTis^"" } Diffusive Properties of Iron, 267 

The experiments, the results of which 1 am about to lay before the 
Society, were made for the purpose of showing what the relative diffu- 
sive power of some of the salts of iron is, and to what extent this is 
connected, in such salts, with their crystalline or amorphous condition. 

The dyalizer used in the experiments consisted of a glass jar, the 
membrane covered mouth of which was 5 J inches in diameter; and 
this rested in the mouth of a wide earthen dish. Two thousand grain- 
measures of either a 5 per cent, or a 10 per cent, solution of the salt 
used was put into the glass jar, and 25 ounces of water into the dish. 
The difFusate was usually removed at the expiration of two, but some- 
times of three days, at the commencement of an experiment, although 
a longer time was allowed for each separate diffusion when the action 
became sluggish towards the end of an experiment. 

I. Citrate of Iron^ Ferric Citrate. — Some simple citrate of iron was- 
made in the usual way, by dissolving to saturation moist, recently pre- 
cipitated hydrated peroxide of iron in solution of citric acid. After 
being scaled and dried at 212°, it was found to contain 32*29 per cent, 
of ferric oxide, FcgOg. Aided by heat, it was perfectly soluble in 
water, the solution being acid to test paper. 200 grains of this salt 
dissolved in water to make 2,000 grains (10 per cent, solution) was put 
into the dialyzer. At the expiration of two days the diffusate was 
removed, evaporated to dryness, and the residue dried at 2I2°F. It 
amounted to 51*26 grains, or 25*63 per cent, of the salt, and on being 
incinerated it gave 22*45 grains, or 43*75 per cent, of oxide of iron. 
It thus appeared that the iron was diffusing more rapidly than the acid 
with which it had been combined. Fresh water having been mtro- 
duced into the dish, the diffusion subsequently went on more slowly^ 
but the results still showed that the iron was diffusing more rapidly 
than the acid. At the end of fifteen days, 125*59 grains of the salt 
had passed through the membrane. 

The results of the experiment are given in the following tabulated 
statement : 

200 grains of Citrate^ containing 64*58 grains of Yq^O^ in Dialyzer. 





Amount of 


Amount of 


Per cent, of 


Per cent of 


Days. 


salt 


FeoO.3 in 


salt 


FeoO.-i in 


diffused. 


diffusate. 


diffused. 


diffusate. 


2 


5i"26 


22-45 


25-63 


4375 


4 


44-81 


19-45 


22-41 


45*63 


4 


20-50 


8-67 


10-25 


42*26 


5 


9*02 


4-10 


4-51 


45*45 


14 


6-37 


3-68 


3-i8 


57-77 


29 


131-96 


58-35 


65-98 





268 



Diffusive Properties of Iron. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
) May, 1880. 



Residue in Dialyzer. 

4*86 2-75 

Total, . 136-82 6i-io 
Loss, , 63-18 3-48 

200-00 64-C8 

It will be seen that of the 200 grains of the salt, containing 64-58 
grains of Fe^Og, put into the dialyzer, 131*96 grains of salt, contain- 
ing 58'35 grains of Fe203, had diffused in twenty-nine days, and that 
there was then a residue in the dialyzer amounting to 4*86 grains of 
salt, containing 275 grains of Fe203. There was thus an apparent 
loss in the process of 63-18 grains of salt, but of only 3*48 grains of 
FcgOo, the latter no doubt partly arising from adhesion to the septum. 
No entire cessation of diffusion was observed. 

The citrate of iron used in the experiment was, as it always is, acid 
to test paper, and the first two diffusates were so also, but the third and 
subsequent diffusates were neutral, indicating the disappearance of some 
of the acid radical. 

2. Ainmonio-c'itrate of Iron. — This salt, as met with in commerce, 
usually contains about 30 per cent, of peroxide of iron, FcgOg, but the 
proportion varies in different samples. Several samples were submitted 
to dialysis. 

(2, a.) — A 10 per cent, solution of ammonio-citrate, containing 
30-21 per cent, of Fe203, was dialyzed, and the results examined as in 
the previous experiment. At the expiration of two days, 124-59 gf^ins 
or 62-29 P^^' cent, of the salt had diffused, and this contained 27*22 
per cent, of the FcgOg. At the end of another four days, 25*79 grains 
more of the salt, with 32*90 per cent, of Fe^Og, had diffused, making 
the total diffusate in six days 150*38 grains, or 75*19 per cent, of the 
salt put into the dialyzer, and 70 per cent, of the iron contained in the 
salt. The diffusion afterwards went on very slowly, yielding only 3-79 
grains in ten days, and at the end of twenty- two days from the com- 
mencement, when the diffusion had nearly stopped, the dialyzer con- 
tained 20-26 grains of a salt in solution, in which the FegOg amounted 
to 6i-6i per cent. 

(2, — A 10 per cent, solution of a salt containing 30-9 per cent. 
3f Fe203 was dialyzed for two days. The diffusate gave 108*94 grains, 
or 54'47 per cent, of dried salt, containing 27*9 per cent, of Ytf^^. 
In four days more another diffusate was obtained, giving 37*36 grains. 



Per cent. FeoOg 
in residue. 

56-65 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1880. 



Diffusive Properties of Iron, 



269 



or i8*68 per cent, of the salt, and containing 34*44 per cent, of P'e^Og. 
In this case 73'15 per cent, of the salt and 70 per cent, of the iron 
contained in the salt had diffused in six days. The diffusion then, as 
in the previous experiment, went on very slowly, and at the end of 
sixteen days it had nearly stopped, although the dialyzer still contained 
19*55 grains of a salt with 52*48 per cent of Fe203 in it. 

(2, c.) — A 10 per cent, solution of a salt containing 30*65 per cent, 
of FcgOg was put into the dialyzer. In two days the difFusate gave 
96*11 grains, or 48*05 per cent, of the salt, and this contained 31*42 
per cent, of Yq^O^. In four days more another difFusate was obtained, 
which yielded 27*60 grains, or 13*8 per cent, of the salt, and contained 
37*46 per cent, of FegOg. In this case 61*85 per cent, of the salt,. ^ 
and 66*15 P^^ cent, of the iron contained in the salt, had diffused in six 
days. The diffusion had now entirely stopped, although there still 
remained 32*45 grains of a salt containing 22*55 gf^ins of ferric oxide 
in the dialyzer. 

In the three preceding experiments the solutions used and the diffu- 
sates obtained were neutral to test paper. The citrates employed were 
apparently good commercial samples, well scaled and perfectly soluble,, 
but they evidently differed in constitution, as indicated by difference in 
the results of their diffusion, for they were all treated similarly and 
subjected to the same conditions. It will especially be observed that 
diffusion in the case of (2, c.) ceased entirely at the end of six days, 
although the dialyzer still contained 32*45 grains of a salt in which 
there were 22*55 grains of ferric oxide, but this, being in the form of 
a highly basic salt, was no longer diffusible. 

With the view of trying the effect of altered conditions on the salt 
used in the last experiment, a solution made alkaline with ammonia 
was used as follows : 

(2, d.) — A 10 per cent, solution of the citrate used in experiment 
(2, c.^ was made strongly alkaline with ammonia. In two days the dif- 
fusate gave 92*65 grains, or 46*32 per cent, of a salt containing 32*59 
per cent, of Fe203. Another diffusate was obtained in four days more 
which yielded 17*55 grains, or 8*77 per cent, of salt containing 51*22 
per cent, of FcoOg. In this case 55*09 per cent, of the salt, and 63*93 
per cent, of the iron had diffused in six days. And now, at the end of 
six days, diffusion had stopped, as in the previous experiment, while 
the dialyzer still contained an undiffusible salt containing 68*38 per 
cent, of Fe203. 



270 



Diffusive Properties of Iron. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1880. 



The following table will show the principal results of dialysis in the 
preceding four experiments : 

Ten per cent. Solutions (200 grains of Ammonio- Citrate of Iron in 2,000 
grains of Solution) Dialy%ed for Six Days. 

Amount of Per cent, of Percent of Diffusion Per cent, of Fe203 

salt salt FeoQo in on sixth in salt 

diffused, diffused. dift'usate. d^y. not diffused. 

(2, a) 150*38 75'i9 28-2 not ended 6i'6i 

{2, b) 146-30 73"i5 29-5 not ended 52*48 

(2, 123*71 61-85 32'7 ended 69-49 

(2, d) iio*2o 55'io 35-5 ended 6S-38 

Having observed that diffusion stopped when the salt in the dialyzer 
became highly basic, and that the diffusate as well as the contents of 
the dialyzer became more and more basic as the process proceeded, 
results which I shall have to refer to hereafter, I thought that probably 
by starting with a salt containing less than the usual proportion of oxide 
of iron the diffusion might be carried further than it had been found 
possible to carry it in the preceding experiments. 

I obtained a good, well-scaled, neutral and perfectly soluble sample 
of ammonio-citrate of iron, containing only 25*92 per cent, of Fe203. 
10 per cent, and 5 per cent, solutions of this salt were submitted to 
dialysis, in the way already described, and the results obtained are given 
an the following tabulated statements : 

(2, e.) — 10 per cent. Solution. 

Amount of Per cent, of Per cent of 

Days, salt salt FeoO.3 in dried 

diffused. diffused. diffusate. 

2 . . 92-23 grs. 46-10 21-56 

2 . . 30-62 15*31 32-23 

3 ■ . 23-37 11-68 33-13 
3 . . 8-16 4-08 35'5o 

3 . . 2-27 1-13 3740 

4 • . *55 '27 39"43 

At the end of twenty-eight days, diffusion having stopped, the sale 
still left in the dialyzer was found to contain 61*26 per cent, of FcgO.^. 
(2, e.) — 5 per cent. Solution. 





Amount of 


Per cent, of 


Per cent, of 


Days. 


salt 


salt 


FeoOs in dried 


diffused. 


diffused. 


diffusate. 


-2 


66-65 grs. 


33"32 


25-07 


2 


25-73 


12-86 


30*12 


3 


. i7'9i 


8-95 


32-44 


3 . 


6-4 


3"2 


35-88 


3 


2-47 


1-23 


36-01 


4 • 


I -64 


-82 


38-94 


6 


I-I4 


•57 


40-01 



At the end of twenty-eight days, diffusion having stopped, the salt 
in the dialyzer was found to contain 68*54 per cent, of FegOg. 



"^""MaTxs^or™ } Diffusive Properties of Iron. 27 1 

3. Potassio- Tartrate of Iron^ Tartarated Iron. — This salt, which, until 
the adoption of the process now given in our Pharmacopoeia, was com- 
monly supplied in the form of an imperfectly soluble powder, is now 
produced in soluble transparent scales. But, as it is more susceptible 
of change from slight variation of the conditions to which it is sub- 
jected, it is less uniform in composition and properties than the salt 
previously referred to — the ammonio-citrate. Several samples of potas- 
sio tartrate of iron were submitted to dialysis. 

(3, a.) — A 10 per cent, solution of potassio-tartrate containing 31 "09 
per cent, of Fe203 was put into the dialyzer. In two days 94*02 grains 
or 47 01 per cent, of the salt had diffused, containing ii'^j per cent, 
•of P'e203. In four days more a further quantity of 25*99 gi'^ins, or 
I2'99 per cent, of the whole was obtained, containmg 32*97 per cent, 
of Fe203. Only slight diffusion took place beyond this. The residue 
left in the dialyzer at the end of ten days contained 65*36 per cent, of 
Fe,03. 

(3, Z*.) — A 10 percent, solution of potassio-tartrate, containing 36.25 
per cent, of Fe203, submitted to dialysis, gave in two days a diftusate 
from which 53'0i grains, or 26*5 per cent, of a salt containing 8'82 
per cent, of Fe203 was obtained. In four days more another product 
of 22*32 grains, or ii*i6 per cent, of the whole, and containing 7*03 
per cent, of Fe203 was obtained. The residue left in the dialyzer 
contained 62*70 per cent, of Fe203. 

(3, c.) — A 10 per cent, solution, the same as the last, but rendered 
alkaline with potash, after being dialyzed for two days gave a diffusate 
containing 79*83 grains, or 39*91 per cent, of dry salt, with 12*31 per 
cent, of Fe203. In another four days 33*7 grains or 16 85 per cent, of 
the salt had diffused, containing 10*71 per cent, of Fe203. The resi- 
due in the dialyzer contained 60*30 per cent, of Fe203. 

The following table gives the principal results of the preceding three 
experiments : 

Ten per cent. Solutions (200 grains Potassio- Tartrate of Iron in 2,000 grains 
of Solution) Dialyzed for Six Days. 

Amount of salt Per cent, of salt Per cent, of FeoOs Diffusion on Per cent, of FeoO.j 
diffused. diffused. in diffusate. tne sixth day. in salt n^t diffused. 

(3, a) 120 6o'o 24*9 not ended 65 36 

(3, b) 75*33 37 66 8-2 not ende-d 62-70 

(3, ii3'53 56*76 II-8 not ended 60*30 

It thus appears that the potassio-tartrate of iron is a less diffusable 
salt than the ammonio-citrate, and this especially applies to the iron as 



272 



Diffusive Properties of Iron. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1880. 



a constituent of the salts. It also appears, on comparing the results of 
experiments (3, a) and (3, z^'), that the salt containing the larger propor- 
tion of oxide of iron diffuses more slowly than the other, and that the 
diffusate contains a smaller proportion of iron. 

4. Citrate of Iron and ^uinia. — This preparation, for which, in its 
most approved form, an available process was first published in the 
present edition of the British Pharmacopoeia, although a somewhat 
indefinite, or at least an undefined, compound, is an important and val- 
uable medicine, and it seemed desirable, in connection with the present 
object of this inquiry, to determine the extent to which it is capable of 
undergoing diffusion through a membiane. 

A 10 per cent, solution, containing 200 grains of a good sample of 
citrate of iron and quinia, gave a diffusate in two days yielding 76*8^ 
grains of dry residue, containing 21*65 per cent, of ferric oxide. In 
two days more it gave a further diffusate, yielding 2i'i8 grains of dry 
residue containing 28*8 per cent, of ferric oxide j and again, in two 
days more it gave i6'6 grains of a residue with 27*7 per cent, of oxide, 
making the salt difi'used in six days equal to 57'29 per cent, of that put 
into the dialyzer. The proportion of quinia in relation to the iron 
was not determined in this case, and in this and other respects further 
experiments have yet to be made ; but it is evident from the results 
obtained that citrate of iron and quinia is a freely diffusible prepara- 
tion. 

5. Sulphate of Iron^ Ferrous Sulphate^ FeS04.7H20. — A 10 per cent, 
solution (200 grains in 2,000 grains of solution) slightly acidulated with 
sulphuric acid and dialyzed for two days gave a diffusate yielding 36'4. 
grains of ferric oxide, and dialyzed for four days more it gave a further 
diffusate yielding 14-7 grains of ferric oxide, thus making the amount 
of iron, reckoned as ferric oxide, diffused in six days, 51*1 grains, cor- 
responding to 35'7 grains of iron, and as the salt put into the dialyzer 
contained 40*2 grains of iron, it follows that 89*2 per cent, of the iron 
had diffused in six days. 

The experiment was carried on for two days longer, in which time 
a further diffusate yielding 3*76 grains of ferric oxide was obtained, 
making the total amount of iron diffused in eight days equallto 96 per 
cent, of the whole. 

6. Persulphate of Iron ^ Ferric Sulphate.— A solution was made by dis- 
solving 200 grains of ferrous sulphate, converting it into the ferric salt,, 
and making it up to 2,000 grains. The solution, therefore, contained 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1880. / 



Diffusive Properties of Iron. 



273 



the same amount of iron as that used in the preceding experiment, 
namely, /\.0'i grains Fe. Dialyzed for two days it gave a diffusate 
yielding 34-9 grains of ferric oxide, and in four days more it gave a 
further difFusate, yielding 14*2 grains of ferric oxide, thus making the 
amount of iron as ferric oxide 49'i grains, corresponding to 34*12 
grains of iron, diffused in six days, or 85'3 per cent, of the iron put into 
the dialyzer. 

The experiment vi^as carried on for two days longer, when a further 
diffusate was obtained, yielding 4'i grains of ferric oxide, making the 
total amount of iron diffused in eight days equal to 93 per cent, of the 
whole. 

7. Chloride of Iron^ Ferrous Chloride^ FeCl2.4H20. — A lO per cent, 
solution, 100 grains in 1,000 grains of solution, dialyzed for two days 
gave a diffusate, yielding 33*96 grains of ferric oxide, and dialyzed for 
four days more it gave a further diffusate, vielding 4-3 grains of oxide, 
making 38*26 grains of ferric oxide, corresponding to 26-8 grains of 
iron, or 95*7 per cent, of the iron contained in the dialyzer, diffused in 
six days. 

8. Perchloride of Iron^ Ferric Chloride. — 100 grains of ferrous chloride 
converted into a ferric salt, and diluted to i^ooo .grains, gave results 
nearly coinciding with those of the ferrous chloride. 

On comparing the results of the foregoing experiments, it will be 
seen that, while the sulphates and chlorides, and especially the latter, 
stand pre-eminent in regard to the extent and rapidity with which they 
undergo liquid diffusion through a membrane, it cannot be said, in a 
medical sense, that the scaled preparations, and especially those made 
• with citric acid, are deficient in diffusibility, for the latter being given 
in much larger doses than the former would be absorbed into the sys- 
tem to fully an equal extent. 

9. Dialyzed Iron. — Although most of the experiments hitherto des- 
cribed in this paper were made simply for the purpose of showing the 
relative diffusibility of preparations of iron which are used in medicine, 
without reference to dialyzed iron, and of ascertaining how far the dif- 
fusive property of such preparations is affected by their crystalline or 
amorphous condition, yet as the immediate object of publishing the 
results at this time was to show that the scaled preparations of iron of 
the Pharmacopoeia are not subject to the objections which have been 
recently urged against dialyzed iron, I have been led to make some 
experiments with the view of ascertaining how far the properties ascribed 

18 



4 



274 Diffusive Properties ^of Iron. {^"k^^.^s^so""- 

to dialyzed iron are really possessed by it, and are likely to affect its 
medicinal efficacy. 

Dialyzed iron has been largely introduced to the notice of the medical 
profession, and strongly recommended as an efficacious chalybeate, 
which is free from objections that attach to other chalybeate medicines. 
It would appear to have some strong recommendations if it could be 
clearly shown that it is capable of being absorbed during its passage 
through the intestinal canal. But while it is freely admitted that it has 
the advantage of being nearly tasteless, free from astringency, and not 
liable to cause constipation or gastric disturbance, it has at the same time 
been broadly asserted that it is perfectly inert on account of its colloidal 
nature — that the oxide of iron is precipitated in the stomach in a state 
in which it is insoluble in the acids of the stomach and incapable ot 
undergoing liquid diffusion. 

The following experiments were made with a sample of dialyzed 
iron containing 5-28 per cent, of ferric oxide and '23 per cent, of chlo- 
rine. The iron was completely precipitated by adding to the dialyzed 
iron twenty times its volume of water of the London water supply. 

(9, a.) — The oxide of iron obtained from 100 grains of the dialyzed 
iron by addition of 2,000 grains of New River water was collected on 
a filter, washed with distilled water and digested with water to which 
hydrochloric acid of known strength was gradually added until the 
oxide of iron became apparently dissolved, a clear and permanent, 
although not brilliant, reddish-brown liquid resulting. It was found 
that 1*44 grains of hydrochloric acid (HCl) was thus required for the 
5'28 grains of oxide of iron. This solution was put into a dialyzer, 
but at the end of two days not a trace of iron had passed through the 
septum. 

(9, b.) — Another similar quantity of precipitated oxide was digested 
with double the quantity of hydrochloric acid, namely 2*88 grains of 
HCl, but the result at the end of two days was the same. None of 
the iron had diffused. 

9, c.) — Another similar quantity of oxide, namely, 5*28 grains, was 
digested with 7*5 grains of hydrochloric acid (HCl), this being the 
quantity required for converting the ferric oxide into ferric chloride,. in 
the event of such conversion occurring. In this case it was found that 
after the liquid had been in the dialyzer for two days a very small 
quantity, 'i grain, of the iron had diffused. 

In the last three experiments the oxide had been digested at a tern- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1880. 



Varieties, 



perature of ioo°F., for about an hour, before putting the liquid into 
the dialyzer. 

(9, — In this experiment the oxide of iron and hydrochloric acid, 
in the proportion for forming ferric chloride, were boiled together for 
several minutes, and the liquid after cooling was put into the dialyzer. 
At the end of two days a trace of iron had passed through the septum, 
but not more than in the preceding experiment. 

The hydrochloric acid in these experiments' was greatly in excess of 
that usually present in the free state in the stotnach, which, according 
to Lehmann, is about '125 per cent. 

A suggestion having been made that the colloidal iron of dialyzed 
iron, although not diffusible when brought into a state of apparent solu- 
tion with hydrochloric acid, even when this is much in excess of what 
is required for such solution, might be taken up by the albuminoids in 
the stomach and thus rendered assimilable, experiments were made in 
'Hat direction. 

(9, ^.) — A dilute solution of albumen v/ith hydrochloric acid was 
digested for two hours with dialyzed' iron at ioo°F., and then left in a 
dialyzer for two days, but no iron was found in the diffusate. 

(9,y.) — A peptone was prepared by dissolving 50 grains of coagu- 
lated albumen with 2 grains of pepsin in 500 grains of i per cent, dilute 
hydrochloric acid, adding 50 grains of dialyzed iron, and digesting them 
together for two hours at ioo°F. This was put into a dialyzer for 
two days, but here again not a trace of iron was found in the difFusate. 

In view of these results it can hardly be conceived that dialyzed iron 
should be an active or efficacious medicine. At any rate it remains 
for those who advocate its use to suggest a theory by which medicinal 
activity may be reasonably ascribed to a substance having the proper- 
ties which this preparation has been proved to possess. — Pharm. your, 
and Trans. [London], March 6, 1880. 



VARIETIES. 



Bromhydrate of Morphia.— This is more soluble in water and is twice as power- 
ful as the sulphate. It combines the sedative effects of the bromine with the ano- 
dyne properties of the morphia. It is not so dangerous, and it is not so apt to be 
followed by unpleasant symptoms. It is the drug especially for irritative aftections 
of the spinal cord. — Journal de Therapeutique^ from Western Lancet, Jan., 1880. 



276 



Varieties. 



Am. Jour Pharns. 
May, 18S0. 



Sodium Salicylate in Phthisis. By A. Hutchins, M.D. — I desire to call atten- 
tion to certain useful results to be obtained from sodium salicylate in the advanced 
stage of phthisis. I am indebted to Dr. B. A. Segur for the original suggestion.. 
The cases in which its effects have been observed are too few, and the effects not 
snfficiently constant to justify any positive statements as to the precise indications 
for its use 5 yet, so far as have been observed, the effects are pronounced enough to 
justify further observation. My studies, thus far, have been limited to cases in the 
Brooklyn City Hospital, while Dr. Segur, in addition to some experience in St, 
Peter's Hospital, has had some cases in private practice, where its effects have been 
observed. 

Allowing this paucity of experience to stand for marginal notes for future 
observers, it may be stated that the sodium salicylate acts promptly and pleasantly 
in modifying the colliquative diarrhoea of phthisis. Its action is accompanied by no 
such contingent or secondary effects as belong to the use of opiates. Of course, no 
cure ot the diarrhoea is expected, and a recurrence of the symptom can be met by 
resuming the medicine. In connection with this, it has been noticed that the admin- 
istration of the sodium salicylate has been followed by a marked amelioration of 
the cough, a subsidence of the hectic, and a diminution, sometimes suppression of 
the night-sweating. It is not known how far these effects can be prolonged by the 
continued use of the drug, nor to what extent it may be beneficial to intermit it 
with other remedies. The most that can be said with po.sitiveness is, that without 
disturbance to the digestion, it, at times, serves an excellent purpose in modifying,, 
to the great relief of the patient, some of the more prominent and distressing symp- 
toms that belong to the latest stage of phthisis. This fact is the only ju.'vtification 
for intruding the results of such a limited observation. Ten grains of the drug, 
repeated every three or four hours, have been found adequate. Dissolved in water, 
it will not be found offensive if taken in iced-water. — Proceedings of the Med. Soc. of 
the county oj Kings^ Nenjj York, Feb., 1880. 



A New Anthelmintic. — The Ocytnum basilicum, a plant known in Buenos Ayres 
under the name *' albochaca,"" has an action of such a nature that the worms in every 
stage of development rapidly leave their location after the juice reaches them. It!> 
use is so much the more to be recommended since, in. the event no worms are pres- 
ent no injurious effect results from the plant, but a laxative and disinfectant action 
is the only result. Fifty grams of the juice is given, followed in two hours by a 
dose of castor oil. A free discharge of the worms may be expected. 

The above observations of Dr. Lemos and the results obtained are very encour- 
aging, and invite further investigation, the more since the number of anthelmintics 
's limited, and their action often unsatisfactory. — Med. Neuigk., No. 34, 1879, f'"0'T^ 
Gaillard's Med. Journ.^ March, 1880. 



Salicylate of Sodium in Gout. — M. Bouloumie has communicated to the Medical 
Society of Paris the results of his investigations upon the action of salicylate ot 
sodium during an attack of gout. The author has administered the salicylate to 
some of his own patients, and he has inquired of a large number who came to Vittel 
for treatment, whether or not they had been subjected to this method. His own. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 

May, 1880. 



Minutes of the College, 



^patients had only been slightly benefitted by the drug, and of thirty-nine patients, 
whose cases he directed at the mineral springs, only six had taken salicylate of sodium, 
though they did not appear to be much relieved thereby. Whilst he recognizes, 
therefore, that salicylate of sodium acts by assuaging the pain, M. Bouloumie would 
restrict its administration in chronic gout. He points out the inconveniences and 
even the dangers which may arise from its use, especially if the heart or kidneys be 
affected, whilst the results are but slight except in very favorable or in subacute 
cases. He believes that the drug is an active remedy, which should be kept in the 
iiherapeutic arsenal to combat gout, though its action in this disease is not so marked 
as in rheumatism,. — Le Frogrhs Medical, from Cincinnati Lancet and Clinic^ March 
<i3, 1880. 



Sclerotic Acid. — This acid is probably the active principle of ergot, having a 
•feeble acid affinity, uniting with sodium to form a stable sclerotate. The acid and 
its sodium salt have the therapeutic effects of ergot, but the salt in a less marked 
degree. Both chiefly act on the central nervous system. In mammals the heart is 
not influenced by even relatively large doses. At death the respiration ceases before 
the heart. In mammals the acid accelerates intestinal })eristalsis 5 and it excites con- 
traction both of the pregnant and non-pregnant uterus, pre-existing contractions 
being intensified so that the organ assumes a paler tint. Nikitin, who has been 
recently studying its effects, says that he calculates that a man weighing about 110 
pounds would be killed by about 150 grains of sclerotic acid. The ordinary 
hypodermic dose is 0*02 to 0*03 gram (one-third to one-half grain) three times a 
day. Sclerotic acid seems likely before long to partially replace ergot as a drug. It 
has the advantage of remaining indefinitely without loss of strength, if only kept in 
a dry place and undissolved. Its sodium salt is considered the best form for inter- 
nal use in the human subject. Hypodermic injection causes a temporary sharp 
pain. Von Ziemssen claims for sclerotic acid over ergot in that the former causes 
no inflammation at the seat of puncture, — A^. C. Med. Jour. — Gaillard''s Med. Jour.^ 
April, 1880. 



MINUTES OF THE C OLLEGE. 

Philadelphia, March 29th, 1880. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held this day 
at the Hali of the College. The President, Dillwyn Parrish, presided, and twenty- 
six members signed the register. 

The minutes of the last stated meeting were read, and, on motion, adopted. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees since the last meeting of the College 
were read by Thos, S. Wiegand, in the absence of the Secretary of the Board, 
and, on motion, adopted. 

These minutes make mention of the death of Charles H. Dingee, which occurred 
in December last. He was one of tlie first graduates of the College. A short 
sketch of his life will be found in an obituary notice in the February number of 
-ihe Journal of this year. 



278 



Minutes of the College, 



Am. Jour. Pharm^ 

May, 1880. 



Thomas S. Wiegand, Librarian, read the following report of the year's operations... 
It was, on motion, accepted, and directed to be placed on the minutes. 

Philadelphia, March 29th, 1880. 
The Librarian respectfully reports that the theses for the last year have been arranged and cata- 
logued for binding; that there has been added to the Library of exchanges 22 volumes, by donation 30- 
vohimes, by purchase 35 volumes. Of these last, the 10 volumes of the " Encyclopedia Britannica," pur- 
chased by funds left to the College for that purpose by our late fellow member, Algernon S. Roberts, form' 
a most vakiable addition to it. AH of which is respectfully submitted. 

T. S. WIEGAND, Librarian. 

The Curator's report was read by Joseph P. Remington, and was, on motion^, 
accepted. 

The Curator would respectfully report that the additions to the Cabinet for the last year were not so 
numerous as in the preceding year. There were, however, three valuable cases of Indian drugs from- 
Dr. Dymock, of Bombay, and a valuable callection from California received, specimens from which have 
been exhibited at some of the pharmaceutical meetings. These meetings, as in previous years, have 
been the means of contributing various specimens to the Cabinet. 

JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, Curator. 

Henry N. Rittenhouse, Chairman of the Committee on Publication, presented an 
account of the Treasurer of that committee, and also read the following report, 
which was, on motion, adopted. The statement of account accompanying this 
report exhibits a very satisfactory condition of affairs, and it is the general opinion 
of members that this committee are rendering a valuable service to the College. 

Philadelphia, March 29th, 1880, 
To the Officers and Trustees of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

Gentlemen. — The Committee of Publication respectfully report that the Journal of the College 
has been regularly and promptly issued during the year just closed. The reports of the Editor and Busi- 
ness Editor, which accompany this, will give full details of the management. 

Respectfully, HENRY N. RITTENHOUSE, 

Chairman ef Committee. 

Professor Maisch, Editor of the Journal, read the following interesting report of 
his labors during the past year. And as that valuable publication derives much of 
its interest from the contributions of members of the College and others interested 
in chemical and pharmaceutical science, it is to be hoped that the suggestions mad 
by him will be followed up by everyone who may be able to contribute matter of a 
practical or scientific character. The report was, on motion, adopted, and ordered 
to be published in the minutes. 

In presenting his annual report, the Editor is pleased to state that for the year ending with the pres 
ent month a larger number of original papers were published in the Journal than through theprecedin 
year, though not quite as many as in some former years. During the past twelve months the total num 
ber of original papers was 84, or, on an average, 7 for each month, exclusive of original translations 
abstracts, gleanings, editorials and other notices. Of the number stated, there were 35 papers on sub- 
jects relating to materia medica, 12 to chemistry, 30 to pharmacy, and 7 papers on other subjects of gen 
eral interest. The papers were contributed by 60 authors, of whom«three furnished 5 papers each, two 
papers, eight 2 papers, and forty-seven i paper each. In this number are included abstracts from i 
theses, which is a gratifying increase over most of the preceding years. 

The active members of the College who show a direct interest in the Journal by contributing to 
the results of their observations and experiments has remained the same (16) for some years past, except 
for the year ending March, 1879, when they were 13, with 22 papers. The number of papers contributed 
by them was 27 in March. 1876 ; 35 in 1877, 41 in 1878, and 25 in March, 1880. In addition to these, the 
Editor takes pleasure in acknowledging the kind offices of Professor Sadtler and of Mr. L. von Cot 
hausen, who,"for more than a year past, have furnished the Journal regularly with abstracts fro 
numerous chemical and pharmaceutical papers which could not be published in full. Under the direc 
tion of the Publishing Committee, the Editor has made further arrangements for the regplar contrib 



Minutes of the College. 0^79 

tion to the Journal of formulas and observations on new pharmaceutical preparations and improve- 
ments in processes and manipulations, as well as also for the contribution of new observations on the 
action, doses and therapeutical application of drugs, as far as they are of special interest to the phar- 
macist. While it is hoped that the usefulness of the Journal will thereby be still further increased, the 
Editor ventures to urge upon the members, as he has done on former occasions, to communicate to him 
practical notes and observations made in the laboratory or at the prescription counter, so that they may 
be published for the benefit of the profession. 

It is but proper that the Editor should again speak a good word in favor of the Pharmaceutical 
Meetings, at which practical and scientific topics are very properly brought forward. While these meet- 
ings are held under the supervision of the College, its members are expected to be especially interested 
in them ; but »11 readers of the Journal may, if thej^ so desire, bring their investigations in this manner 
to general notice by addressing, in due time, either the registrar of these meetings or the editor of the 
Journal. During the past year 21 papers have been read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings, and of this 
number several interesting essays have been furnished by non-members and by students of the College. 

The Editor embraces this occasion to thank the various contributors and correspondents, and to 
express the hope in the continuance of their interest in the Journal. 

Respectfully submitted; JOHIM M. MAISCH, Editor. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Chairman of the Committee on the Sinking Fund, reported 
that he had paid over to the Treasurer of the College the balance remaining in his 
hands. The report was, on motion, accepted. 

The death of Samuel T. Jones, a member of the College, at the age of 58 years, 
from disease of the heart, was announced by Thomas S. Wiegand, who paid a 
tribute to his integrity and worth. 

Professor Maisch announced the death of the following honorary members of the 
College : 

Professor Carl Frederick Mohr, Ph.D., M.D., of the University of Bonn, which 
occurred September 28, 1879 5 

Professor J. B. Alphonse Chevallier, Honorary Professor of the Superior School 
of Pharmacy of Paris, on the 30th of November, 1879 5 

Professor H. A. L. Wiggers, Ph.D., Professor of Pharmacy at the University of 
Gottingen, on the 23d of January, 1880, obituary notices of all of whom have 
been published in the "Journal of Pharmacy." 

A communication from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of Boston, 
relative to the celebration of its one hundredth anniversary on the 26th of May, 
1880, was read, conveying an invitation to this College to send one or more dele- 
gates to attend the celebration and reception, with a request that an answer be sent 
to the Secretary of the Committee. On motion of Charles Bullock, Professor 
Robert Bridges and Professor Samuel P. Sadtler were appointed delegates to attend 
the celebration. 

The Treasurer reported a number of members as being five years in arrears to 
the College, motion was made and adopted, that in accordance with the custom 
heretofore pursued, their names be stricken from the roll of members. 

This being the time for the annual election, the Chair appointed Edward C. Jones 
and William B. Thompson tellers, who, after counting the ballots, announced the 
election of the following officers, trustees and standing committees, viz. : 

President — Dillwyn Parrish. 

First Vice President — Charles Bullock. 

Second Vice President — Robert Shoemaker. 

Treasurer — Samuel S. Bunting. 
Recording Secretary — William J. Jenks. 

Corresponding Secretary — Alfred B. Taylor. 

Board of Trustees — for three years — John M. Maisch, Robert England, Samuel P. Sadtler. 



Am. Jour. Phari 
May, 1879. 



2 8o Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, 

Publication Connnittee — John M. Maisch, Henry N. Rittenhouse, Thomas S. Wiegand, James T. 
Shinn, Charles Bullock. 

Sinking Fund Committee — Thomas S. Wiegand, T. Morris Perot, James T, Shinn. 
Editor — John M. Maisch. 
Librarian — Thomas S. Wiegand. 
Oi;r«i?cir— Joseph P. Remington. 

There being no further business, on motion, adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



MINUTES OF THE PHApACEUTlCAL MEETING, 

Philadelphia, April 20th, 1880- 

The meeting was called to. order by asking Mr. W. B, Thompson to preside 5 
the minutes of the last meeting having been read, were, on motion, approved. 

Donations to the cabinet and library being the first business in order. Prof. Maisch 
presented a copy of the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
for 1879. Dr. Chas. L. Mitchell presented a specimen of what is sometimes known 
in commerce as gum-hogg, it being used by paper stainers in making what is called 
marble paper. The thanks of the meeting were tendered to the donors for them. 

Dr. Mitchell read a paper upon gum-hogg (see page 250). This elicited some 
remarks descriptive of various kinds of gum, and particularly tragacanth of low 
grades with which, in Prof. Maisch's opinion, this so-called gum-hogg is identical. 

The Registrar read a short note on spiritus ammonia aromaticus, from W. S. 
Piumer, Jr., Ph.G., as follows : 

"In preparing spiritus ammonias aromaticus there is frequently a heavy precipitate 5 
some of the text books state that it is due to the insolubility of carbamate of 
ammonium, generally found in commercial carbonate, in the alcohol. My plan in 
making this preparation is to dissolVe the carbonate of ammonium in the water o 
ammonia and water, and allow it to stand for at least a week in a closely stoppered 
bottle j then having made a solution of the oils in the alcohol, add the ammonia 
solution to the solution of the oils quickly 5 if this is done there will be no precipi- 
tate whatever."" 

A paper upon ethyl bromide was read by Dr. L. Woljf, and is published upon page 
241. The fatal case in which the ethyl bromide had been employed, mentioned in 
Dr. Wollfs paper, was discussed, after which Prof. Remington read a paper upon 
the same subject (see page 248). The papers read were referred to the publication 
committee, and the thanks of the meeting were tendered to the gentlemen for their 
very interesting communications. 

Prof. Remington exhibited a little card giving the three metrical units employed 
by pharmacists, viz.: those of length, capacity, and weight. The card is a square, 
having for its side one decimeter, or one-tenth the unit of measure of length, the 
meter; a cube of the decimeter gives the unit of capacity, or liter; a cube with sides 
measuring one-tenth of a decimeter being a cubic centimeter, filled with distilled 
water, gives the unit of weight one gram ; the card itself weigh snearly five grams ; 
upon the reverse of the card is a device to assist those not familiar with the divisions 
and increments of the system to remember them. 



^""MaT'is^so'™'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 281 

A member present asked if any of the members had any experience in preparing 
kumyss^ to which there were two or three responses, but no exact formula was given. 
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 

Thos. S. Wiegand, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL C OLLEGES A ND ASSOCIATIONS. 

Pharmacy at Saratoga Springs — The American Pharmaceutical Association 
"having selected Saratoga Springs, N, Y., as the place for holding the next annual 
meeting, the pharmacists of that celebrated watering place have already commenced 
making preparations with the view of making the meeting as profitable and enjoy- 
able to the visiting members as possible. A meeting was held April 23d at the 
Arlington House, at which the Local Secretary, Mr. Chas. F. Fish, presided, Mr. 
E. L. Fish acting as secretary. The following committees were appointed: 

Committee on Finance — Messrs. Chas. F. Fish, J. M. Colcord, F. H. Hathorn, 
Wells and Henry Lawrence. 

Excursions and Entertainment — Messrs. Wells, Schuyler, Johnson and Lancashire. 

Railroad and Transportation — Messrs. George H. Fish, Thurber, Waring and 
Menges. 

Printing — Messrs, Pennington, Moody, Settle and Deal. 

Exhibition — Messrs. J. M. Colcord, Schermerhorn, Chas. F. Fish, Wells, Henry 
Lawrence, Moriarta, Derrick and Mingay. 

Hotels — Messrs. Mingay, Cranmer, Collins, Wells, Moody and Baldwin. 
Express — Messrs. Henry Smith, Barnes and E. L. Fish. 

Executive Committee — Messrs. Chas. F. Fish, J. M. Colcord, Mingay, Schermer- 
horn, Wells, Cranmer, and a representative of each spring company. 

A large and well-appointed hall has already been secured in which to hold the 
meeting, and in the immediate neighborhood a large and well-lighted building has 
been selected for the exhibition of articles of pharmaceutical interest. The meeting 
promises to be attended by many members with their families, and exhibits have 
already been promised by several prominent firms. 

The local secretary has thus far secured free transportation for the goods intended 
for exhibition in Saratoga by the Hudson River Steamboat Lines and by the Del- 
aware and Hudson Canal Company's railroad. An abatement in freight rates has 
been obtained from several railroads, and negotiations with other roads are in pro- 
gress. The principal manufacturing cities and ports of importation will thus secure 
desirable facilities 5 and since it is expected that the express companies will grant 
similar liberal terms for forwarding smaller packages intended for exhibition, it is 
hoped that this feature connected with the annual meetings of the Association will be 
as varied and interesting as heretofore. 

Saratoga being accessible during the summer and autumn from all parts of the 
United States and Canada by a variety of routes at low excursion rates, there will 
be no difficulty in arranging excursions from all principal cities ; and, in addition 
thereto, the local secretary is endeavoring to obtain favorable terms from the vari- 
ous railroads and steamboat lines leading towards Saratoga. We understand that 
several short excursions, at a moderate cost, are contemplated after the meeting 



2 82 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {^'^■Aly]\l^o''^' 

shall have adjourned, among them one to An Sable Chasm, including a sail on the 
beautiful Lake Champlain, and, on the return trip, a visit to several interesting 
points on Lake George. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.— The usual summer excursions in botany 
commenced April 14th, and are for the present year in charge of Mr. John Cook. 
As heretofore, they take place on the afternoon of every Wednesday. 



Massachusetts College of Pharmacy.— The twelfth commencement was held at 
Union Hall on Thursday evening, April 15th, when the President, B. F. Stacey,, 
conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy upon the following gentlemen : 

John Walter Bachelder [Gelsemia and Gelsemic Acid), James Sylvester Barry 
[Salicylate of Sodium), George Richard Bell [Iodoform), Charles Andrew Boyden 
[Erythroxylon Coca), Franklin Edward Boyden [An Ideal Pharmacy), Joseph Allen 
Chapin [Boracic Acid), George Sumner Churchill [Subnitrate of Bismuth), Frank 
Clough [Oleoresin of Capsicum), Charles Louis Curtis [Eremocarpus Setigerus), Wil- 
lard Henry Cutting [Acer Saccharinum), Azro Milton Dows [Rhamnus Frangula)^ 
Eugene Hamblet [Benzoic Acid and its O^cinal Source), Frederic Albert Jewett 
[Chlorate of Potassium), James M. Kerrigan [Oxide of Zinc), Elie Henry La Pierre 
[Tartaric Acid), Charles James Peters [Potassic Iodide), Alfred Pillsbury, Jr. [Soap 
Tree Bark), George Henry Sanderson [Cannabis Indica), William Edward Turple 
[Nitrite of Amy I). 

A certificate of proficiency was awarded to Ida Rebecca Brigham, M. D. [Ana- 
cardium occidental). Prizes consisting of books were presented in the department 
of pharmacy, for best term recitations, to F. A. Jewett (senior class) and Chas. M. 
Frye (junior class) ; and for best final examination, to G. H. Anderson (ssnior class) 
and H. F. Totman (junior class). 

New York College of Pharmacy. — The lectures on Botany by Prof. Alphonsa 
Wood will commence May 5th, and excursions to the fields and forests in the 
vicinity will occasionally be undertaken. 



National College of Pharmacy at Washington, D. C. — The annual meeting of 
the College was held April 5th. The reports from officers and committees made a. 
very favorable showing of the affairs of the College. The graduation of students 
will not take place until after the close of the spring course in analytical chemistry. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Mr. J. D.. 
O'Donnellj Vice-Presidents — Mr. G. G. C. Simms, Mr. R. A. Bacon j Secretary,. 
Mr.Charles Becker 5 Treasurer, Mr. John A.Milburn ; additional Trustees — Messrs. 
W. S. Thompson, R. B. Ferguson, H. E. Kalusowski, W. G. Duckett, J. D. Fran- 
zoni, Karl Kulberg and Wash. C. Milburn. 



Alumni Association Louisville College of Pharmacy. — At the annual meeting; 
held March 23d the following officers were elected : President, J. A. Flexner ; Vice- 
Presidents — Emil Scheffer, Jr., J.C. Loomis 5 Recording Secretary, Otto E.Mueller j. 
Corresponding Secretary, Albert J. Schoettlin 5 Treasurer, B. 'Buckle; Executive. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1880. 



EditoriaL 



285 



Board— lohn F. Rudell, O. A. Beckman, Wm. Tafei, George Stauber, Henry- 
Biischemeyer, Jr. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the Pharmaceutical meeting held 
March 3d, Mr. G. F. Schacht in the chair, Prof. Redwood read a very interesting 
paper on the diffusi've properties of some preparations oj iron (see p. 265). In the discus- 
sion following, for which we cannot make room. Prof. Attfield said that he adhered 
to Graham's views and regarded it not improbable that the scaly preparations of 
iron would be found to be crystalline. Mr. Martindale referred to the activity of 
basic oxychloride of iron, prepared by dissolving pasty oxide of iron in perchloride 
solution, and regarded the inefficiency of dialyzed iron as " not proven." 

Dr. Symes stated that his experiments were performed in a different manner from 
those made by Prof. Redwood, namely, by digesting at ioo°C. a mixture of dialyzed 
iron and peptone, in a dialyzer, when iron was found to diffuse through. 

After some further discussion, in which it was stated that commercial ammonio- 
citrate of iron usually contained more than the minimum quantity (27 per cent.) o£ 
oxide allowed'by the British Pharmacopoeia, the meeting adjourned. 



EDITORIA L DEPA RTMENT. 

Tests for Arsenic. — The following note in reference to the statements made on 
page 194 of our last number explains itself. We are not prepared to adopt the con- 
clusion arrived at by our correspondent. 
To the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

In an editorial note on my article in the April number relative to tests for arsenicj., 
regret is expressed that I do not give the alleged authority for the solubility of anti- 
mony in hypochlorite of sodium. Not being able to recall the authority in ques- 
tion I wrote to Mr. James, the attorney who conducted the cross-examination, and 
will quote from his letter in reply: 

"The book I read from on that subject (the solubility of antimony in hypo- 
chlorite of sodium) was ' Wharton and Stille's Medical Jurisprudence,' vol. 2, para- 
graph 429, where it is stated that hypochlorite of sodium dissolves the arsenical 
spot, but that antimonial spots resist its effect, unless they are small and of a dull' 
appearance^ njohen they nvill be dissolnjed."'' 

This certainly brings the subject down to a fine point, and the cautious analyst 
will have to be sure that the arsenical spots are not " small and of a dull appearance," 
which in all cases is not possible. Hence, we believe that the hypochlorite of 
sodium is an unreliable test for the spots on porcelain. Phil. Hoglan. 

NenjjcomerstO'Tvn, O., April 20, 1880. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRA PHICAL NOTICES. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Twenty-seventh 
Annual Meeting, held in Indianapolis, Ind., September, 1879. Philadelphia 
Sherman & Co., printers, 1880. 8vo, pp. 910. Price, bound in cloth, $7.50. 

Having in the October number given a condensed account of the transactions of 
the last meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, it remains now-^ 



Reviews^ etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

May, 1880. 



merely to call attention to this publication, in which, as usual, the very full and 
carefully arranged report on the progress of pharmacy is a prominent feature, occu- 
pying more than one-half (524 pages) of the book. Of great interest is also the 
report on the drug market, which is supplemented by a comprehensive report on the 
drug market of San Francisco and the resources of California, from the pen of Mr. 
Jas. G. Steele, covering nearly 100 closely printed pages. The papers read at the 
meeting were not quite as numerous as on some former occasions, but they will be 
found of great interest and even importance. On reading the graphic descriptions 
in Mr. Wellcome's paper, "A Visit to the Cinchona Forests of South America," it 
will be a source of regret that his other essay, relating to the practice of medicine 
and pharmacy in Peru, was lost and could not be prepared again for this volume. 

The frontispiece is a well-executed artotype of the late Eugene L. Massot, of St. 
X,ouis, a merited tribute to the memory of a worthy follower of pharmacy. 

It is to be regretted that the short-hand report of the discussions is uncommonly 
meagre, as compared with previous years. In all other respects we believe the vol- 
ume compares favorably with the preceding ones, and is more handy than others of a 
similar size, in consequence of the selection of a paper more suitable for voluminous 
books. The volume may be obtained from the Permanent Secretary. 



The Microscope and Microscopical Technology. Bv Heinrich Frey, Professor of Med- 
icine in the University of Zurich. Translated and edited by Geo. R. Cutter, 
M.D., etc. Second edition. New York : William Wood & Co., 1880. 8vo, 
pp. 660. 

The original work in German is well known and highly valued by microscop- 
asts conversant with the German language. The labor of translation of such a work 
is not an easy one j but it has been well done by the editor. 

The description of the microscope, with its various accessories, is very instruc- 
tive, and the means for using the instrument, for preparing microscopic objects, for 
mounting them, etc., are fully described. The information gained in this direction 
'by a careful perusal of the work is considerable \ and the practical hints given on 
almost every page of the work are such as will be duly appreciated by not only the 
novice, but even by those who are familiar with the use of the microscope. 

The work treats chiefly of the tissues, secretions and excretions of animals, and is 
therefore primarily intended for the use of the physician and the student of anatomy 
and physiology 5 but its practical scope is by far wider, and the student of general 
as well as special biology will find it a most welcome addition to his works of 
instruction and reference in a branch of investigation by means of an instrument 
which "has conquered a new world of minuteness for natural science." 

Paper, illustrations and the typographical outfit in general are very commendable. 



A Practical Handbook of Medical Chemistry applied to Clinical Research and the 
Detection of Poisons. By Wm. H. Greene, M.D., Demonstrator of Chemistry in 
the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, etc. Philadelphia : 
Henry C, Lea's Son & Co., 1880. izmo, pp. 310. Price $1.75. 

Good works on medical chemistry are by no means numerous. Notwithstanding 



'""v/aTis^o""' } Reviews, etc. 285. 

the many patient investigations undertaken by competent men, the various transfor- 
mations of organic compounds in the living body are mostly involved in obscurity, 
so that biological chemistry can scarcely as yet be ranked with the exact sciences. 
It is for this reason the more important that what has been accomplished should be 
presented to the student, not as isolated facts, but in groups as natural as the nature 
of the numerous principles will admit. The little work before us is one which we 
think will be studied with pleasure and profit. 

After a brief chapter on manipulations, the organic proximate principles taking 
part in the animal economy are described, commencing with the fatty and other 
acids, which are followed by the sugars, the principles found in urine, flesh and bile, 
the albuminoid and allied bodies, and the animal pigments. Of each principle there 
is usually given its origin, mode of preparation, properties and tests, and in case two 
or more resemble each other, the differences are pointed out. The descriptions, 
though brief, are clear, and in most cases sufficient for the purpose ; frequently, also, 
further elucidated by acceptable wood-cuts, illustrating the shape of crystals, appa- 
ratus, etc. Where briefness is an object, certain portions may always be picked out 
by the critical that would seem to deserve more detailed consideration. In this 
respect, the book will, in nearly all cases, meet general approval. Among the few 
instances noticed by us, where some additional facts appear to be deserving of 
greater detail, are the action of the various ferments in the presence of acids and 
alkalies. 

Part II treats of the analysis of secretions, excretions, etc. The author's famili- 
arity with his subject is everywhere evident in the selection of the processes for sep- 
aration, identification and estimation. The same is also observed in Part III, which 
treats of the detection of poisons, and is, as the author tells us in the preface, mod- 
eled on the plan of Bowman's chemistry. 

We regard the work not only very well adapted to the wants of the medical stu- 
dent, but we are convinced that the physician and the pharmacist will find it very 
useful in giving reliable advice in the examination of urine, calculi, blood, milk and 
other animal matters, and in the detection and identification of poisons. In useful- 
ness, as well as in appearance, the work will be a desirable addition to the medical 
and pharmaceutical library. 



A Guide to the Practical Examination of Urine ^ for the use of Physicians and Students. 
By James Tyson, M.D., Professor of General Pathology and Morbid Anatomy 
in the University of Pennsylvania, etc. Third edition. Philadelphia : Lindsay 
& Blakiston. 1880. izmo, pp. 183. Price, ^1.50. 

It is little more than a year ago since we reviewed the second edition of this work, 
and it gives us pleasure to state that the present revised one deserves all the praise 
accorded to the preceding. 



The Art of Perfumery^ and the Methods of Obtaining the Odors of Plants^ etc. By 
G. W. Septimus Piesse, Ph.D., F.C.S., etc. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: 
Presley Blakiston. 1880. 8vo, pp. 506. 

Piesse's " Perfumery" is too well known, and has been for such a longtime in the 



ReviewSy etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
May, 1880. 



iiands of those interested, that scarcely more seems to be necessary than to mention 
the fact that a new and improved edition has made its appearance. It treats of the 
growth and general flower-farm system of raising fragrant herbs^ of the method of 
obtaining the odors 5 of the manufacture of perfumes for the handkerchief 5 scented 
powders, odorous vinegars and salts; snuff, dentifrices, cosmetics, perfumed soaps, 
etc., and gives some formulas for preparing artificial fruit essences. The work has 
been much improved by the addition of ail recent observations of importance bear- 
ing on the subject, and contains a large number of good illustrations of articles and 
apparatus used in the preparation of perfumery. The new edition will doubtless be 
^.hsed with the same profit and instruction that was obtained from the older ones. 



Headaches their Nature^ Causes and Treatment. By William H. Day, M.D., etc. 
Third edition, with illustrations. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. 1880. 
i2mo, pp. 322. Price, $2.00. 

In a little over two years two editions of this little work have been exhausted, 
which proves that this monograph has been well received by the profession. The 
new edition is essentially the old one, with the addition of several pages of new 
matter. It will doubtless be found as convenient for use and instructive in practice 
as the two preceding editions. 



Sea-air and Sea-bathing. By John H. Packard, M.D., Surgeon to the Episcopal 
Hospital. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. i6mo, pp. 124. Price, 50 cts. 

As one of the series of American Health Primers this little volume is deservedly in 
good company, and since the subject discussed by it is one in which nearly every- 
body is interested, it will be welcomed by many as a guide or for suggestions while 
visiting the seashore, either in summer or winter. 



Ein Beitrag %ur Biologie einiger Schizomyceten. Von H. v. Boehlendorff, Dorpat, 
1880. 8vo, p. 51. 

A Contribution to the Biology of Several Schizomycetes. 

This inaugural dissertation describes the development of bacteria under very 
varying conditions. 



Ueber die Wirkung der Antiseptica auf ungeformte Fermente. Von Iwan Wernitz. 
Dorpat, 1880. 8vo, p. 93. 

On the Effect of Antiseptics upon Formless Ferments. 

The investigations relate to the so-called chemical ferments, such as eraulsin, 
myrosin, diastase, ptyalin, pancreatin, pepsin, etc. 



Untersuchungen iiber die Wurzelfasern njon Rhinacanthus communis. Von Dn P. 
Liborius. Dorpat, 1880. Pp. 12. 

Investigations on the Rootlets of Rhinacanthus communis, Hees. 

This plant belongs to the Nat. Ord. Acanthaceae, is indigenous to Japan and 



'^^^yTis^sof'"''} Reviews, etc. 287 

China, and is known in India 2.% guikarnee. The rootlets, which are sold in Hong- 
kong at ^2 per pound, are used in preparing a bright red tincture with 5 parts of 
strong alcohol. The tincture known in the East as ringworm tincture is regarded 
as an effectual remedy against ringworm and other cutaneous diseases. The author 
isolated from the drug 1-87 per cent, of a dark red resin-like principle, rhinacan- 
ihin^ which is not a glucoside, is soluble in alcohol and ether, and dissolves in petro- 
leum benzin and chloroform with a yellow color. It is present in the milk juice of 
the bark, and represents the antiparasitic action of the drug. 



Sluantitati'V-chemische Untersuchungen iXher die Zusammenset%.ung der Kork-^ Bast-y 
Sclerenchym- und Markgeivebe. Von Joh. Koroll. Dorpat, 1880. 8vo, pp. 52. 

'Quantitative Chemical Examinations on the Composition of the Tissues of Cork, 
Liber, Sclerenchyma and Pith. 

The substances examined are shells of hazel nuts and walnuts, liber of the linden 
and elm, root of chicory and turnip, pith of elder and leathery cork of birch. 



A Catalogue of the Forest Trees of North America. By Chas. S. Sargent, Arnold 
Professor of Agriculture in Harvard College. Washington: 1880. 8vo, pp. 93. 

This is one of the publications issued in reference to the pending tenth census of 
the United States, of which this catalogue will form a part. Its preliminary publi- 
cation was made with the view of obtaining reliable information from all parts of the 
country in regard to geographical distribulyon, region, elevation, soil, dimensions, 
local names, economic uses, products, etc., of each species. It is to be hoped that 
botanists, pharmacists and others interested in this matter will aid the special agent 
of the tenth census. Prof. Sargent, so as to make the report as complete as possible. 



Adulteration of Food. By Albert R. Leeds, Ph.D., Professor of Chem.istry in the 
Stevens Institute of Technology. 

A reprint from the third report of the New Jersey State Board of Health, giving 
the results of numerous analyses, and advocating suitable legislation, with the view 
of restraining the evil within as narrow limits as possible. 



Chemische Beitrdge zur Pomologie. Von Theodor Pfeil. Dorpat, 1880. 'Pp.46. 
Chemical Contributions to Pomology. 

A very interesting and instructive examination into the proximate constituents ot 
the apple during the period of development and ripening. The weight of the fruit 
increased from i-8o gram (June 8th) to 89-10 grams (Aug. 15th), during which 
period the weight of sugar increased from 0-037 to 4-366 grams, free (malic) acid 
from 0-031 to 0-673 gram, starch from o to 0-201 gram, etc. 



Premieres etudes sur V Erythroxylon Coca. Par Victor Trupheme. Montpellier, 1879. 
8vo, pp. 53. 

A very creditable monography on coca, giving the botanical history, its produc- 
tion, commerce, general characters, chemistry, physiological action, pharmaceutical 
preparations and literature. 



288 Reviews, etc {''"'•liaT.fso"""- 

Du Thapsia Garganica on Bouneja des Arabes. Par Charles Blanchet. Montpellier, 
1880. 8vo, pp. 73. 

This essay contahis the history of the specie> named, its uses and chemistry. The 
author has also investigated a false thapsia, which is the root of Ferula nodiflora, 
Lin. s.f Fer. communis, Desf.^ and described a number of allied species. 



Sixteenth Annual Report of the Alumni Association^ with the exercises of the Fifty - 
Ninth Commencement of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 1880. 8vo, 
PP- 59- 

The pamphlet contains various addresses, minutes, lists of members and graduates, 
etc. The officers for the current year are Hugh Campbell, President 5 Wm. W. 
Moorhead and Henry Trimble, Vice-Presidents 5 W. E. Krewson (8th and Mont- 
gomery Av'e.) Recording Secretary ; L. E. Sayre, Corresponding Secretary, and 
Edward C. Jones (15th and Market Sts.) Treasurer. Copies of the various annual 
reports may be obtained from the Recording Secretary or Treasurer on enclosing to 
either one of these officers 10 cts. per copy, to pay for postage, etc. 



T--iventy-third Annual Report of the Council of tJie Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria^ 
1880, with list of members and honorary members. Melbourne, 1880. 



First Report of the Pharmacy Board of Victoria. Melbourne, 1880. 

There are now 607 pharmaceutical chemists on the register. Thus far eight con- 
victions under the pharmacy act have been obtained for carrying on business with- 
out being registered. 

The Pharmaceutical Register for 1879. Melbourne, 1880. 

It contains the list of registered pharmacists, apprentices, etc., with residence, date 
of qualification, etc. 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange. 1880. 

The officers for the current year are H. B. Rosengarten, President 5 John Fergus- 
son, Vice-President j H. C. \TcIlvaine, Secretary, and Edward H. Hance, Treasurer. 



Thirteenth Annual Report of the Alexian Brothers Hospital^ Chicago, Ills., for the 
year ending Dec. 31st. 1879. 



Muscle-Beating:, or active and passive Home Gymnastics for healthy and unhealthy 
people. By C. Klemm, Manager of the Gymnastic Institution in Riga, With 
illustrations. New York: M. L. Holbrook & Co. 1879. Pp- 5^- Price 30 cts. 



Electricity in Medicine and Surgery^ <ivith Cases to Illustrate. By John J. Caldwell, 
M.T>.\ Baltimore, Md. 

Reprint from " Gailiard's Medical Journal," March. 



Kreuznach, its Celebrated Bromide-ioduretted Elizabeth Spring and Mother-lye . 
Kreuznach, 1880. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JUNE, 1880. 

KOUMYS. 

By L. Wolff, M.D. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings May i %th. 

When, at the last pharmaceutical meeting, the question arose, how 
to prepare a good and reliable article of koumys by a rational method, 
I stated that my experience with it had long been of an unsatisfactory 
nature, but, after continued experiments, I had been able to obtain 
very good results. 

There had appeared in the Journal at various times in 1874 and 
1875 directions and formulae for the preparation of this milk wine, so 
much praised as a nutrient in wasting diseases, and justly much employed 
of late years in this country ; but none of them served me towards 
preparing a koumys at all corresponding to that of the Kirghizians on 
the steppes of Asiatic Russia. 

A very interesting article in the ''American Journal of Pharmacy," 
1874, p. 570, from the Pharmaceutical Journal and T'ransactions,'' 
gives a very excellent description of the koumys cure, and the prepa 
ration of koumys, as practiced by the Tartars on their native steppes, 
but it leaves the distant pharmacist at this side of the Atlantic, where no 
Tartar mares nor mares' milk can be had, at a loss of how to repro- 
duce it in this country. 

H. and N. Schultze, of Berlin ("Amer. Jour. Pharm,,'* 1875, page 
68), direct an addition of sugar of milk to cows' milk, and its fermen- 
tation by brewers' yeast ; any one that has tried has probably suc- 
ceeded as little in making koumys according to their directions as I 
have. Schwalbe in the same article contributed by Dr. A. W. Miller 
uses condensed milk, dissolved in water, to which he adds lactic acid 
and rum, puts it in a Liebig's bottle, and charges the whole with car- 
bonic acid gas, and sets it in a warm room until fit for use. 

In another article of the Journal, 1875, page 261, the Russian 
method of fermenting mares' milk by a home-made yeast is quoted, 

19 



290 



Koumys. 



Am. Tour. Pharm, 
June, 1880. 



with still another one, 1875, page 83, from the "Allgem. Med. Cen- 
tralzeitung," 1874, page 1108, recommends milk, grape sugar and 
fresh beer yeast to be fermented together at a temperature of 88°F. 
until fermentation has set in, when it is to be bottled, and shaken 
€very fifteen minutes for the next fortv-eight hours (not a very pleasant 
job). 

In 1876 I formed the acquaintance of a Russian gentleman, visiting 
this city, who had made koumys in his native country, and together 
we experimented, but with very indefinite results, until we imported, 
at considerable expense, some of the original ferment from Russia, and 
with it prepared koumys, which certainly effervesced very much, had 
a rich, creamy appearance, did not coagulate in heavy curd, was slightly 
acidulated, but possessed a rank, acrid taste, which I attributed to the 
ferment, whose odor was certainlv not verv inviting. The conse- 
quence was that the koumys, which had been made at a considerable 
outlay, never enjoyed the reputation it ought to have acquired, and the 
costly ferment was gradually left to die out. 

As the demand for it again increased, I was sorely puzzled how to 
make a koumys that would be all that is required of it, and that would 
possess all its virtues and properties. I tried in vain all the above- 
given methods, but invariably obtained sour milk with a heavy curd as 
a result, indifferently effervescing, while the taste was enough to cure 
any hankering the patient may have had after the coveted milk wine. 

When considering the nature of koumys and its peculiar features, it 
appears evident that its properties must be largely due to the nutritious 
quality of the milk, along with the alcohol produced by the fermenta- 
tion of its sugar, while its rich eff'ervescence makes it readily digestible 
even to weak and enfeebled stomachs. The cause of success in its 
manufacture from mares' milk is undoubtedly due to the large amount 
of sugar of milk contained therein, which is 80 parts in 1,000 to 40*37 
in cows' milk; while the albuminates in the former are but 16*41 to 
54*04 in the latter (Ranke's Physiology "), so that the object in view 
seems to be to increase the amount of sugar in the milk while decreas- 
ing the albuminates, should the latter be required. 

As the sugar of milk when added to milk is not directly induced to 
fermentation by ordinary yeast fungi, I was soon led to substitute grape 
sugar for it, into which the former has to be changed before under- 
going vinous fermentation, and which, though not in the same quanti- 
ties, yields by fermentation the same results — carbonic acid gas and 



Am. Jour. Pham . 

June, 1880. 



Koumys. 



alcohol. But still while following the directions of some of the above 
•quoted authorities, I found my koumys soon to curd and sour — a most 
•unsightly article, whose acetous odor forbade its use. 

As I was inspecting, one day, the fermenting rooms of one of our 
larger breweries, I was struck by the low, icy temperature maintained 
there, and on inquiry was informed that if the temperature were 
allowed to rise the fermentation would be sure to prove wild, signify- 
ing sour or acetous fermentation. This showed me at once the rea- 
sons of my former failures, and when I applied the principle involved 
to mv own koumys, I had the satisfaction of drawing from my bottles 
a rich creamy, homogeneous liquid, slightly acidulated, foaming like 
the choicest soda water, of an agreeable taste, such as I exhibit here 
.a specimen of, and some of which has been used by many physicians 
in their practices with excellent results, proving a sustaining nutriment 
which was readily borne by even the weakest stomachs. 

In concluding, I give the formula employed by me, by which I am cer- 
tain every pharmacist can produce a good and reliable article, at a rea- 
sonable cost, which, with a remedy consumed in such quantities as this, 
is of no small importance, and I have no doubt that nothing would bar 
even its dispensing as a beverage at our soda fountains. 

Take of grape sugar half an ounce \ dissolve in four ounces of water. 
In about two ounces of milk dissolve twenty grains of Fleischman's 
compressed yeast, obtained at any grocery store, or else well-washed 
and pressed out brewers' yeast. Mix the two in a quart champagne 
bottle, which is to be filled with good cows' milk to within two inches 
of the top ; cork well, and secure the cork with strings or wire, and 
place in an ice chest or cellar at a temperature of 50°F., or less, and 
agitate three times a day. At the expiration of three to four days at 
the latest, the koumys is ready for use, and should not then be kept 
longer than four or five days. 

It should be drawn with a champagne siphon tap, so that the car- 
bonic acid gas may be retained and the contents will not entirely escape 
on opening the bottle. 

Philadelphia^ May, 1880. 



292 



Chestnut Leaves. 



Am. J«xir, Pharm . 
June, i38o. 



KOUMYS, OR MILK WINE. 

By G. L. Truckenmiller, Ph.G. 
* Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting May 
I noticed in the May number of the " American Journal or Phar- 
macy " that a member present at the Pharmaceutical Meeting desired) 
a formula for preparing " koumys." There are several manufacturers 
who prepare this food, each claiming superiority over the other. 

The formula herewith presented has been tested and found to be 
equal to any in the market. 

Skimmed milk, . . . . Cong, i„ 

White sugar, . . . . . , ^iv. 

Yeast, . . . . . . , q. s. 

Dissolve the sugar in the milk and bottle in quart champagne bottles^ 
add two ouncee of bakers' yeast to each bottle, cork and tie over, set 
in warm place until fermentation is well under way, then lay on side 
in a cool cellar. It will be ready for use in from three to four days. 

A champagne tap is indispensable for drawing koumys. 

An interesting pamphlet has been compiled by Messrs. C. A. Bow- 
man & Co., Peoria, Ills., from which I will take the liberty of copying 
a few extracts which may be of interest to your readers : 

Koumys is a sparkling beverage, prepared from pure sweet oiiik^ 
possessing greater nourishing, strengthening and blood producing powers 
than any other kind of food. 

" It is held in high estimation by the physicians of all schools as a reli- 
able remedy for dyspepsia, imperfect digestion, nausea, general debility^, 
consumption, catarrhal affections, etc. Its constituents are those 
which produce blood, bone and muscle." 



ON chest;nut leaves. 

By Lewis Joseph Steltzer, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
Chestnut leaves should be gathered for medicinal use in the months 
of September and October, while still green ; they possess a faini 
characteristic odor. When gathered in the early part of October thev 
lose in drying 49 per cent, of their weight, retaining most of their 
green color, except the midrib, which changes to brown. They do 
not become brittle, and are, therefore, with difficulty reduced tc^ 
powder. 



Am Jour. Pharm 

June, i£C®. 



Chestnut Leaves, 



293 



The leaves contain a considerable amount of tannin and extractive 
cnatter. The powder cannot be percolated alone on account of swell- 
ing when water or alcohol is added. A fluid extract is made by 
srepeatedly digesting the leaves in water and expressing the juice, adding 
iglycerin and sugar and evaporating, as recommended by Prof. J. M. 
Mai-scli (''American Journal of Pharmacy," Dec, 1871). A tincture 
«made in the proportion of two ounces of the leaves to a pint of diluted 
.alcohol is also frequently used. 

Chestnut leaves were first brought to the notice of the medical pro- 
fession by Mr. Geo. C. Close, in the year 1862, but were used by 
some physicians a?id in domestic practice previous to that time. They 
have been used with good success as a remedy for whooping cough ; 
appear to control the spasms and often cause their suspension in a few 
days. The fluid extract is probably the best preparation to use, as it 
contains the drug in a concentrated form and is not unpleasant to take. 
The tincture may also be used, but the objection to it is the large dose 
required and the amount of alcohol contained therein. 

For the purpose of ascertaining some of the constituents of the 
leaves they were subjected to the following experiments : 

The infusion possessed an astringent taste, producing with ferric 
chloride a greenish-black precipitate, and a copious precipitate with 
solution of gelatiti, showing the presence of tannin. The infusion 
was deprived of coloring matter, tannin, etc., with solution of subace- 
tate of lead, filtering, and separating lead with sulphydric acid. The 
liquid appears to be free from sugar. The cold infusion showed the 
presence of albumen when heated, and by the precipitate produced with 
solution of mercuric chloride. Alcohol precipitated gum, soluble in 
excess of water, and this solution was not precipitated with ferric chlo 
ride or sodium borate. 

Ten grams of the ground leaves were boiled with successive por- 
tions of water until the soluble parts were all dissolved, the different 
solutions mixed, filtered and treated with solution of gelatin until it 
ceased to afford a precipitate. This was separated by filtration, washed, 
dried and weighed; the result was 1*70 gram, equal to about 0'9 gram 
of tannin. A repetition of this experiment gave nearly the same result. 
This experiment shows 9 per cent, of tannin present in chestnut leaves. 
After removing the tannin from the infusion by means of fresh hide 
the filtrate was not affected by ferric chloride, and was, therefore, free 
from gallic acid. 



294 Citric Acid in the Cranberry, 

The alcoholic tincture possessed a dark green color by reflected light 
and brown color by transmitted light. Upon evaporation a dark green 
extract was obtained. Its solution in water, in which it is slightly 
soluble, gives a black precipitate with ferric chloride. A portion of 
the tincture was evaporated to a small bulk, thrown upon water and 
the insoluble portion filtered out, again dissolved in alcohol and treated 
with animal charcoal ; when filtered the solution was colorless, and 
left no residue when evaporated. The solution of the extract in chlo- 
roform, when treated with purified animal charcoal, filtered and evapo- 
rated, left a small quantity of a soft, yellowish substance, probably 
resin. By the treatment of the leaves with petroleum benzin and 
evaporatmg a quantity of fatty matter is obtained, freely soluble in 
ether. Negative results were obtained when examining for an alkaloid 
and volatile oil. 

One hektogram of the dried leaves was incinerated ; 5*40 grams of 
ash of a light gray color was obtained, having an alkaline reaction. 

Appropriate tests indicated the presence of carbonates, chlorides and 
phosphates of potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron, while the 
organic constituents of the leaves are tannin (9 per cent.), gum, albu- 
men, resin (a trace), fat, extractive and lignin. 



CITRIC ACID IN THE CRANBERRY, 

By George A. Ferdinand, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The following experiments were made with the view of determining, 
the nature of the free acid contained in the ripe cranberry, Vaccinium 
macrocarpon, Alton : 

The berries were bruised, boiled with water and strained ; the residue 
was again and repeatedly boiled and the liquid expressed until the last 
portion thereof and the residue were neutral to litmus paper. The 
various liquids were then mixed and treated with alcohol to remove the 
pectin ; the precipitated pectin was mixed with clean sand, dried at a 
temperature of ioo°C., again placed on a filter and washed with alcohol 
until the washings gave a neutral reaction with moistened litmus paper.. 
The mixed filtrates were concentrated to drive off the alcohol, after 
which the garnet-red liquid remaining was allowed to stand until cold,, 
when it was saturated with calcium carbonate and solution of calcium 
hydrate. The filtrate and cold washings were boiled, evaporated to 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1880. 



Citric Acid in the Cranberry. 



one-half and filtered while boiling hot. On adding half its volume of 
alcohol to the filtrate a precipitate formed which was removed by fil- 
tration ; twice its volume of alcohol was added to the filtrate, the 
resulting precipitate dissolved in acetic acid, alcohol added, and filtered. 
To this filtrate lead acetate was added, then ammonium hydrate to 
neutralization, and the precipitate, after repeated washings, was suspended 
in water, hydrogen sulphide passed through it, filtered, evaporated to 
half and treated as follows : (a) With solution of calcium hydrate na 
precipitate ; (/?) with lead acetate a barely perceptible precipitate that 
fell to bottom of the tube when boiled ; boiled with nitric acid, evap>- 
orated to dryness, dissolved residue in water, added excess of sodiumj 
carbonate, filtered ; treated filtrate with calcium chloride which pro- 
duced a precipitate that was entirely dissolved in acetic acid. The 
above reactions having demonstrated the absence of malic acid, succinic 
acid was now sought for, but the failure of neutral ferric chloride to 
produce any change in the clear concentrated liquid filtered from the. 
lead sulphide denoted the absence of this acid. 

The original precipitate obtained by treating the juice with calcium 
caibonate and solution calcium hydrate was now examined. After 
being again well washed with cold water a portion thereof was placed 
in a tube, mixed with solution of potassium hydrate, triturated and 
allowed to stand for several hours, when the clear liquid was poured 
off and boiled. The failure of a precipitate to appear with this treat- 
ment is a sufiicient proof of the absence of tartaric acid. 

Another portion of the precipitate was now taken, an excess of 
sodium carbonate in solution added, boiled and filtered. The absence 
of oxalic acid in the filtrate was shown by the precipitate produced on- 
the addition of calcium chloride, being wholly dissolved by acetic acid.. 

An examination for citric acid was made as follows : The juice of 
the berries was taken, boiled and while hot saturated with calcium car- 
bonate and solution of calcium hydrate. This was placed on a filter,, 
and the precipitate, after being thoroughly washed with boiling water, 
was collected and dried. It was then treated with cold water, filtered 
and to a portion («) of the filtrate calcium chloride added, which upon 
boiling produced a white precipitate ; (/?) adding silver nitrate to another 
part of the filtrate produced a white precipitate which turned black 
only after long boiling ; {'f) another portion of the solution being mixed 
with a few drops of solution of potassium permanganate and heated 
showed no reduction of the potassium permanganate, o To the last 



296 Commercial Extract of Krameria. { ^"^^1^%^^"^- 

portion of the filtrate solution of calcium hydrate in excess was added, 
but no reaction was observable until the liquid was boiled, when a 
white precipitate formed which partially dissolved on cooling. These 
combined tests demonstrate the presence of citric acid. 

Now to find the percentage of this acid in the cranberry, 100 grams 
were bruised and the juice obtained (bv the process described above) 
was treated as before with calcium carbonate and solution of calcium 
hydrate. After being filtered, and the precipitate washed, the filtrate 
was mixed with more than an equal bulk of alcohol, again filtered and 
the resulting precipitate of calcium citrate dried at a temperature not 
exceeding I49°C. The anhydrous calcium citrate thus obtained was 
found to weigh 2*094 grams. The citric acid that can be produced there- 
from is readily calculated, and amounts to 3^4 ^ ^ ^94 _ j.^j gram. 

498 

An attempt was made to estimate the amount of free acid in the 
filtered juice by means of a decinormal solution of alkali, but, although 
the color of the liquid was changed when made alkaline, the change 
was so gradual that no accurate results could be obtained. For a like 
reason the change in the color of a litmus solution added could not be 
noted. 

The cranberries used for the foregoing experiments were picked the 
first week in October and kept in good condition until required for this 
analysis, two months later. 



COMMERCIAL EXTRACT OF KRAMERIA. 

By John Wilson Hoffa, Ph.G. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

Having for several years past noticed the inferior quality of different 
extracts of krameria in the market I decided to give them a fair trial, 
and have obtained the following results: 

The extracts were procured from different leading manufacturers of 
fluid and solid extracts. One hundred grains of each were powdered, 
and macerated for four days in 4 fluidounces of cold distilled water. 
At the expiration of that time the solutions were filtered, and the 
insoluble portions collected, carefully dried and weighed, thus giving 
the amount of insoluble matter in each. 

One hundred grains of each extract were next treated with 4 fluid- 
ounces of boiling distilled water, miacerated for four days, filtered and 
the insoluble portion dried and weighed. 



""^"'■Tine''i88o^™"} Commercid Extract of Kramer ia. 297 

As the quality of krameria depends upon the tannin present, it was 
determined by the gelatin test. One drachm of the finest gelatin was 
•dissolved in 4 ounces of hot distilled water, and 15 grains of powdered 
alum added. By experimenting, I found that 31 drops^ of this gelatin 
solution would precipitate i grain of tannic acid. The requisite quan- 
tity of the gelatin solution was added to the cold solutions of the 
extracts, with the results as shown in the table. The hot solutions 
were tested for tannin in like manner, and found to yield a small per- 
centage more than the cold, although equally as varied. 

From the results obtained it is evident that manufacturers have very 
different ways of making the extracts of krameria, and very few, if any, 
adhere strictly to the formula of the U. S. P., although the officinal 
formula yields a stronger and much more soluble extract. 

After experimenting with hot and cold water, alcohol and a mixture 
of alcohol, water and glycerin, the most satisfactory results were 
obtained by the following formula: 

Take of Krameria, in moderately fine powder,* . i6 troyounces 
Glycerin, . . . .} troyounce 

Distilled water, . . a sufficient quantity 

Moisten the powder with 5 fluidounces of the distilled water, pre- 
viously mixed with the glycerin. Pack it firmly in a conical glass per- 
colator, and allow it to macerate for 48 hours ; then gradually pour 
distilled water upon it until the drug is exhausted ; then evaporate the 
percolate by means of a water-bath, at a temperature between 150^ 
and lyO^F., to the consistency of an extract. 

The extract, weighing 9 per cent, of the powdered root, is completely 
soluble in cold and hot water, and indicates 31 per cent, of tannin. 

The following table shows the amount of insoluble matter in some 
commercial extracts of krameria, also the quantity of tannin: 

100 grains Commercial Extract of Krameria contain^ 

Number of grs. insoluble matter Number of grs. insoluble matter \ 't 

in cold distilled water. in hot distilled water. ^ °' tannin, ,rs 

A 24 21J 18^^ 

B 43 37 i6,V 

<^ 59? 53 lo? 

D 67J 63 8 

E 76^ 71-2 7 

F 81 74I. 6 J 

G 88 84I sk 

H 86 84 4i 



Drops are a very unsatisfactory measure for quantitative determinations. — Ed. 



298 Apparatus for Preparing Ethyl Bromide, {"^""•jine^'isso!''"'" 

APPARATUS FOR PREPARING ETHYL BROMIDE. 

By Joseph P. Remington. 
The accompanying cut represents the apparatus used in preparing 
ethyl bromide (see page 248, May number of this journal). It consists 
of a four-liter flask, connected by a bent glass tube with a condenser. 
The cork is perforated to accommodate a thermometer and a small 
glass tube for the introduction of the alcohol. 




The diluted sulphuric acid is introduced, the potassium bromide 
added, and, after making the connections tight, heat is applied until the 
contents of the flask show the temperature of ii6°C. The alcohol^ 
contained in a bottle, is elevated above the flask, and, by means of a 
siphon tube and pinchcock, is slowly fed into the flask, care being 
taken to adjust the flow of liquid and the heat so that the temperature 
range between 100° and ii6°C. The advantage of this process is that 
the decomposition takes place at a temperature that can be controlled 
with ease, and the formation of ethyl bromide goes on regularly and 
without danger or risk. This apparatus may doubtless be serviceable 
for making other ethyl compounds. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1880. 



Pharmaceutical Notes, 



299 



AN IMPROVED FORMULA FOR CHLORODYNE. 

By R. De Puy. 

The formula for preparing chlorodyne, adopted by the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, yields a very unpharmaceutical mixture,, 
and, when tried, has failed to give satisfaction. The formula which I 
have been using for the last two years has given entire satisfaction, and„ 
if the ext. liquorice be of good quality, does not separate. It is as fol- 
lows : 



Purified chloroform, . . 


4 fl. oz. 


Stronger ether, .... 


I fl. oz. 


" alcohol. 


4 fl. oz. s 


Molasses, ..... 


4 fl. oz. 


Ext. liquorice, B. P., 


2^ troy oz. 


Morphia hydrochlorate, 


8 grains. 


Oil peppermint, 


16 minims. 


Glycerin, . . . . . 


17J fl. oz. 


Acid hydrocyanic, 2 per cent., . 


2 fl. oz. 



Dissolve the morphia and oil peppermint in the alcohol, and mix the 
chloroform and ether with this solution. Mix the ext. liquorice with 
the molasses by applying a gentle heat, let cool, and to this add the 
glycerin. Shake these two mixtures together, and lastly add the hydro- 
cyanic acid, and again shake well. This is the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association formula, having glycerin substituted for syrup, which 
I consider in every way an improvement. 
— Canad. Pharm. yow^n..^ May, 1880. 



PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 

By Robert F. Fairthorne, Ph.G. 
An Expeditious Method for Making Mercurial Ointment. — Many- 
suggestions have been made for overcoming the difficulty experi ■ 
enced in the manufacture of mercurial ointment of the officinal 
strength of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. Some of the plans proposed are 
decidedly objectionable, such, for instance, as the introduction of tur- 
pentine or sulphur, also the addition of old and rancid ointment, or 
exposure of the ointment until rancidity occurs, so that it becomes a 
desideratum with the trade that some practical and unobjectionable 
means should be adopted whereby labor would be saved and an oint- 
ment made that would be bland and non-irritant in character. Such 
a method I have now to propose, which, doubtless, will give others the 



300 Pharmaeeutical Notes, {"^"jLTis^o''"'' 

same satisfaction as it does me, enabling them to accomplish in ten 
minutes what required an hour or two by the older process. This is 
accomplished by the addition of mercury and chalk (gray powder) in 
small portions at a time to the suet and lard, and proceeding in the 
same manner as directed in the Pharmacopoeia. The weight of the 
mercury contained in the gray powder used is estimated and deducted 
from the amount ordered in the formula, so as to make an ointment 
containing 50 per cent, of that metal. 

The following will be found to produce such a result, namely: 

R Mercury, . , 22 troyounces 

Mercury and chalk, • 5 ^ drachms and 2 scruples 

Suer, . . 9 " 

Lard, . .11 " 5 drachms and i scruple 

M. 

Rub the mercury and 2 ounces of suet and a small portion of the 
tard together with an ounce of the gray powder until the globules 
become invisible; then add the remainder of the ingredients in succes- 
sive portions, the suet having been softened by heat. 

The above named quantity of mercury and chalk contains 2 troy- 
ounces of the metal and 3 ounces, 2 drachms and 2 scruples of chalk. 
This, therefore, renders it necessary to alter the proportions of suet 
and lard, so as to preserve the same consistence as the officinal 
preparation. 

By adding the above ingredients together they will be found to 
weigh 48 troyounces, and will contain 24 troyounces of mercury. I 
do not think that the addition of the prepared chalk contained in the 
2;ray powder can be objected to for the purposes for which the oint- 
ment is used. It is certainly less objectionable than the addition of 
fancid or irritating substances. 

How to keep Citrine Ointmeut from Changing. — Most druggists have 
experienced the difficulty of keeping citrine ointment so as to be able 
to dispense it in a manner satisfactory to themselves and to their cus- 
tomers, even a few weeks after being made, on account of change in 
color from the bright lemon yellow to a rusty brown, and from its 
becoming granular and friable by age. I have found that these diffi- 
culties can be overcome by allowing the freshly made ointment to be 
covered by a stratum of glycerin about J of an inch deep, so that none 
of it should be exposed to the air. By this means I have preserved 
citrine ointment without change for more than a year, and I think it 
probable that it would remain unchanged for an indefinite period of 



'""•j^ner.8''8o"'"-} . CherYj LauTel. 301 

time. I think, too, that by this plan many other ointments and cerates 
could be kept. I shall try it with Goulard's cerate. 

A Close Imitation of Curacoa Cordial. — I have devised the follovv^ing 
and found it a very good substitute for the imported curacoa : 



R Fresh oil of orange peel, 
" " lemon peel, 
Oil of aniseed, 
" cloves, 

" cinnamon (Ceylon), 
Alcohol, 
Simple syrup. 
Orange flower water. 
Extract of fresh orange peel. 



10 drops 



6 



5 fluidounces and 2 drachms 
7 

2 fluid rachms 
I " 



Water, ... 2 fluidounces 2 " 

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, add the extract of orange peel, thera 
the syrup, agitate for 10 or 15 minutes, and after the water is poured 
into the rnixture shake well. After standing for an hour filter, after 
having previously mixed the cordial with 2 drachms of carbonate of 
magnesia in powder. 

This produces a fine flavoring cordial, having a close resemblance ta 
the genuine curacoa, and miscible with water without becoming turbid. 
This makes the white curacoa, and in order to make the colored all that 
is necessary is to add sufficient caramel to produce the desired tint. 



EFFECT OF INTENSE COLD ON CHERRY-LAUREL. 

By Professor Fluckiger. 
In January, 1879, 1 submitted cherry laurel leaves, which were 
covered with ice, to distillation with water, and ascertained that they 
nevertheless yielded a small amount both of essential oil and hydro- 
cyanic acid. This experiment is recorded in the new edition of the 
Pharmacographia," page 256, yet it should be added that the leaves^ 
although frozen, were still green and were not killed by the frost, the 
temperature being not below — io°C. (i4°F.). In the month of 
December, 1879, as well as in the beginning of the present year, how 
ever, we noticed repeatedly, at Strassburg, temperatures of — ■25°C. 
( — I3°F.), and then the cherry-laurel leaves turned brownish, lost their 
leathery texture and were in fact killed. Some of them, distilled with 
water, yielded an aromatic aqueous product which proved devoid of 
hydrocyanic acid. On repeating this experiment with one pound of 
the frozen leaves the same negative result was obtained, and the same 
again when two pounds of leaves were submitted to distillation. In 



Cherry Laurel, 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 

( June, 1880. 



'each case the first portions of the distilled liquid were tried for hydro- 
cyanic acid with the usual tests, viz., sulphate of copper and guaiac, 
the production of sulphocyanate and that of Prussian blue. No trace 
of hydrocyanic acid was proved to be present by these means. Another 
distillation, like the former, also performed by using the leaves minutely 
cut, was carried on for an hour or two, so as to afford a large quantity 
■of water, say about gallon. It had nearly the usual odor of cherry- 
laurel water, yet no essential oil made its appearance. The whole 
quantity of the distilled water was now repeatedly shaken with ether \ 
from the ethereal layers afterwards the ether was cautiously distilled off 
and the residue exposed to spontaneous evaporation at a temperature 
not exceeding 20°C. (68°F.), It afforded about \\ gram of an oily 
liquid reminding, not exactly of cherry-laurel oil, but a little suggestive 
of acetic or similar compound ethers, and displaying at the same time 
a certain pungency ; it was of a decidedly acid reaction. Supposing it 
to be (impure) cherry-laurel oil, I thought it quite in accordance that 
small crystals began to be formed on the sides of the phial. To inves- 
tigate the nature of the essential oil I shook it with a saturated solution 
of bisulphite of potassium, SO3KH, after having ascertained that this 
solution immediately combined with true benzylic aldehyd, /. essen- 
tial oil of laurocerasus, yielding crystallized scales of the compound 
CgH5.COH,S03KH. But such was by no means the case with the 
oily liquid which had been extracted from the water. And as to the 
small crystals which had separated from the same oily liquid, they 
proved not to be benzoic acid inasmuch as they readily melted at about 
6o°C. (i40°F.). Nor was it possible to ascertain the cause of the 
acid reaction of the oily liquid ; it was due neither to formic acid nor 
to any other acid of the fatty series. The aqueous residue in the still 
was duly concentrated and found to be very rich in mucilage and 
uncrystallizable sugar. 

These experiments, which were for the most part performed by Mr. 
Fels, a pupil of mine, show that the source of hydrocyanic acid and 
benzylic aldehyd in the laurel leaves is destroyed by intense cold. A 
minute quantity of an essential oil is still afforded by the leaves, but it 
does not agree with the oil as yielded by the living plant. Dried leaves 
are sometimes said likewise to yield no longer any hydrocyanic acid ; 
I am not able to confirm this statement, having ascertained that fresh 
cherry-laurel leaves, which I dried for several days at the temperature 




"^"j^ne'is^sa""-} SiveTal Varieties of Wax. 303 

of the water-bath, on distillino- them with water afforded a small amount 
of the said acid. 

I am informed that in December and January past Prunus lauro- 
€erasus has been injured throughout northern Italy as far as Bologna and 
Florence in the same way as with us. It would be interesting to know 
a little more exactly the are^ of this action of cold on the shrub, which 
is so widely spread also in^the south of the British Isles. — Pharm. Jour, 
and Trans. ^ March 20, p. 749. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CHEMISTRY OF SEVERAL 
VARIETIES OF WAX. 

By Eduard Hirschsohn, Mag. Pharm. 

The reactions 1 obtained with the different resins, etc., described in 
the ''Archiv der Pharmacie," can be made use of as a good means not 
only of distinguishing the various resins, gum resins, and balsams from 
one another, but also of recognizing the more important commercial 
varieties of the same by means of chemical reactions. It did not, 
therefore, appear without interest to subject the varieties of wax more 
commonly met with in the market to a similar examination. 

For this purpose I made use of the samples in the collection of 
the Pharmaceutical Institute of this town, kindly placed at my disposal 
l)y Professor Dragendorff, to whom I take this opportunity of expres- 
sing my sincere thanks. The experiments with the same described in 
the following lines were carried out, with but few exceptions, in pre- 
cisely the same way and with the same reagents as in my previous 
■investigations. 

I was able to avail myself of the following samples : 

1. Cera Jiava ; from a chemist in Dorpat ; fine pure sample. 

2. Cera flava ; produced in 1877 Rappin in Livonia. Also a very 
iine sample. 

3. Cera alba ; in the collection of the Pharmaceutical Institute ; fine 
white pieces. 

4. Cera alba : from a chemist in Dorpat ; good sample. 

5. Cera alba ; from the Martiny collection ; similar to No. 4. 

6. Cera africana ; also from the Martiny collection ; very similar to 
European beeswax, but softer and of a greyish yellow. 

7. Cera mexicana ; from the Martiny collection ; is a white beeswax. 



3 04 Several Varieties of Wax. { g^go""* 

8. Cera de Orizaba; also from the Martiny collection, where the 
following note is appended to it : 

Received from Schaffner, with the remark that it was in this state 
offered for sale by the Indians. I have not investigated it more closely^ 
but after a superficial examination 1 take it for a vegetable wax." 
The examination shows it to be a Myrica wax. 

9. Cera japonica ; in the collection of the Pharmaceutical Institute 
usual commercial variety. 

10. Cera japonica-, from the Martiny collection ; similar to No. 9.. 

11. Cera from Myrica quercifolia ; also from the Martiny collection 
a pale green mass, tolerably hard and easily powdered. 

12. Cera from Myrica cerifera ; from the Martiny collection; some- 
what darker and more brittle than the foregoing sample. 

13. Cera froin Myrica? (species not named); from the Martiny 
collection; similar to No. 12. May be distinguished from. No. 11 
only by its darker green color. 

14. Cera de Bahia ; also from the Martiny collection ;• very hard 
giey mass, the freshly fractured surface greenish. 

15. Cera Brasiliensis ; from the Martiny collection; light yellowish 
mass, brittle and easily powdered. 

1 6. Cera e Lac in hacuUs ; also from the Martiny collection; chocolate- 
brown brittle mass, easily powdered. 

17. Carnauha zuax ; obtained in 1878 from Gehe & Co., in Dres- 
den; similar to No. 15. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.)^ in the proportion of I part of wax to lO of 
alcohol, dissolved only a small portion of the samples under examina- 
tion. On warming to the boiling point, sample No. 8 and 11 1013 
were completely dissolved, whilst with samples i to 7 and 9 and 10^ the 
greater patt of the wax melted and collected in the form or an oil at 
the bottom of the test tube. With No. 14 to 17 on the other hand the 
undissolved portion remained as a powder. Part of the dissolved wax 
separated out of the hot solutions on cooling, colorless. 

Alcoholic solution of acetate of lead gave with the above cooled alco- 
holic solutions of samples No. i to 13 and 16 a cloudiness which on 
heating to boiling completely disappeared in Nos. i, 2 and 6 to 13, in 
Nos. 3 to 5 and 16 partially only. In Nos. 14, 15 and 17 no change 
was caused by the addition of the acetate of lead solution. 

1 Japanese wax dissolved completely on boiling with a larger quantity of alcohol. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1880. 



Several Varieties of Wax. 



Solution of ferric chloride (l part in 10 of 95 per cent, alcohol) added 
to the alcoholic solution of the wax colored No. 13 black, with the 
others it produced either no alteration or a brownish or greenish tint. 
In No. II a cloudiness was produced, insoluble on warming. 

Solution of ammonia (sp. gr. 0'96, gave with the alcoholic solutions a 
more or less opalescent mixture, 

Ether^ at the ordinary temperature, dissolved Nos. 8 and 11 to 13 
completely, the remainder partially only. Of these Nos. i to 7 and 9 
and 10 were completely dissolved on boiling and, as with the hot alco- 
holic solutions, the greater part separated out on cooling, colorless. 
The addition of an equal volume of 95 per cent, alcohol to the ether- 
eal solutions, obtained at the usual temperature, produced no alteration 
in Nos. 8, II to 14 and 16, whilst in Nos. i to 7, 9, 10, 15 and 17 a 
cloudiness appeared. 

Chloroform dissolved at the ordinary temperature, samples Nos. I to 
13 to a perfectly clear solution ; Nos. 14 to 17 were only partially dis- 
solved, but on heating dissolved completely, the greater part separating 
out colorless on cooling. 

Petroleum spirit at the ordinary temperature effected only a partial 
solution which on boiling became complete. On cooling the wax 
separated out colorless. 

Alcoholic solution of caustic potash (i part caustic potash in 10 parts 95 
per cent, alcohol) on only slightly warming dissolved the Japanese and 
Myrica wax (Nos. 8 to 13) completely, and the remainder (Nos. I to 
7, 14 to 17) required to be boiled for some time before solution could 
be effected. On heating the cooled soap solutions with about 100 parts 
of water, the soaps from Japanese and Myrica wax dissolved com- 
pletely, the other soaps only partially. 

Quantitative experiments also were made with some of the samples 
as follows : The wax was brought to the finest possible powder with 
powdered glass and treated with alcohol or petroleum spirit at the 
ordinary temperature, as long as anything was removed by the solvent. 
From the solutions thus abtained, the alcohol or petroleum spirit was 
recovered by distillation, and the residue dried at iio°C. 
The following figures were obtained : 



3o6 



Several Varieties of IV ax. 



Am. Jour Pharm. 
June, 1880. 



^Alcohol, 95 per cent. Petroleum spirit, 

€era africana, . . 3-50 49-28 

■Cera de Orizaba, . . 10-22 

Cera japonica, . . i+ oo 69 80 

€era Myrica quercifolia, . . 1616 53-62 

€era Myrica cerifera, . 7-16 41-62 

Cera Myrica, ? . . 19-88 68-70 

Cera Bahia,^ . . 9-70 3-32 

Cera braziliensls, . .3-25 5-04 



The quantitative experiments show that, with the exception of 
Bahia wax, the solubility in petroleum spirit is much greater than in 
alcohol. 

From the quantitative results it is evident that the behavior of the 
samples of wax under examination with chloroform renders admission 
into two groups possible, viz., such as are completely soluble in that 
medium, as the Myrica and beeswax, and such as are only partially 
dissolved by it, as Brazilian and Bahia wax. Further, their comport- 
ment to ether allows of a similar division, and here the Myrica wax 
alone is completely dissolved, beeswax and Bahia wax on the other 
hand only partially. The effect produced by the addition of acetate of 
lead solution to the alcoholic solutions can also be made use of, as a 
means of distinguishing the various varieties of wax, since Brazilian 
and Bahia wax are not rendered turbid, whilst the contrary is the case 
with all the other samples, in some of which the cloudiness disappears 
on warming, in others it does not. 

These peculiarities allow of the several varieties of wax being well 
distinguished from one another, and the following scheme will, I think, 
be found to answer that purpose. 

A sample of the wax to be examined is heated with ten times as 
much chloroform to boiling, and, when completely dissolved, cooled in 
cold water. 

/. The chloroformic solution remains clear after cooling. 
A. Ether dissolves completely. 

{a) Alcoholic solution of ferric chloride gives with the alcoholic solution of 
the wax a precipitate insoluble on heating. 
Wax from Myrica quercifolia. 
\b) Ferric chloride colors the alcoholic solution black. 

Wax from an undetermined species oj Myrica. 
[c) Ferric chloride colors brownish but gives no precipitate. 

Wax from Myrica cerifera. Wax from Orizaba. 

^ Ether dissolved 10-52 per cent, of this sample. 



Am Jour. Fharm 

June, r88o 



Caiisaya Ledgeriana. 



307 



B. Ether dissolves only a part — 

A sample is boiled with ten times the quantity of alcoholic potash solu- 
tion till saponified and the soap heated with 100 volumes of water. 
[a] The soap is completely soluble. 

Japanese ^ivax. 
\ b) The soap is partially soluble. 

Beesnjoax Ajrican heesnvax. 
II. The chloroformic solution becomes cloudy on cooling. 
A. Alcoholic solution of acetate of lead gives no cloudiness. 

(«) The ethereal solution of the wax becomes cloudy on the addition ot aa 
equal volume of alcohol. 
Brazilian and Carnauha nxiax. 
[h) The ethereal solution remains clear. 
Bahia njjax. 

— Phar7n. your, and Trans. March 20, p. 749. 



Origin of the CALISAYA LEDGERIANA of COMMERCE. 

By John Eliot Howard, F. R. S. 
I have been induced to review the question of the origin of the now 
celebrated bark above named, and am able to publish for the first time 
■details which, at the request of Mr. Ledger, I withheld in 1876, when 
I gave extracts from his letters in my " Quinology of the East Indian 
Plantations." 

We are indebted not to systematic botanists, but to the experience 
and practical sagacity of an Indian, for our knowledge of the best kinds 
of caiisaya bark ; whilst to Mr. C. Ledger belongs the whole credit of 
the enterprise of obtaining the precious seed to which the hope of 
future success attaches in Java and perhaps in other parts of the East 
Indies. 

I have pleasure in now recording the name of the above-mentioned 
Indian servant of Mr. Ledger — Manuel Incra Mamani — to whom was 
entrusted in 1861 the commission of obtaining the seed of the best 
caiisaya. At page 48 of my (unfortunately) little accessible Quin- 
ology of the East Indian Plantations " will be found many details, but 
I now quote more fully from Mr. Ledger's original letters. Under 
date December 22, 1874, I find the following: 

" Manuel Tncra Mamani delivered the seed he had collected in June, 
1865. He then told me that the best bark trees had not produced ripe 
seed for four years previously. When the trees were full of flower and 
■most promising a frost {helada) in April destroyed it all. The inferior 



Jo8 Calisaya Ledgeriana. {^"j^nTis^so""' 

sorts had not suffered. He had been cutting bark with his sons and 
patiently waited for opportunity for complying with my orders, obtain- 
ing only the best sort. 

" He assured me, too, he had seen several parties collecting seed for 
gentlemen in La Paz ; that they did not obtain a single good seed 
till 1865 ; and this assertion seems now to be corroborated by result of 
Schuhkraft's remittances in those years. (See further). 

After paying him well, he returned to his home in Bolivia, having 
engaged with me before leaving to obtain more seeds of the Rojo^ the 
Morada, the Naranjada, the calisaya of Moco moco." 

The sequel is a sad one. After relating the particulars of the mur- 
der of another servant (Babrera), Mr. Ledger says : 

" Poor Manuel is dead also ; he was put in prison by the Corregidor 
of Coroico, beaten so as to make him confess who the seed found on) 
him was for ; after being confined in prison for some twenty days^ 
beaten and half starved, he was set at liberty, robbed of his donkeys, 
blankets and everything he had, dying very soon after." 

The first portion of the above seed passed into the hands of the 
Dutch Government. In my work the reader will find particulars about 
the reception in Java. Owing to Mr. Ledger's good drying and care., 
the seed arrived in such condition that it had not lost its germinative 
power. I inspected the remainder at the request of the British pur- 
chasers, and found it apparently of the best quality and condition. The 
capsules reminded me of those of " Cinchona calisaya^ var, microcarpa^ 
Wedd.," published by Dr. Weddell in the Annales des Sciences- 
Naturelles," 1870. This I recognize as the source of the Zamba sort^ 
of which I have magnificent specimens. Dr. Weddell says : Les- 
cascarilleros du pays me I'ont signalee comme donnant une ecorce sup^- 
rieure en qualite a celles des autres varieties croissant dans les merrtes 
lieux, et j'avoue que j'ai et^ heureux de voir cette appreciatioi^ de 
I'homme des bois confirmee par M. Howard." 

In fact it is only in this description that Dr. Weddell approached 
the best sorts, the Calisaya vera being by no means equal in produce. 

In his second journey Dr. Weddell obtained specimens of the Zam- 
bita, Verde and Morada varieties of calisaya, of which he obligingly 
gave me specimens, which are now before me. The bark of these 
sorts, especially the Zambita and the Morada, resembles considerably 
that of the Ledgeriana. 

I do not assert entire identity. The seed producing the Ledgeriana 



Calisaya Ledgeriana. 309 

was gathered, according to Manuel, from about fifty trees, chiefly of 
the Rojo sort. These different forms of the best calisaya are distin- 
guished by the carcarilleros by the color of the leaves ; and Ledger 
chinks my plate of the Calisaya anglica resembles in the color of the 
leaf that of the Rojo. Elsewhere he gives me, as descriptive of the 
same, that of sangre de toro^ or bull's blood. The variation in the 
color ansd form of the leaves does not seem to have any connection 
with th€ value of the bark. 

I have said that Dr. Weddell published the Zamba or Zambita sort 
as the var. microcarpa^ but not having seen the flowers, his description 
Heaves much to be desired. The Calisaya Ledgeriana of Java is, as I 
have shown, the legitimate produce of the seed of the fifty trees above 
mentioned. I should think that no botanist has been within some hun- 
<lred miles of the almost inaccessible banks of the Mamore, where 
these were met with, or of the Beni, where Pedro Rada collected 
from trees (as he told me), from 120 to 150 feet in height, some of 
the finest calisaya bark ever brought into the English market ; convey- 
ing his precious cargo by the long and perilous navigation of the Rio 
Madeira, as I described in Seemann's "Journal of Botany" in 1869. 
This sort was called Morada ; and if the colored drawing given there is 
compared with my plate V in " Quinology of the East Indian Planta- 
tions," it will be found closely to resemble. 

We have then no means of further botanical description, except 
from Java ; and from thence I have been supplied with forty-four excel- 
lent specimens, comprising all the barks cultivated. These I fully 
^described in the work above named, and from these published the first 
description of the sort as " Cinchona calisaya^ var. Ledgeriana^ How." 
The Ledgeriana has a peculiar character, to be recognized in the seed- 
lings at a very early stage, but variable as to form and color in the 
after-growth. It must be admitted that the most striking characteristic 
of the Ledgeriana is the bark, which is at once recognizable by a per- 
son familiar with these observations ; but scarcely capable of being made 
the basis of botanical definition. The flowers are also described as 
small, white and " nutantes but I am not certain that this is capable 
of being asserted without some slight modification. I hope to succeed 
in flowering my own specimens, which I would then describe more 
perfectly. On the whole I have found it best to present to the reader 
of my book three forms of the plants, relatively (according to the anal- 
ysis of the flower) the male ^ female and neuter forms — that is those in 



3 1 o Calicaya Ledgeriana. 

which the above elements preponderate, or are in even balance. The 
male (w^f^^) plants in the cinchonae are always the most highly colored. 

The male, or macho form (plate IV), is the most colored (and should 
be more of the bull's blood color). The contents of this bark, as given, 
from the tree itself by Moens are (per cent.) : 

Quinia, 9*06 
Cinchonia, ..... o*io 
Amorphous alkaloid, .... i"40 

Total, ..... 10*56 

The female form (hembra)^ plate V, has leaves of a green color, and 
gave to the same chemist : 

Ouinia, ...... 9-90 

Amorphous alkaloid, .... 2*09 

Total, ..... 31-99 

(Of this I have given a fine plant to one of our Ceylon cultivators, 
who is about sending it out to India.) 
The third form, plate VI, gave : 

Quinia, ...... 9'9'7 

Amorphous alkaloid, . . , . I'yo 

Total, . . . . .11-67 

Compare these with " Calisaya Javanica^' of Hasskarl, which gave 
(in average of 18 samples, 1879, Moens): 

Quinia, . . . . . . 070 

Cinchonidia, ..... o'5o 

Quinidia, ...... 0*30 

Cinchonia, ..... 120 

Amorphous alkaloid, . , . . 0-30 

Total, . , . . . 3-00 

and the Calisaya Javanica^'' of Schuhkraft (average of sixteen sariD- 
ples, 1879, Moens) : 

Quinia, ...... 0*50 

Cinchonidia, . . . . . 0*30 

Quinidia, ...... o'zo 

Cinchonia, . . . ... 1*20 

Amorphous alkaloid, .... 0*20 

Total, ..... 2-40 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1880. j 



Call say a Ledgeriana, 



It must be well understood that none of these sorts originated '\n 
Java, but were and are well distinguished as best " and 'Hnferjor 
in their native country. 

The idea of any of them originating by crossing in the Java planta- 
tions is therefore perfectly illusory. 

If asked how they originated in their native forests, the answer must 
be, that of this we are enitrely ignorant. We approach the questioni 
so well investigated by Alexis Jordan as to the varied forms of Euro- 
pean flowers. Although I have described the Ledgeriana as a variety 
of the Calisaya vera^ it is only as conforming to the present state of 
botanical science that I use the word. It is as consistent with com- 
mon sense to believe that by fusing together a half-crown and a penny 
one could produce a sovereign, as to believe that by blending inferior 
varieties one could educe the Calisaya Ledgeriana^ the best, by far, of 
all. I do not at all deny that hybridization takes place in the planta- 
tions in India, nor that in some cases good results may follow. The 
only practical inquiry into this question was carried on by Mclvor^ 
who thought he had attained a great success in a pubescent hybrid, from 
which he sent me some good bark ; but when afterwards, with much 
pains and care, he was good enough to send me a section of the tree^ 
it was quite different, and a correspondent of mine in the Wynaad 
informs me that, as sent to him, it is altogether a failure. Specimens 
both of the good bark and of the tree may be found in the Museum. 

If my readers will take a map of South America, they will find the 
distance fjom Coroico (Calisaya district) to Huanuco (grey bark) is 
680 miles ; from Huanuco to Loxa (crown bark) is 500 miles ; from^ 
Loxa to Riobamba (red bark) is 180 miles ; from Coroico (Calisaya) to> 
Pasto (Pitayo bark) is 1,400 miles ; and from Coroico to the Lanci- 
folia and Cordifolia district is 1,500 miles. We need not, then, sus- 
pect any interference of the pollen at these distances. In fact, all that 
we can recognize is the existence of permanent allied forms ; and the 
difficulties are insuparable, even in imagination, in conceiving how they 
could have diverged from one centre. It is like the attempt to find a 
common centre for several intersecting circles. 

It is no doubt very inconvenient to the systematic botanist to admit 
this ; but to distort facts and suppress all that we have already gained 
in knowledge of nature for the sake of system is simply absurd. 

The Calisaya Ledgeriana is, then, the legitimate descendant of the 
finest sort (or sorts) of the Bolivian forests ; subsisting even there 



312 



Cantkarides. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1879. 



under different forms, especially distinguished by the color of the 
leaves, but agreeing in the production of a large amount of very pure 
quinia. The flowers appear in South America to be very sensitive 
to frost, but they are abundantly fertile under favorable circumstances ; 
20,000 plants were raised by Van Gorkom and 60,000 by Mclvor 
from the one bag above described. The climate at Ootacamund did 
not suit. Nevertheless, some of the trees, though stunted and mostly 
perishing, have produced excellent bark. The reason why it is not 
more largely sent into Europe is, I understand, that in Java they are 
wisely thinning out the inferior trees and allowing the best to develop 
themselves. In British India, on the contrary, I am afraid many of 
the best " succirubra " and " officinalis " trees are being cut down. I 
thus send for the information of your readers a few facts which may be 
of interest, and in conclusion must express my regret that those who 
have toiled and suffered in introducing these valuable trees into India 
should have been so ill rewarded. Ledger lost his time and his ser- 
vants, and yet both the British and Dutch governments refuse him the 
slightest compensation for his losses. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans, [Lond.], 
March 13, 1880. 

NOTE ON CANTHARIDES.^ 

By Henry G. Greenish. 
In the autumn of last year, a sample of cantharides was handed to 
Professor DragendorfF, of the Pharmaceutical Institute, by a chemist of 
this town, with the remark that he had not succeeded in preparing an 
active Drouott's plaster from the flies, and doubted, therefore, their 
good quality. 

I willingly acceded to Professor DragendorfF's request to determine 
quantitatively the amount of cantharides in the sample, and, in doing 
so, followed the method indicated by him in Die chemische Werth- 
besrimmung einiger starkwirkender Droguen,"^ which is briefly as 
follows : 

25 to 30 grams of the powdered flies are freed from oil by treatment 
with petroleum ether. Cantharidin, being not insoluble in petroleum 
ether, a correction must be made in the amount of cantharidin found 
to compensate for the loss incurred by treatment with this solvent, 

^ Read at an evening meeting of tlie Pliarmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
March 3, 1880. 
-St. Petersburg, 1874. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1880, 



Cantharides, 



This loss has been determined by DragendorfF to be for 100 cc. petro- 
leum ether o*oio8 gram cantharidin. 

The flies, freed from oil, are now thoroughly moistened with solu- 
lution of soda, and the mass thus produced dried in a porcelain dish 
on the water bath. By this treatment, during which quantities of 
ammonia gas are evolved, a soluble cantharidate of soda is formed, 
which is subsequently decomposed by hydrochloric acid. It must be 
borne in mind that not all the cantharidin in the flies is present in the 
free state. Dragendorff has already shown ^ that cantharides contain- 
ing about 0*3 per cent, cantharidin yielded only half that quantity to 
boiling water, the remainder being extracted by solution of potash. 
Among the combinations of cantharidin insoluble in water occur pro- 
bably salts of lime and magnesia j among the soluble, cantharidic acid, 
possibly cantharidate of ammonia, etc. (the ammonia being derived 
from the albuminous substances by their decomposition during the dry- 
ing of the flies). 

The dried mass (containing now cantharidate of soda) is removeo 
from the dish and finely powdered. It is then transferred to a flask, 
25 to 30 grams of chloroform added, and the whole rendered strongly 
acid by the addition of dilute hydrochloric acid. This is then well 
shaken with from 25 to 30 grams of pure ether, the ether-chloroform 
solution separated and shaken with distilled water. The shaking with 
■ether is repeated until cantharidin ceases to pass into solution. The 
major part of the ether can be recovered by distillation, the residue 
being allowed to evaporate to dryness in a flat-bottomed glass dish. 
This residue is then transferred with the aid of a small quantity of 
absolute alcohol to a tared filter, and washed first with alcohol and 
then with two or three cubic centimeters of water. Should traces of 
oil still adhere to the cantharidin they may be removed by washing 
with petroleum ether. The quantities of these liquids used must be 
noted, since a slight correction has to be made, viz.: for 10 cc. alco- 
hol 0*0077 gram; ^ water 0*0005 gram. 'I"he washed can 
tharidin is dried at ioo°C., weighed and the corrections for petroleum 
ether, alcohol and water added to the figure so found. 

Proceeding in this way 31*1405 grams of the flies in question yielded 
me 2022 gram of nearly white cantharidin. The corrections for 
petroleum ether, alcohol and water amounted to o 0303 gram, totai 
cantharidin 0*2325 gram, equivalent to 0*746 per cent. This is 
^ '* Pharmacist," v. 78 j " Pharm. Jour." [3], ii. 1029, 



314 ^ Cant har ides, {^^ne^^o"™' 

largely in excess of the amount of cantharidin found by DragendorfF 
m good samples of Spanish flies, viz.: 0*351 to 0*5 per cent., and 
serves to illustrate in a striking manner the remarks on cantharides by 
that chemist, published in the "Pharmacist:"^ 

"Apothecaries frequently complain that some canthaiides do not 
furnish an active blistering plaster; that the same furnish, even when 
treated with acetic ether, an extract so poor in cantharidin that with its 
aid no good Drouott's blistering tissue can be produced. In most 
case> the opinion is expressed that the flies contain too small a percent- 
age of cantharidin. My experience teaches me to discredit the latter 
opinion. It is possible to obtain good preparations even from such 
apparently poor cantharides, it being only necessary to thoroughly 
extract the cantharidin they contain. ... I would say that by 
the aid of soda or potassa the entire amount of cantharidin contained 
in the flies may be rendered active. The finely powdered flies are 
mixed to a paste with diluted alkaline lye of about I'l sp. gr., heated 
in the water bath for twenty-five to thirty minutes, when sufficient 
muriatic acid is added to have a trifling surplus of the same, and the 
whole mass is dried radidly in the water bath. The residue, which we 
may call prepared cantharides, is powdered anew, and employed for 
the preparation of the plaster, or for the extract with acetic ether for 
use upon tissue." 

Had the Spanish flies examined been subjected to this treatment with 
solution of soda and hydrochloric acid, they would have yielded a blis- 
tering plaster of the activity of which there would have been no doubt. 

I am able to give a further proof of the very imperfect nature of 
the exhaustion of the flics by ether in the estimation of cantharidin in 
the residue after treatment with that menstruum. Forty pounds of 
such residues were sent to Professor DragendorfF by a house in St. 
Petersburg engaged in the manufacture of large quantities of Drouott's 
plaster. The treatment of a kilogram had yielded such an unex- 
pectedly large quantity of cantharidin as to offer an inducement ta 
estimate the same more exactly. 

29*297 grams of the exhausted flies, finely powdered, yielded me 
0'22i8 gram of nearly pure cantharidin; correction for alcohol aud 
water 0*0192 (the flies having been previously exhausted with ether 
no correction for petroleum ether was necessary); total amount o*24iG 
gram, equivalent to 0*g22 per cent, of cantharidin. 

^ Loc. cit., p. 79. 



"^"' june'ifso^''"'"} Ethereal Oil of California Bay^ Tree. 3 1 5 

The average quantity of oil removed by ether being about 12 per 
cent., we may reckon the amount of cantharidin in the original flies, 
not extracted by ether to be 0723 per cent., and assuming the cantha- 
rides to have been equally rich in cantharidin with the first sample the 
amount of that principle extracted by ether would amount to only 0*023; 
per cent. 

Manufacturing druggists would do well, therefore, to turn their 
attention to their cantharides residues, especially such as have been, 
extracted with simple solvents (ether, alcohol, etc.), in which salts of 
cantharidin are insoluble. The marc, for instance, from tinct. cantha- 
ridis still contains a considerable proportion of cantharidin. The only 
English price list at my disposal, that of Messrs. Southall Brothers^ 
quotes cantharidin at is. per grain, and leaves no doubt of the profita- 
bility of working up residues containing f per cent, of that principle. 

That other species of cantharis may excel cantharis vesicatoria with 
regard to the amount of cantharidin contained in them is shown by 
the estimation of a sample of cantharis adspersa presented to the 
museum of the Pharmaceutical Institute by Professor Arata, of Buenos 
Ayres. Although the flies arrived mouldy and in bad condition I suc- 
ceeded in obtaining from 12*3195 grams of dry insects 0'29i7 of very 
nearly pure white cantharidin; correction 0*0256; together 03173. 
gram; equivalent to the very large amount of 2*573 P^^ cent. 
Noticeable in this sample and in the first sample of cantharis vesicatoria 
is the comparatively small quantity of fixed oil. While DragendorfF 
finds as an average in good cantharides 12 per cent., I have obtained 
from cantharis vesicatoria (approximately) 7*7 per cent., and cantharis 
adspersa only 2*6 per cent. Possibly the weather prevalent during the 
]ife of the insect, the age of the same, etc., may have an influence on 
the amount of oil and cantharidin. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans. ^ March^ 
13, 1880. 



ETHEREAL OIL OF CALIFORNIA BAY TREE. 

By J. M. Stillman. 
The California bay tree, known under the different botanical names 
of Oreodaphne Californica.^ Laurus Californica^ Tetranthera^ and latterly 
Vmbellaria Californica.^ is a large and beautiful evergreen tree, very 
common to the valleys and water-courses of the coast mountains of 
California. It often attains great size, and its timber is much used 
under the name of California laurel" for veneering and fine cabinet 



3 1 6 Ethereal Oil of California Bay Tree. (^^ jJ^^'xfso""' 

work. The leaf is in shape something like the laurel, but lighter in 
color and narrower. Both leaf and wood have a very fragrant aro- 
matic odor, which, when strong, as in the crushed leaf, excites the 
mucous surfaces, brings tears to the eyes and produces headache. 

The oil was obtained by distilling the leaves (which were gathered 
in March, 1879, when the trees were in bloom) with steam. In the 
neighborhood of sixty or seventy pounds of the fresh leaves were 
placed in a large barrel with perforated false bottom, and steam from the 
escape pipe of a steam boiler forced through the mass and condensed, 
in order to avoid the accumulation of too large an amount of water, 
this was siphoned off from the bottom of the receiving bottle, the 
siphon dipping into a dish of water by the side of the bottle, and the 
-overflow of this dish kept the water in the bottle at a constant level. 
At the end of two days there were obtained in this way 820 grams of 
the oil. The oil as thus obtained is of a clear yellowish or straw 
color, of the peculiar aromatic odor of the leaf, specific gravity at 11° 
C 94. By long standing (nearly a year) it does not thicken. 

Subjected to fractional distillation it gives up a small quantity of dis- 
solved water, and separates into two principal fractions, one boiling from 
170 to I9Q°C. and the other from 210 to 225°, with smaller quantities 
passing over as high as 260°. 

The lower fraction mentioned was subjected to repeated fractional 
distillation, and gave a considerable quantity of a clear, colorless, mobile 
liquid boiling at 167 to 168°, though apparently with slight dissociation, 
as traces of water appeared in the first portions of the distillate at each 
distillation, which were not to be got rid of by repeated distillation and 
removing the first portions of each distillate. A portion of the purest 
of this substance from 167 to i68°C. was subjected to elementary 
analysis : 

T TT T\T Calculated for 

1. J I. Mean. n w xx r\ 

^20 "32" 2^' 

C ... 82-91 82-46 ' 82-68 82-76 

H ... ii'93 11-68 ii*8o 11-72 

It will be seen that the agreement is very close with the composition 
of a hydrate of turpentine in which one molecule of water is combined 
with two of C^^H^g or one of C20H32. 

This agrees with the terpinol of Wiggers, investigated and named 
by List, and obtained in various ways from the turpentine dihydrate 
CjQH^g.2H20. The boiling point of terpinol is given at 168°, and it is 
a colorless liquid of pleasant aromatic odor. The odor of the com- 



^'"jine'isso"''"'} Ethereal Oil of California Bay Tree. 317 

pound analyzed is not unlike that of spirits of camphor, though not 
quite identical. 

It is not readily affected by metallic sodium, even when heated with 
it. The water is therefore in intimate combination, possibly as an 
ether {C^^H^>j\0. 

A vapor density determination was made by Mr. J. B. Wilcutt 
according to Victor Meyer's method, in diphenylamine vapor. The 
result in one case gave 4*7, whereas the vapor density calculated for 
CgoHg^O would give io*o. If, however, dissociation should take place^ 
splitting up the molecule into C20H32+H2O, the vapor density of the 
mixture would be 5*0, not so far from the result obtained. That dis- 
sociation would take place was to be foreseen from the behavior oa 
distillation, and was confirmed by the fact that after the operation the 
contents of the apparatus no longer had the original camphor-like odor,, 
but possessed a distinct, rank odor of turpentme. It was also noticed 
that the compound itself by long standing bleached the cork of the test 
tube, probably due to traces of the free C20H32 resulting from the 
distillation. 

An analysis was made of a fraction boiling at 171 to 172°, which gave 
C=8i*39; H=ii*40. Evidently, therefore, a mixture of the above 
with the more oxygenated, higher-boiling constituent, umbeliol,CgHj20- 

The higher fraction (210 to 225°) was also subjected to fractional dis- 
tillation and a compound obtained in considerable quantity, boiling: 
without decomposition at 215 to 216° (uncorrected). This substance is 
also a colorless mobile liquid of aromatic but powerful odor, which,, 
too strongly inhaled, attacks the mucous surfaces and causes headache. 
It is but slightly volatile, a quantity in an open watch glass losing one 
mg. in an hour and a half. With concentrated sulphuric acid it gives 
a blood-red color, turning to brown and black. Water separates it 
from its solution in the acid. It is acted on violently by sodium, form- 
ing a blood-red, brittle, resinous substance ; it is also acted on violently 
and decomposed by strong nitric acid. Elementary analvsis gave 

T TT TTi Calculated for 

C ... 77 28 77"27 77"i7 77*42 ' 

H ... 9 74 9-53 9-57 9-67 

The vapor density determined, with the assistance of Mr. F. Slate^ 
according to Victor Meyer, in diphenylamine vapor gave 4*3 9; calcu- 
lated for C8Hi20=4*29. The formula is, therefore, C8Hj20. 

It is isomeric, as far as I know, with no other known compound. 



3i8 Gleanings from the German Journals. {^"j.fnTia^so^™' 

It is homologous, as far as its empirical formula is concerned, with 
common camphor, but has different properties. 

Analysis III, above, was made two or three months later than the 
other two, after the substance had been standing in a test tube corked, 
with occasional removal of the cork. It will be noticed that oxidation 
is very slow, if it takes place at all, though a faint tint of yellow 
seemed to indicate such action. Experiments have been commenced 
with the object of determining the nature of these substances and their 
chemical constitution, if possible, and I intend to subject the reactions 
and derivatives of these interesting compounds to an extended investi- 
gation. As other duties, however, entirely occupy me at present, I 
have been compelled to postpone further investigation on this subject 
■for some months. I therefore make this preliminary report and take 
the opportunity to reserve the ground for future work. — Am. Chem. 
Jour.^ April, 1880. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE GERMAN JOURNALS. 

By Louis VON Cotzhausen, Ph.G. 

Glycerin Cement was first made by Hirzel, who recommended it 
as an excellent cement for vessels containing benzol, valatile oils, etc. 
Prof. Th. Morawski, who experimented with many different formulas, 
found that the best cement is obtained by adding 5 cc. of glycerin to 
50 grams of litharge ; if more glycerin is used, the mass hardens more 
slowly and does not become as firm. By mixing 5 volumes of gly- 
cerin with 2 volumes of water and using 6 cc. of this mixture with 50 
grams litharge a cement is obtained which becomes quite hard in ten 
minutes, and harder in two hours than glycerin cement made by any 
other formula, but it is not as durable and firm after standing two days 
as. that made by the first formula. — Pharm. Centralb.^ March 11, 1880, 
p. 90., from Dingl. Journ. 

Lametta, which, according to Skalmeit, consists of 98*93 per cent, 
of copper and I'oy per cent, of silver, is used in China for manufactur- 
ing metallic threads used in garments, and in Germany for ornamenting 
Christmas trees. — Ztschr. d. Allg. Oest. Jpoth. Ver.., March 10, 1880, 
p. 127, from GewsrhehLf. d. Grossher%. Hessen. 

Unguentum contra favum capitus is a salicylic pomade, recom- 
mended by Hager as an innocent cure of sore head of children and as 
an exterminator and preventive of vermin. It is made by reducing 
salicylic acid lO'D grams and borax 3*3 to a fine powder, adding 



"^"jJneAs^o''"-} Gleanings from the German Journals, 319 

yellow wax 50*0 and lard 250*0 grams, previously melted together and 
■colored red with alkanet, balsam of Peru 10 grams, oil of bergamot 50 
•drops, oil star anise 20 drops, and rose water 30*0, and stirring until 
the ointment solidifies. — Pharm. Centralh,^ March 11, 1880, p. 90. 

Glycerin and Sodium Bicarbonate for Burns. — Sodium bicar- 
bonate has been used extensively and very successfully lately as an 
application to burns by spreading a layer of the powdered salt over the 
burnt part and surrounding it with a moistened, strip of linen ; when 
thus used on fresh burns the pain is relieved immediately and blisters 
never form. Dr. Th. Koller recently tried repealed glycerin applica- 
tions for burns, and reports that he found it not only equal, but even 
far superior to sodium bicarbonate for relieving the burning pain and 
preventing the formation of blisters, it at the same time leaving the 
^ skin soft while the sodium ' bicarbonate is apt to have the opposite 
effect. He applies the concentrated, syrupy, perfectly clear glycerin to 
the burns with the hand with but very slight pressure. — Pharm. 7jtg.^ 
March 6, 1880, p. 140, from ISleue Erf. 

Red Carbolic Acid. — The red color appearing in previously entirely 
■colorless pure carbolic acid is considered by Hager to be caused by 
the ammonium nitrite existing in the atmospheric air. Acid filled into 
bottles while in a melted state in an atmosphere free from ammonia, 
and afterwards kept in air-tight bottles, will remain colorless. — Pharm. 
Post., March 16, 1880, p. 108, from Pharm. Centralh. 

Separation of Quinia from Strychnia. — Dwars dissolved 5 grams 
of citrate of iron, quinia and strychnia in a little water supersaturated 
with ammonia, shook with chloroform, allowed the chloroform to 
evaporate, dried the residue at i io°C., and obtained o-8i gram — i6'2 
per cent, of alkaloids. The residue was dissolved in warm water, add- 
ing sufficient solphuric acid to obtain a neutral solution, to which 
ammonium oxalate was added in excess. On the following day the 
quinia oxalate was collected, washed, and dried at ioo°C., when it 
weighed 0*704 gram = 0'6i8 quinia. The filtrate and wash water 
were shaken with ammonia and chloroform. After evaporating 0*1775 
gram amorphous alkaloid, strychnia and traces of crystallized quinia 
remained, which were treated repeatedly with pure ether, yielding ulti- 
mately 02 1 gram of pure strychnia. — Pharm. Ztschr.f Russl.., Feb. 
I, 1880, p. 76. 

Quinia bimuriate is well adapted for hypodermic injections, because 
it is soluble in water in every proportion, and was warmly recom- 



320 Gleanings from the German Journals, {^"^i^ZT-^^""' 

mended several years ago by Galignani, whose statements were con- 
tradicted by many Italian physicians, who erroneously used the ordi- 
nary quinia muriate. Dr. Vitali now explains the difference between 
the two salts, and again recommends the bimuriate, which he prepares 
by mutual decomposition between quinia bisulphate and barium chloride^ 
obtaining it in not crystalline yellowish-white masses, which afford a 
snow-white powder. The salt thus obtained contains 8i'6i per cent, 
of quinia, which is more than that contained in the officinal sulphate and 
in bisulphate, the former containing 74*33 and the latter 59*14 per cent. 
Quinia bimuriate is prepared most readily by accurately precipitating a 
solution of quinia bisulphate with barium chloride, filtering and evap- 
orating to dryness. — Pharm. Zig.^ March 6, 1880, p. 140, from Bulle- 
t'lno Farmaceut'icQ di Milam. 

The Chemical Constitution of Picrotoxin, the poisonous consti- 
tuent of Cocculus indicus, was again studied by L. Barth and M. 
Kretschy, who found that the picrotoxin is a mixture of three consti- 
tuents, the two principal ones of which differ in the percentage of C 
to the extent of about 4 per cent., and exist in varying relative pro- 
portion, which explains the different results obtained by analytical 
chemists. The constituent for which the name of picrotoxin is retained 
contains the most C, has the formula C^jHjgOjj, and is exceedingly 
bitter and very poisonous. The second constituent has the formula 
C2-H30O12, is very bitter, not poisonous, and is denominated picrotin.. 
But a very small percentage (about 2 per cent.) of the third constituent 
is present ; it is not bitter, not poisonous, and is called anamirtin by the 
authors. — Pharm. Centralh..^ March 11, 1880, p. 91, from Chem. 
Centralhl.^ from Wien. An%. 

Quaiac Resin as a Reagent for Copper. — Schoenbein found that 
copper salts in the presence of cyanides yield a blue coloration with 
quaiac, and Purgotti discovered that the ferrocyanides, nitroprussides^ 
sulphocyanates, cyanates, and also the alkaline chlorides, yield the same 
reaction as the cyanides, and utilized this discovery as a test for copper^ 
proceeding as follows: The solution, which ought not to contain any 
substances which (like ferric salts) yield a blue coloration with quaiac,, 
is mixed with the solution of an alkaline chloride, and is slowly poured 
into a test-tube containing an alcoholic solution of quaiac. If but the 
slightest trace of copper is present a blue coloration is visible at the 
point of contact of the two liquids, while, in case much copper is pres- 
ent, the whole mixture turns blue when shaken. Thus a distinct reac- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 1880. j 



Gleanings from the German Journals. 



321 



tion was obtained with O'OOi milligram CuSo^+5H20 in i decigram 
of water. — Ztschr. d, Jllg. Oest. Jpoth. Ver.^ March 10, 1 880, p. 120, 
from Ga'z. Chim. ItaL 

Chloral hydrate, according to Dr. A. Btlohoubeic, should be 
entirely volatile, soluble in alcohol, ether and water, melt at 46°C., 
boil at 96° to 98°, and, when heated with potassa lye, should liberate 
chloroforin, readily recognized by its odor. Another good test is that 
published by F. Ogston, which consists in adding to a moderately 
strong chloral hydrate solution yellow ammonium sulphide, when the 
colorless liquid soon turns orange-yellow or almost red. After stand- 
ing for some time it becomes cloudy, liberating a gas of a very unpleas- 
ant odor. Chloroform, benzol, naphtha, formic acid, etc., do not 
yield a similar reaction, but croton chloral gives the same reaction with 
ammonium sulphide. — Pharm. Ztschr. f. RussL^ Feb. i, 1880, p. 78, 
from Rundschau f. Pharm. Chem. 

"Curry Powder," also known in some districts of Germany as 
Ragout Powder.^ is a coarse brownish-yellow powder, having a strong 
aromatic odor and taste, and is almost altogether imported from Eng- 
land, where it was introduced from India. The following two for- 
mulas for its preparation are highiy recommended, the first yielding the 
so-called " Bengal Curry," which is preferred in East India, while the 
second is used very extensively in England, and is exported to 
Germany : 



II. 



B; Piperis nigri, 


. 40*0 


R 


Piperis nigri. 




20"a 


Capsici, . 


I0"0 




Capsici, 




lo-o 


Coriandri, . 


. lOO'O 




Coriandri, 




. 8o-o 


Foenu Graeci. 






Carvi, 




20"0 


Piperis albi. 






Piperis albi, 




lO'O 


Carvi, 


. M 25*0 




Curcumae, 




50-0 


Curcumae, . 


. 8o-o 




Zingiberis, 






Zingiberis, 


20"0 




Cinnamomi, 






M. f. pulvis grossus. 






Alii sativi, 

M. f. pulvis 


grojSus. 


100 


— Pharm. Centralh.., March 11, 1880, 


p. 91. 






" Bacilla cuneiformia nasalia, 


" << 


Cereoli nasales," or 


"INasal 


Bougies" are used in the 


treatment of 


nasal diseases. 


They 


are 8 to 


10 cm. in length, about 6 


or 8 mm 


in 


thickness at th 


e base, tapering 



idea of 



their usual composition and the method of preparing them : 

I. Bacilla cuneiformia carhoUca^ carbolic nasal bougies.^ used in the 



21 



^22 Gleanings from the German Journals, } '^'"jJneriss'o"™' 

treatment of excessive or offensive nasal catarrh, are prepared by dis- 
solving in a water bath vi'hite gelatin 55*0, in glycerin 30*0, and dis- 
tilled water 20 0, adding pure carbolic acid 0*2, and pouring the mix- 
ture into 15 moulds made of glass or waxed (paraffin) paper. 

2. Bad Ha cuneiformia tannica^ or tannin nasal bougies are ftioistened 
before introducing them into the nose and are made by mixing tannic 
acid 2'0, tragacanth 6*5, and marshmallow root 2*0, adding glycerin 
6*0, and water 3*5, and making into tapering bougies. 

3. Baciila cuneiformia %incica consist of white gelatin 6o'0, glycerin 
40 o, distilled water 20*0, and zinc sulphate 0*5, made into 20 bougies. 
— Fharm, Centralh.^ March 11, 1880, p. 87. 

Condensed Goat Milk, made by Sigmond Bros, at Klausenburg, 
was analyzed by Dr. R. GodefFroy, who found it to contain in 100 
parts: Water, 20*98 ; milksugar, 15*72; canesugar, 26'7i ; fatty sub- 
stances (extracted by ether), 16*95 ; casein (albuminous substance), 
17*20 ; milksalts (percentage of ashes), 2*64 parts. — Ztschr. d. Allg, 
Oest. Apoth. Ver.^ March 10, 1880, p. 118. 

Hager's Pilulse antiphlogistigae (also called Acid Cinchona Alka- 
loid Pills, Anti-inflammation Pills, Catarrh Pills), are said to cure 
bronchial catarrh, cold in the head, coughs, etc., usually in the course 
of a few hours. They are made by the following formula : 

R Qiiinidi^e sulphatis, cinchonidiae sulphatis, . . ana 5-0 

Tragacanthas, ....... 7-0 

Radicis althaea, radicis gentianae, .... ana 3-0 

Ligni santali rubri, . . . . . . i-o 

Glycerinae, acid! hydrochloric!, .... ana 7-5 

M. f. pil. 200. 

Dust with powdered cinnamon and dispense in a bottle. Dose : Take 
6 pills immediately when the first symptoms of bronchial catarrh, etc., 
appear; then 2 pills every hour and 5 pills at bed -time, followed by 3 
pills every 3 hours during the next day and 6 pills before going to bed. 
— Pharm. Centralh.^ March 18, 1880, p. 93. 

Salicylic Acid and Powdered Charcoal are very objectionable 
ingredients in tooth powders and mouth washes^ in Dr. W. Suerssen's 
opinion, who claims that the charcoal, even when finely powdered, will 
polish off the enamel of the teeth mechanically, and besides will set- 
tle permanently in the gums, forming blackish-blue rings, while the 
salicylic acid, even in very dilute solution (i : 1000) attacks the teeth, 
and ought, therefore, only to be used in the.treatment of various mor- 
bid conditions of the mouth. The author considers precipitated chalk 



^"'june'isso^''"' } Gleanifigs from the German Journals, 323 

the best tooth powder and alcohol the best addition to a mouth wash, 
and states that both may be perfumed if desired. — Ihid.^ March 25, 
1880, p. 108. 

" Succus Citri Depuratus " is the name suggested by Hager for 
the purified lemon juice prepared by Fleischer & Co., who, by intro- 
ducing it into the German market, according to Hager, supplied a long- 
felt demand for a substitute for the commercial, cloudy, Italian juice, 
which almost always contains acetic acid. Fleischer's German juice is 
prepared by purifying and clarifying fresh lemon juice, is either color- 
less or slightly yellowish, perfectly clear, contains 9*3 to 9*4 per cent, 
acid, and keeps for weeks in the cold season of the year, even in par- 
tially filled bottles, and probably equally as long in the hot season if 
kept in full and well-corked bottles. — Ihid.^ p. 105. 

Preparation of Potassium Cantharidate and Cantharidin by- 
Dialysis. — E. Dieterich recommends digesting for 5 hours, and boil- 
ing slightly for 15 minutes, 1,000 grams of coarsely-powdered canthar- 
ides, 50 grams potassium hydrate, and 6,000 grams of water. The 
cooled liquid is strained and expressed, and the residue again treated as 
before, adding but 20 grams potassium hydrate. The liquid is filtered 
and the filtrate transferred to three dialyzers, about 60 cm. in diameter, 
which are suspended in correspondingly large, shallow, porcelain-lined, 
iron dishes. In these dialyzers the filtrate is digested for 5 to 6 days, 
the water being replaced as it evaporates. After neutralizing the 
dialyzed brownish liquid with dilute sulphuric acid, powdered charcoal 
is added, the whole evaporated to dryness, the dry residue mixed with 
a little barium carbonate, and then boiled with acetic ether ; the etherial 
liquid is distilled, the remaining cantharidin washed with alcohol and 
recrystallized from acetic ether, when it is obtained in brilliant white 
crystals. Thus, the author obtained a yield never below 2'8o grams, 
while the usual method never yields over 2*30 gram. — Ib'id.^ March 11, 
1880, p. 87. 

Detection of Potassium Iodide in Potassium Bromide. — Hager 
recommends powdering a number of crystals, dissolving O'l gram of 
this powder in 10 or 12 cc. of 10 per cent, ammonia water, adding i 
drop of silver nitrate solution, and shaking, when a clear solution will be 
obtained, unless iodide of silver is present, a small percentage of which 
will render the liquid decidedly cloudy. This test is sufficiently accurate 
for indicating the presence of an objectionable percentage of potassium 
iodide, but will not answer for detecting very minute traces. 



F arieties. 



Am. Jour Pharrn„ 
June, 1880. 



Potassium chloride in potassium bromide is detected, by the same author, 
by dissolving O'l gram powdered potassium bromide in 2 or 3 cc. of 
water, mixing well with a solution of 0*i6 gram of silver nitrate in 3 or 
4 cc. of water, adding 10 or 12 cc. of solution of ammonium carbonate^ 
shaking frequently for about 10 minutes, and filtering, returning the filt- 
rate to the filter until it passes entirely clear. To 3 or 4 cc. of the clear 
filtrate nitric acid is then added, drop by drop, until neutralized, when^ 
in case potassium bromide alone was present, the liquid remains clear, 
while in the presence of silver chloride it will be opalescent or cloudy, 
according to the percentage of chloride present. 

Hydrochloric acid in hydrohromic acid may be detected in a similar man- 
ner, using 2 or 3 drops of the acid, 7 to 10 drops of solution of silver 
nitrate, adding about 1 o cc. of solution of ammonium carbonate, shakings 
macerating, filtering and supersaturating with nitric acid. — Ihid.^ p. 85-87. 

Arsenic in hydrochloric acid is detected by Hager's modification 
of Bettendorf's method by dropping the acid in very small drops on 
thick tin-foil, setting aside, and exposing to a heat of from 50° to 
90°C. Concentrated acid and acid diluted with an equal bulk of water^ 
and containing ^-qVlT To'u^TnT arsenic, immediately turn brown 011 
the tin-foil; when diluted with 8 or 10 times its bulk of water the reac- 
tion is considerably slower. A very dilute acid, containing 2^0^^-5-0^ arse- 
nic, dropped on tin-foil in small drops, and placed in a lukewarm place^ 
yielded steel-colored spots. The test is not reliable for an acid con- 
taining but ij^iy^ou arsenic. — Ibid.^ March 25, 1880, p. 10 1. 



VARIETIES. 



Duboisia Sulphate. — S. D. Risley, M.D., Lecturer on Ophthalmoscopy in the 
University of Pennsylvania, in an interesting article in the "Amer. Jour. Med. Sci.," 
April, 1880, "On the relative value of the sulphates of atropia and of duboisia in 
ophthalmic practice," states that the following conclusions seem justifiable: 

1. That in solutions not stronger than two grains to the ounce duboisia is free 
from danger. 

2. That the two-grain solution of Duboisia sulphate more rapidly paralyzes the- 
ciliary muscle than a four-grain solution of atropia sulphate. 

3. That the duration of its effect is less than half that of atropia. 

4. That the preparations now in the market are more liable to irritate the con 
junctiva than neutral solutions of the sulphate of atropia. 

5. That in the treatment of inflammations of the eye duboisia is quite as useful as 
atropia, and therefore may be used as a substitute. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1880. 



Varieties, 



325 



Pilocarpina. — Two remarkable observations have been published abroad during 
5the past year relative to the use of pilocarpina. In one case a patient of Dr. Schmitz, 
of Cologne, previously completely bald, after three injections of pilocarpina began 
to have a luxuriant growth of hair, and at the end of four months had a dense cover- 
ing for the head, part black, in color, part grizzled and part white. The other was 
reported at the Ophthalmological Congress at Amsterdam last September, by Dr. 
Coppez, of Brussels, and published in the "Annales d'Oculistique," September and 
October, 1879. The patient, suffering from serious iritis with trouble in the vitreous 
body, received three injections of chloralhydrate of pilocarpina, and his hair, pre- 
viously white, took on its original color and texture. These are the only instances 
en which pilocarpina may be presumed to have had this effect, and the question 
arises whether it was an accidental coincidence or the result of the drug. — Chicago 
Med. Ga%.y March 20, i88c. 



Chloral in the Vomiting of Pregnancy.— Dr. Herzberg, of the Berlin Charite 
(" Berl. Klin. Woch."), has found chloral of great utility in vomiting from any 
cause, and in some affections, as gastralgia, rapidly effective. In this paper he wishes 
to call attention to its great efficacy in the vomiting of the early months of preg- 
nancy. He always uses this formula : Chloral, ; water, 100, and syrup of orange 
peel, 20 parts, giving a spoonful every two hours. A few spoonfuls suffice to stop 
the vomiting for a long time. If after some days it returns again, a recurrence to 
the remedy entirely removes the evil. — Louisville Med. Neivs, March 13, 1880. 



Benzoate of Sodium in Diphtheria. — Dr. Letzerich has successfully treated, with 
benzoate of sodium, 27 cases of diphtheria which came under his care during an epi- 
demic of the disease in Berlin. Of these cases eight were severe, accompanied by 
high fever, delirium, setention of the urine and feces, existing often before the 
-extensive local affection had made its appearance. In the blood there was found 
numerous bacteria and plasma corpuscles, from which, by cultivation in veal broth, 
very large colonies of micrococci became developed. The dose of sodium benzoate 
for children and adults is to be regulated by the weight of the body. The formula 
for infants under one year old is 

R Sodii benzoat. pur., . . . , . 5-0 

Aquae destillat.. 

Aquae menth. pip., . . . , .ad 40-0 

Syrup, cort. aurant., ..... lo-o 

Half teaspoonful every hour. 
The dose for children between one and three years of age is given at 7 to 8 grams 
in the course of a day ; for children between three and seven years, 8 to 10 grams, 
over seven years old 10 to 15 grams, to be taken daily 5 no unpleasant effects have 
been observed even in young infants. The diphtheric membrane was sprinkled 
with the benzoate of sodium in powder applied through a glass tube or quill. There 
is no slough formed, and thereby the danger is averted of its acting as a firm cover- 
ing under which an energetic development and growth of the organism can take 
place. 



326 



Varieties. 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

June, i83o. 



The insufflation was made every three hours in severe cases; in the mild forms 
two or three times daily. The author also recommends this remedy in gastric or 
intestinal catarrh, particularly of infants, and states that at times the results are sur- 
prising in these latter cases. He firmly believes in the statement of Klebs, that it is 
to be recommended in all diseases which originate by infection. — Boston Med. and 
Surg. Journ.^ from Berlin. Klin. Wochens. 



Iodized Phenol. — Battey's formula for iodized phenol, iodine cryst. ^ss, acid 
carbolic 5i, is highly recommended by Dr. J. H. Bellamy in other than uterine affec- 
tions. He has found it very useful in certain skin diseases, particularly those 
attended with itching. In the eczema marginatum it works very promptly. It is 
to be diluted generally with equal parts of glycerin, and applied twice a day. — N~ 
Carolina Med. Jour.., from Toledo Med. and Surg. Jour., March, 1880. 



Cedron as a Substitute for Quinia. — Admiral Lapellin draws attention to a . 
bean which is used by the inhabitants of Central America in the treatment oi the 
cold fever, and which is said to be a good subatitute for quinia. Dr. Coignard, who 
obtained the remedy in Puerto Arenas, Costa Rica, obtained favorable results with 
it, and Drs. St. Pere and Quesnel found it even more powerful than sulphate of 
quinia. The bean is cut into bits as large as a pea, several of which are given \n 
the interval between the paroxysms. This almond or bean is obtained from the 
Simaruba ferruginea. — Med. Chir. Rundschau, Nov., 1879, from 'The Med. Record^ 
from Nash'ville Journ. of Med. and Surg., April, 1880. 



Iodoform Paste. — The " Medical Gazette " advises the following combination 
for the purpose of disguising the odor of the drug: R lodoformi ^i, MuciL cxxm 
glycerina gtt. xx, Ol. menth. pip. (seu neroli, seu caryoph.) gtt. i. M. — Proceedings 
of the Med. Soc. of the County of Kings, Ne^ York, April. 



Tartrate of Morphia. — The new preparation of neutral tartrate of morphia is a 
useful adjunct to our therapeutics. Being very soluble it passes quickly out of the 
sytsem, and gives less of the unpleasant after effects than either the muriate or ace- 
tate. Its great solubility makes it particularly advantageous for subcutaneous injec- 
tion. It gives little smarting or irritation when thus administered, and the solutio' 
never clogs the finest needles. — The Med. Press and Circular, London, March loth, 
1880. 



Improved Caustic Sticks. — Dr. Sawostizki called the attention of the Moscow 
Surgical Society to an improvement in the preparation of sticks of nitrate of silver. 
It consists in melting together five parts of nitrate of silver with one part of nitrate 
of lead, forming an argentum plumbo-nitricum. Sticks formed of this are preferable 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1880. 



Varieties, 



to those of the ordinary nitrate, as they are not easily broken and can be poinled 
just like a lead pencil. — Ibid.^ April 7th, 1880. 



Ergot in Pharyngitis. — In chronic pharyngitis, where the blood-vessels of the 
pharynx are enlarged and tortuous and the secretion moderate, the following is 
recommended : 

R Ergotin, . . . . . . gr. xx. 

Tinct. iodine, . . . . . . fl. 3i. 

Glycerin, . . . . . . fl. ^i. M. 

Sig. Apply to the pharynx freely twice daily with a camePs-hair brush. — I'he 
Ohio Med. Reporter, April, 1880. 



External use of Atropia for the Pain of Cancers. — M. Anger uses, with great 
success, compresses saturated with a neutral solution of sulphate of atropia, and 
applied over the seat of pain. The compress is covered with oiled taffeta, or better 
with sheets of gutta percha, to prevent evaporation, and renewed three or fouv times 
a day. 

The strength of the solution employed is (grs. xv) i gram of the sulphate to 
(Oii) r,ooo grams of water. He has never seen signs of absorption of the medi- 
cine, such as dilatation of the pupil, dryness of the throat, etc. This action js not 
denied, but it is presumable that the action is local, contraction ^f the vessels, 
diminution of the sensibility. The facility of applying it and the cleanness of this 
method give marked advantages over hypodermic injections and ointments. At the 
same time the marked relief observed in the terrible pains of cancer seem to recom 
mend its use. — Chicago Med. Journ. and Exam., April, 1880. 



Unalterable Cold Cream. — The " Repertoire de Pharmacie " gives the follow- 
ing formula for a cold cream that possesses the property of not becoming rancid : 
Quince mucilage, . . . (^iiss) 40 grams 

Almond soap, . . . (gr. xv) i 

Stearic acid, . . . . (3'iss) 10 

Glycerin, .... (^ss) 2 

—Ibid. 



Cultivation of the Cinchona Tree in California.— The " Pacific Medical ana 
Surgical Journar' writes on the cinchona tree as follows : "There is no subject on 
which our legislature could act with so much benefit to the Pacific coast as in the 
adoption of measures for introducing the growth of the cinchona tree. We are 
more and more convinced, from all we read of its introduction and cultivation else- 
where, that there are many sections of country in our State in which it would flour- 
ish and prove a source of bountiful revenue. The latest evidence of this which we 
have met with is in a communication to the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington from Willis Weaver, written at Bogota, South America. Mr. Weaver has 



328 



Varieties, 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 

June, 1880. 



Studied the habits and history of the tiee, which, he says, seeks a soil inclining to 
dryness, but well watered during a portion of the year. We copy from his letter a 
few passages which may be found in the "Scientific American" for February 28th: 

" ' The coasts of Northern California and Oregon would fulfill the conditions as 
to moisture 5 the slopes of the mountains would probably furnish hilly ground very 
similar to that occupied by the tree in its native habitat ; while I believe that the 
temperature would admit of its cultivation even north of the mouth of the Colum- 
bia. It is also uncertain as to how far any undue dryness of the atmosphere may 
be overcome by irrigation. The surprising results already attained in the cultiva- 
tion of the trees prepare us to expect further advances, and this may be one of them 
as naturally as anything else. 

" ' It is well known that the barks produced under cultivation are much superior 
to the natural bark, as the process of mossing the tree causes a remarkable develop- 
ment of the alkaloids in which their virtue consists ; also, that the cultivated trees 
are not destroyed. A strip is taken off reaching the length of the trunk, and one- 
third its circumference. The wound is then dressed with straw matting, and kept 
wet until the bark forms anew. The next year another strip is taken, and so on 
indefinitely. I am told that the harvest begins when the tree is five years old, but 
am not in a position to verify the statement. 

*' ♦ I have calculated roughly, according to the prices of land and labor here, that 
a plantation of a hundred acres might be put in at less than ^1,000 an acre, cover- 
ing all outlay, or, say $1,500 to cover interest and all contingencies. A yield of 
|8,ooo an acre has been reported from Indian plantations.' " — The Boston Med. and 
Surg. Jour.^ April 29, :88o. 



The Action and Uses of Hyoscyamia.— Mr. Engledue Prideaux, assistant medi- 
cal officer at the Friends' Retreat, near York, presents in the "Lancet," October 11, 

1879, an elaborate paper based upon very extensive experience in the use of the 
drug, of which the following, taken from the " Medical News and Abstract," Jan., 

1880, is a summary : 

1. That in most cases of mania, or where there exists great excitement of an 
aggressive and destructive character, or rapidity of movement and speech, the use 
of the drug is the most eft'ectual and rapid means of exercising that form of restraint 
which has been termed "chemical restraint." * 

2. That in cases of acute mania it will produce sleep and quietude when all other 
drugs have failed, and is one of the most rapid and reliable narcotics we possess. 

3. That in the treatment of the epileptic status in epileptic mania, it diminishes the 
number, frequency and severity of the attacks, especially if its administration be 
extended over some time. 

4. That in delusional insanity, especially the mania of suspicion and other forms 
of mania where the delusions are varying and changeable, it has a decided action in 
producing such an altered condition of the cerebral status that a condition which 
has been termed " physiological mania " results, and this so eclipses the former delu- 
sions and hallucinations that they are forgotten, and the mind becomes clear; while 
if the subjection to the Influence of the drug be continued, it ultimately leads, under 



Varieties. 329 

favorable circumstances, to a permanent condition of quiescence and restoration to 
a healthy state of mind. 

5. That in chronic dementia, associated with destructive tendencies, bad habits, 
and sleeplessnes, the condition of the patient much improves after a continued 
course of small doses of the drug. 

The disadvantages that have occurred in its use, and which have to be guarded 
against, are : the dryness of the tongue and pharynx that occurs, especially after a 
prolonged administration. This has been thought to contra-indicate its use in cases 
of artificial feeding, but provided the tube be dipped into an oily liquid before pass- 
ing, I have not found it any inconvenience. The attacks of vomiting that have 
occurred in some cases after an administration of some weeks, necessarily lead to a 
discontinuance of the drug. Vomiting occasionally occurs after one dose, even a 
s?nall one, and in two cases mentioned by Dr. Lawson, haematemesis took place. 
Where rapid and sudden action of the drug is feared in feeble cases, it is better to 
administer it with the iooA.- -Chicago Med. Gazet.^ April 5th, 1880. 



Solid, Crystallized, Fuming Sulphuric Acid, containing frequently as much as 
98 per cent, anhydride, is beginning to be used extensively in the manufacture of 
alizarin, eosin, etc., and is at present not only manufactured at Bohemia, as for- 
merly, but also in Freiberg, Ludwigshafen, Mannheim, Schlebusch and London. 
According to Prof. Stoelzel, organic substances (wood, saw-dust, etc.), brought into 
contact with this acid, are reduced to charcoal, sufficient heat being sometimes gen- 
erated to cause ignition. If mixed with one-fourth its bulk of water, the acid will 
immediately transform the latter into vapor, the transformation being accompanied 
by a generation of light and an explosion. The acid will also explode when heated 
in closed bottles to 5o°C. — Pharm. Centralh.y Dec. 16, 1879, P- 47o> from Han- 
delshl. d. Chem. Ztg. 



An Innocent Green Coloring Substance, for coloring confectionery, candy, 
etc., can be extracted, according to Zech, from coffee beans by reducing them to 
powder, extracting the oil with ether, allowing them to dry, and mixing with suffi- 
cient white of egg to make a kind of gruel, which is then exposed to the air for a 
few days, when an emerald-green color is produced. Another and simpler method 
consists in pouring water on the reduced beans, previously deprived of their oil, and 
extracting the coloring matter by washing in (?) alcohol. — Pharm. Z/§-., Jan. 3, 1880, 
p. 3, from Gemeinnuetx. Wochenschr. 



Preparations of Pepsin and Iron.— At a recent meeting of the Paris Academy of 
Sciences, Vulpian, Chatin, Personne and Peter energetically attacked all pharma- 
ceutical specialties, and particularly all preparations of pepsin and iron, which in 
their opinion scarcely ever contain what their manufacturers claim, and in nine cases 
out of ten are entirely inefficient. Vulpian particularly found fault with the different 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1880. j 



230 Varieties. { '"■•/r^Sc'"- 

pepsins, diastases and pancreatins of the (French) market, and still more so with 
the wines and elixirs made from these, in which the alcohol almost entirely counter- 
acted the medicinal effect of these principles. Chatin, the director of the School of 
Pharmacy, suggested to banish all proprietary medicines from drug stores, and 
advised physicians not to prescribe them under any condition. Similar views ^ere 
expressed by Vulpian and Prof. Peter. Personne referred to iron specialties, and 
particularly to Bravais' dialyzed iron, which he considered impure and enfirely 
insoluble in the stomach and therefore of no value, and Prof. Berthelot stated that 
it should be employed in every case where the use of an absolutely inert iron prepa- 
ration is desired. — Pharm. Post, Dec. i6, 1879, P- 374- 



White Furs are Dyed by Sieglitz & Co. by applying to the ends of the hair a 
mixture of 10 parts gum arabic, 5 parts lead acetate, 10 parts fatty white clay, la 
parts basic copper acetate and water, drying, immersing into a decoction of litharge 
with milk of lime, treating with diluted ammonium sulphide, and finally with an 
extract of galls. The ends remain white, while the lower portion of the hair is 
dyed brown. — Chem. Centralbl., Dec. 17, 1879, P' 



Artificial Wool is made from flax, jute or hemp waste, or from rags of these 
materials, by M. Neumann's patented process, by first treating these substances with 
soda and soap, at ioc° (3 kg. soda and i kg. soap to 600 liters water), then transfer- 
ring them to a lukewarm bath containing calcium chloride and (or?) magnesium 
sulphate, adding hydrochloric acid, and finally treating them for a short period with 
a 0-5 per cent, solution of sulphurous acid, and washing them. — Ber. d. Deuisch. 
Chem. Ges.y xii (1879), P- 2272. 



Benzoic Acid is Prepared from Benzoin by R. v. Wagner by dissolving the resin 
by digesting with 3 to 4 parts strong acetic acid, decanting the brown solution, pouring 
into 4 parts boiling water and removing the grayish-brown resin, which separates 
by filtration, when the greater portion of the benzoic acid will crystallize from the 
filtrate on cooling, while another yield is obtained on evaporating the liquid, pre- 
viously partially saturated with calcium hydrate. The benzoic acid, separated from 
the acetic acid solution, possesses, after drying and melting, a pleasant odor resem- 
bling storax, and can be used for aromatizing and for preparing fumigating powder,, 
etc. The solubility of benzoin in acetic acid might also be advantageously made 
use of for preparing disinfecting and fumigating essences. Balsam tolu, balsam 
Peru and storax likewise dissolve in acetic acid. — Pharm. Ztg., Jan. 7, 1880, p. ii^ 
from Pol. NotizhL 



^"june' isJS'™*} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 331 

MINUTES OF THE PHAfiMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

Philadelphia, May i8th, i88o. 

Mr. Alonzo Robbins was called to the chair, and the minutes of last meeting 
were read and approved. 

Donations to the library were called for, and the Registrar exhibited twelve vol- 
umes of the "American Journal of Pharmacy," almost all of them quite scarce, pre- 
sented to the College by our fellow member Robert Shoemaker. This enables the 
Librarian to report that the second set of the Journal, for the library has now been 
completed. 

The thanks of the College was directed to be returned to Mr. Shoemaker for his 
most timely donation. 

A paper upon Koumys, by G. L. Truckenmiller, Ph. G., was read by the Regis- 
trar. A paper upon the same subject was also read by our fellow member Dr. L. 
Wolff. Both papers were referred to the Publication Committee. 

Prof. Remington inquired as to the manner of making ointments and cerates, as 
practiced by the members present; the Pharmacopoeia directs that all of them should 
be stirred till cool. Prof Remington stated that he had tried the opposite plan of 
melting the materials with the least possible heat, straining into a proper recipient 
and permitting it to cool gradually without any Stirling or any disturbance what- 
ever. His experience was in favor of this plan. 

A formula for iodized oil of bitter almonds was asked for by a member. The 
formula was reported, iodine gr. xx, oil of bitter almonds f^i — M., and permitting 
it to stand until it dissolves, which is only effected after considerable lapse of time.. 
Professor Remington has also experimented with oil of sassafras instead of oii of 
bitter almonds, and has observed that is a very much better solvent for iodine thari 
the oil of bitter almonds. 

Prof. Remington called attention to the approaching meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association, which will take place at AUentown in the early part 
of June, and recommending the trade here to connect themselves in membership. 

There being no further business, on motion adiourned. 

T. S. WiEGAND, Registrar. 



PHARMACEUTICAL COLLEGES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



The Pharmaceutical Society and the Braunhart Prescription Bill. — At a meet- 
ing of the California Pharmaceutical Society, held March 17th, for the purpose of 
endorsing the action of E. Painter and W. M. Searby, in their efforts to secure the 
passage of the Braunhart bill, the following was unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, A special committee was appointed by this Society to devise means 
to secure the passage of the Braunhart bill for the suppression of percentages paid 
by apothecaries to physicians on their prescriptions, and 

Whereas, Two of our members have taken an active part in securing the bilTs 



.532 Editorial. { ^"jl,°„t.88r"- 

(passage, thereby incurring the displeasure of certain physicians, who now seek to 
injure the business of these gentlemen ; therefore be it 

Resol-uedy By this Society, that we regard the Braunhart bill as a just one, and 
likely to deter unprincipled apothecaries from continuing the nefarious practice. 

Resolved, That we heartily endorse each and every action of Messrs. E. Painter 
and W. M. Searby, with whom we are anxious to share the odium (.?) sought to be 
attached to them by those who we have reason to believe profit by the practice we 
aim to suppress. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The monthly meeting was held April 14th, 
with a large attendance. A fine collection of rare drugs (about 40 different speci- 
mens) was received from Messrs. James G. Steele & Co., of San Francisco, Cal., in 
acknowledgment of which the sincere thanks of the College were offered. Mr. J. 
U. Lloyd showed a specimen of adulterated santonin, containing 85 per cent, bora- 
cic acid and 15 per cent, santonin. After discussing at some length the revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia the meeting adjourned. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



Decennial National Convention for Revising the Pharmacopoeia. — Wednesday, 
May z,th. First Day. First Session. — The Sixth Decennial Convention for the Revi- 
sion of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States met in the National Medical Col- 
lege, H street, between Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets, N. W., Washington, 
D. C, May 5th, 1880. 

The Convention was called to order by the only surviving officer of the last coji- 
vention, Dr. James E. Morgan, V)f Washington, at 12 M., who, on motion of Dr. 
R. E. Rogers, of Philadelphia, was elected temporary Chairman, and Dr. D. W. 
Prentiss, of Washington, was elected temporary Secretary. 

Dr. Morgan, upon taking the chair, referred in a feeling manner to the fact that 
he was the only surviving officer left, thanked the Convention for the honor con- 
ferred upon him, and trusted that the proceedings would be characterized by har- 
mony, and the important business be successfully accomplished, 

COMMITTEE ON CREDENTIALS. 

The first business in order being the appointment of a Committee on Credentials, 
the Chairman selected Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, A. B. Taylor and W. S. 
Thompson as this committee. 

After a recess of fifteen minutes the committee reported that they had received 
credentials from the following bodies: Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, Louisville College of Pharmacy, Maryland College 
of Pharmacy, Medical Society of the District of Columbia, National Medical Col- 
lege Columbian University ; Medical Department of the University of George- 
town, D. C.j National College of Pharmacy, Washington, D. C; Medical Depart- 
ment University of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts Medical Society, Bellevue Hospi- 
tal Medical College, College of Pharmacy City of New York, College of Physi- 



Am, Jour. Phaim 

June, 1880 



Editorial. 



J35 



cians and Surgeons Medical Departnnent of Columbia College j Dartmouth Medical 
College, Hanover, N. H. ; Connecticut Medical Society, Rush Medical College, 
Chicago} Philadelphia County Medical Society, State University of Iowa Medical 
Department, Iowa State Medical Society, St. Louis College of Pharmacy, Univer- 
sity of Michigan School of Pharmacy 5 College of Physicians, Philadelphia 5 Med- 
ical Department of the U. S. Army, University of the City of New York Medical- 
Department, Medical Department of Medicine and Surgery of Michigan Univer- 
sity, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, Woman's 
Medical College of Philadelphia, Medical College of Indiana, Medical Society of 
the State of New York, College of Medicine of Syracuse University, Medical 
Department of U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Hospital Service ; Miami Medical College, 
Cincinnati; Pennsylvania College of Pharmacy, Missouri Medical College, St. 
Louis; College of Physicians and Surgeons of the City of New York; Medicai 
Department of Howard Univerity, Washington, D. C. ; University of Albany, 
N. Y. ; Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia; New York Academy of Medi- 
cine; Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, Baltimore; University of 
Maryland, Women's Medical College, New York ; North Carolina State Medical 
Association. 

Objection was made to admitting the delegates from some of the bodies, on the 
ground that they were not strictly entitled to seats under the call of the Convention, 
which embraced "incorporated State Medical Societies, incorporated Medical Col- 
leges, incorporated Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and incorporated Colleges 
of Pharmacy." 

Dr. Busey, of Washington, moved to admit delegates from Medical Departments 
o\ the Army and Navy and from the Marine Hospital Service; also those from the 
Medical Society of the District of Columbia. Carried. 

The motion by Prof R. E. Rogers to admit the delegates from Philadelphia 
County Medical Society gave rise to considerable discussion. 

Prof. Remington moved that the Chairman of the delegation from the Philadel- 
phia County Medical Society, Dr. Heniy H. Smith, be invited to state the circum- 
stances which led to the appointment of these delegates. Dr. Smith explained that 
the Society had been invited to send delegates by Dr. Morgan, the only remaining 
officer of the previous convention, that they had taken considerable interest in the 
work of revising the Pharmacopoeia, had prepared a report upon the revision, which 
had occupied them considerable time, and that they had not anticipated any objec- 
tion to the admission of their delegation, as similar bodies had been received at pre- 
vious conventions without challenge. ^ 

After hearing the statement of Dr. Smith the Convention decided to admit the 
delegation, and Prof. Rogers' motion was therefore carried. 

COMMITTEE ON NOMINATION. 

Mr. Thomas Doliber, of Boston, moved that a committee on nominations be 
appointed, consisting of one member from each body represented in the Convention, 
which was carried, whereupon the Secretary called upon each of the various delega- 
tions to name one of their number to serve upon this committee, when the following 
were appointed: S. A. D. Sheppard, A. B. Taylor, C. Louis Diehl, Jos. Roberts, 



334 



Editorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1880. 



Dr. Antisell, Dr. W. W. Johnson, Dr. S. C. Busey, R. B. Ferguson, Dr. H. C. 
Wood, Dr. E. S. Wood, Dr. F. A. Castle, Chas. Rice, Dr. E. Curtis, Dr. H. M. 
Field, Dr. H. H. Smith, W. H. Crawford, H. B. Parsons, Dr. I. M. Hays, Dr. D. 
L. Huntington, Dr. H. G. Piffard, G. M. Hambright, Dr. A. Fennel, Dr. C. Mar- 
shall, Dr. J. D. Rushmore, G. R. Metcalf, Dr. B. F. Gibbs, Oscar Oldberg, Dr. J. 
F. Judge, Dr. M. Roche, Dr. O. A. Wall, Dr. J. C. Peters, G. S. Palmer, Dr. R. 
E. Rogers, Dr. L. Johnson, W. J. C. Du Hamel, Dr. G. H. Fox, Dr. T. F. Wood. 
The Convention then adjourned until 3 P. M. 

First Day. Second Session. — The Convention reassembled at 3.30 P. M., and the 
report of the Committee on Nominations was read as follows : For President, 
Robert Amory, M.D., Brookline, Mass.; Vice-Presidents — Dr. S.C. Busey, Wash - 
ington. Prof P. W. Bedford, New York j Secretary, Dr. F. A. Castle, New York; 
Assistant Secretary, Dr. C. H. A. Kleinschmidt, Washington, D. C. The report 
was adopted. 

Dr. Amory, upon taking the chair, made a few appropriate remarks, thanking 
the Convention for the honor conferred upon him. 

Prof. Vlaisch moved that Dr. E. R. Squibb, of Brooklyn, be invited to participate 
in the affairs of the Convention with all the rights and privileges of a delegate. Car- 
ried unanimously. 

Mr. A. B. Taylor, Secretary of the Committee upon Final Revision of the Phar- 
macopti^ia of 1870, read his report, which was accepted and adopted. 

PRESENTATION OF REPORTS. 

The following bodies presented reports upon the Revision : College of Physicians 
of Philadelphia, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Maryland College of Pharmacy, 
Louisville College of Pharmacy, American Pharmaceutical Association, Pennsyl- 
vania Pharmaceutical Association, Philadelphia County Medical Society, National 
Medical College, National College of Pharmacy. 

On motion of Prof Diehl, the President of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical 
Association, Mr. Chas. H. Heinitsh was invited to a seat in the Convention with 
all the rights and privileges of a delegate. Unanimously carried. 

The following resolutions, offered by Prof. Maisch, were adopted : 

Kesol'ved, That the Committee on Nominations be instructed to nominate a com- 
imittee of Revision and Publication, consisting of members. 

Resol^edy That the Committee on Nominations be instructed to report a plan 
for revising and publishing the Pharmacopoeia, and to make provision for the revi- 
sion of the Pharmacopoeia in the future. 

The motion of Mr. A. B. Taylor, that the final committee consist of twenty-five 
members, was carried. 

The Convention then adjourned to meet on Thursday, May 6th, at 12 M. 

On being called to order at this hour, it was stated that the Nominating Com- 
mittee were not ready to report, when an adjournment till 2 P. M, was called for 
and passed. This was repeated at 2 P. M.,and the meeting adjourned till 10 P.M. 

Tkursdayy May dth. Second Day, Night and early Morning Session. — The Con- 
vention was called to order at 10 P. M. by the President. The report of the Com- 
mittee on Nominations was read. The following were nominated and elected as 
the Committee of Re-uision and Publication of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States : 



Am. Jovir. Pharm 
June, i8So. 



Editorial, 



335 



Dr. Robert Amory, Brookline, Mass. H. B. Parsons, Washington, D. C, 

Dr. F. A. Castle, New York. Dr. H. G. Piffard, New York. 

Dr. D. L. Huntington, U. S. Army. Prof. Jos. P. Remington, Philadelphia. 

Dr. B. F. Gibbs, U. S. Navy. Charles Rice, New York. 

Prof. O. Oldberg, U. S. Mar. Hosp. Serv. Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, Phila. 

Prof. P. W. Bedford, New York. Dr. E. R. Squibb, Brooklyn. 

Prof. C. Louis Diehl, Louisville, Ky. A. B. Taylor, Philadelphia. 

Louis Dohme, Baltimore, Md. W. S. Thompson, Washington. 

Thos. Doliber, Boston, Mass. Prof. O. A. Wall, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. Lawrence Johnson, New York. Dr. E. S. Wood, Cambridge, Mass. 

Prof. J. F. Judge, Cincinnati. Dr. T. F. Wood, North Carolina. 

Prof. J. M. Maisch, Philadelphia. Prof. T. G. Wormley, Philadelphia. 

Prof. G. F. H. Markoe, Boston. 

The report of the American Pharmaceutical Association, so far as it relates to 
general principles, was practically adopted. These refer to the following points: 

The text of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia to be written in the English language. 
Titles of preparations, etc., to be in both Latin and English. An alphabetical 
arrangement of the subjects, use of synonyms, cross references, description of crude 
drugs, description of chemicals, introduction of chemical formulas, processes for 
cheinicah, expressions of quantity, numerical relations of quantities, fluid extracts, 
the best practical process to be left to final committee. Temperature to be expressed 
in both Centigrade and Fahrenheit. Definition of physical propertiesof drugs and 
preparations to be given. A uniform method of taking specific gravity to be per- 
•scribed. When definite expressions of weight are necessary, as in pills, etc., metric and 
apothecaries' weight to be used. Weight of finished product to be specified, and a 
number of tables were proposed to be appended. 

The proposition to have a table of doses in the Pharmacopoeia was negatived. A 
table of saturations to be added, and such other tables as might seem advisable. 

The Committee of Revision and Publication was instructed to award the publica- 
tion of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States to the publishing house offering the 
best terms; the committee to hold the copyright, the price of the work to be fixed, 
and the book to be sold through the ordinary trade channels. The authority was 
also given to publish a new edition or a supplement to the Pharmacopoeia at the end 
of five years, or oftener if necessary. The committee were instructed to fill all 
vacancies which may occur in its body, and to drop, by a vote of two-thirds of the 
committee, any member who may neglect to perform the work which he had 
accepted, or who failed to attend five consecutive meetings of the committee with- 
out valid excuse. 

The committee were also empowered to employ expert labor. 

It was ordered that the call for the next convention should include "all incor- 
porated pharmaceutical and medical colleges, all incorporated pharmaceutical and 
medical societies, and the army, navy and marine hospital service of the United 
States." 

It was resolved that the American Pharmaceutical Association and American 
Medical Association be invited to send delegatss to the next convention. 

The roll of the convention was called, and seventy-four delegates responded. 

Dr. Minis Hayes called the attention of the convention to the fact that the 

*' College of Physicians and Surgeons in the city of New York " ^ was a society 

^This is not the College of Physicians and Surgeons (Medical Department Columbia College), which 
was represented also, but the New York County Medical Society in disguise (see "New York Medieal 
Record," May 15, p. 551. 



Edit or i a i. — O bituary . 



A.m. Jour Pharrn. 

June. 1880 



which had long since ceased to exist, and questioned the legality of the admission 
of their delegates, and moved that their names be dropped from tiie roll. Motion 
not carried. 

The usual complimentary resolutions were then adopted, and the convention, at 
1.45 A.M., May 7th, adjourned. 

The Local Committee of Reception made elaborate arrangements for the enter- 
tainment of the visiting delegates with their ladies. A reception was held on the 
5th at the Corcoran ^rt Gallery, on the afternoon of the 6th at the White House 
by the President of the United States, in the evening at the Naval Observatory by 
Admiral and Mrs. Rogers, and an excursion to Mount Vernon on the morning of 
the 7th was greatly enjoyed by those who attended. 



Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association.— We would remind our reader^ 
resident in this State of the approaching meeting of this Association, to be held in 
Allentown on the 8th of June. The card of the Secretary of the Association, 
inviting those who desire to become members, is published on the inside of the 
cover of this number of this journal, and it would be well for the trade gener- 
ally to respond by writing for the necessary blank applications. 



Hay Asthma or Hay Fever. — Dr. R. H. Weber, of this city, has kindly com- 
municated to us a copy of the prescription which he has uniformly found useful in 
the complaint mentioned. We have postponed its publication until now, at the 
approach of the season when hay asthma will again make its appearance. Dr. 
Weber regards the iodide of potassium as the active agent, but the best results have 
always been obtained when combined with bicarbonate of potassium and hyoscy- 
amus. The formula is as follows : 

R Extracti hyoscyami, . . . • 

Potassii iodidi, . . . . 3i 

Potassii bicarbonatis, . . . . 3i' 

Extr. glycyrrhizae depurati, . . . "^w 

Aquas anisi, ..... 5ivss 

M. S. A dessertspoonful every four hours, day and night, until relieved." ' The 
medicine is to be continued for at least a week, in doses of a dessertspoonful four 
times daily. 



OBITUARY. 

juLES MuRiNGER, Ph. G., was born Jan. 7th, 1853, in Philadelphia. He received 
his education in St. Mary's College, Wilmington, Del., and in the Gymnase Prot- 
estant, Strassburg, and after his return in May, 1868, enteredfthe store of Charles 
Ellis' Son & Co. After graduating from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 
March, 1872, he took entire charge of Ellis' Laboratory for three months, and 
served as assistant in the stores of Simes and Gust. Krause, until in October, 1875, 
he entered into business at nth and Bainbridge Streets, where he remained until his 
death, April 4th last. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JULT, 1880. 

ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF DROPS. 

By S. L. Talbot, Ph.G. 
[From an Inaugural Essay.) 

The design of the writer in experimenting upon this subject was to 
determine, if possible, some relation between the size of the drop and 
a minim of the same liquid, and thus enable any one to determine the 
number of drops of any given liquid that should be directed, to secure 
a uniform dose of said liquid. 

The labor involved in this endeavor can be judged of when about 
275 different liquids were experimented with and each one tested three 
times. The results, as summarized, show the general exactness which 
characterized the work of our former fellow-member, Mr. E. Durand, 
whose labors have been carefully reviewed by the author, and demon- 
strate most fully that minims only should be directed in prescribing 
quantities of liquids less than half a fluidrachm. 

The whole experiments made show results according with Durand's 
and Bernouilli's statements, that the bulk of drops depends upon the 
density of the liquid, the cohesion of the constituent particles of it, 
and also upon adhesion, as shown by the variation when dropped from 
vessels of different material or shape. They also agree, for the most 
part, with the two general rules of Durand : " First. That liquids with 
SMALL PROPORTION of water afford a small drop, and vice versa. 
Second. That amongst liquids containing a large proportion of water, 
those not charged with remedial substances give a larger and heavier drop 
than these same liquids having extraneous bodies in solution.^'' In his second 
rule the word ''heavier" should be erased, as in the officinal solu- 
tions, in most cases, the bodies in solution cause increase in weight, 
which more than offsets or counterbalances the decrease in size ; and 
the same statement is true of tinctures made with diluted alcohol. In 
nearly all cases the cohesion seems to be impaired by the interposition 
cf bodies in solution, and cohesion would seem to exert a stronger 

22 



338 



Equivalence of Drops, 



Am. Jour. Pharm 

July, 1880. 



influence than anything else upon the bulk of drops ; though, if this 
be true, the statement of Evan L. Gmelin, in his " Handbook," that 
" the cohesion of liquids is pretty nearly in proportion to their specific 
gravity," cannot be accepted ; since alcohol (specific gravity '835) and 
mercury (i3'5) afford nearly the same number of drops to the fluid- 
drachm, and chloroform (specific gravity 1*480) yields a drop of less 
than one-fourth the size of a drop of water. 

Summary of Results. 

To sum up the results of these experiments, as briefly as possible, it 
may be stated that the administration of powerful medicines by drops 
is always dangerous. A single fluid may, under differing circumstances, 
give drops varying greatly in size and weight. 

Much diversity is found in the size of drops from different bottles, 
and a single bottle is inconstant in this respect. The most constant, 
and therefore the best bottles for dropping are those with ground necks 
and glass stoppers, and wide, thin, even lips. If bottle of this kind 
are used, each one should be carefully tested, and marked with the size 
of its drops as compared with a minim. 

To drop from corks applied to the outer edge of lips of bottles is 
even less accurate than using the bottles alone. Much better results 
than either may be gained by the use of droppers; and of those tested, 
all of which are in more or less common use, the best is the Barnes 
dropper. Yet it will be seen that this does not accomplish all that is 
claimed for it, only two out of a dozen yielding " sixty drops distilled 
water to a fluidrachm," which is the claim for superiority set forth on 
each box cover. 

Cohesion exerts the greatest influence upon the bulk of drops. 
Temperature has little effect, and rapidity of dropping, almost none. 

The list of officinal liquids shows that the largest drop was yielded 
by syrup of gum arable (44 to fs), and the smallest by chloroform 
(250 to ^Z)' Of bromine the number of drops corresponds with chlo- 
roform, but it cannot be accepted as correct, on account of the extreme 
volatility of the liquid, which, notwithstanding caution, and as great 
haste as was compatible with successful counting, caused the loss of a 
large percentage. 

Strict general rules cannot be laid down as to the corresponding size 
of drops of classes of preparations, though the volatile oils, tinctures, 
spirits, oleo-resins and fluid extracts may be grouped together, as yield 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1880. 



A Correction. 



339 



ing drops usually less than one-half the size of drops of water. Solu- 
tions, syrups and dilute acids afford drops but slightly smaller than 
water, excepting solution of nitrate of mercury and syrups containing 
or made from fluid extracts. Acids, wines, fixed oils, vinegars and 
mixtures give, in most cases, drops of more than one-half the size of 
water, about two-thirds. 

In the drop measurement of the various classes of preparations 
in the United States Pharmacopoeia there was found a noticeable uni- 
formity ; amongst the officinal wines the extremes showed a difference 
of but fourteen drops in the fluidrachm. The fluid extracts and tinc- 
tures, much larger classes, show, naturally, a greater range, but withal 
a regularity sufficient to suggest the addition of a list giving the aver- 
age size of drops of each class. But four exceptions were found neces- 
sary ; these are appended to the tabular list. It will be observed that 
the liquids yielding smallest drop are placed first in order in the follow- 
ing table : 

Average Size of Drops of Classes of U. S. P. Preparations. 



Average Average 

Class. No. of drops Class. No of drops 

in foi. ni f5i. 

Ether and Stronger, . .174 Mixtures, . . ,89 

Fluid extracts, . . 141 Vinegars, ... 77 

Spirits, . . . 141 Syrups not containing fluid extracts, 69 

Tinctures, . . 136 Solutions (i exception), . 66 

Volatile oils, . . 131 Diluted acids, . . .61 

Oleo-resins, . . 124 Exceptions. 

Acids (3 exceptions), . 123 Solution nitrate of mercury, . 131 

Wines, . . 106 Nitromuriatic acid, . . 76 

Fixed oils, . . 103 Muriatic acid, . . .70 

Syrups containing fluid extracts, 97 Sulphurous acid, . . 59 



A CORRECTION. 

In my article in the Journal for April, on " Tests for Arsenic," I 
expressed the opinion that the subnitrate of bismuth might have con- 
tained arsenic. This is a mistake, and I hasten to correct it, as the 
chemist. Prof. Howard, testified in court that he had examined a sample 
of it and it contained none. As my attention was called to it by the 
professor, I now recollect that such was his testimony in court, and 
in justice to him I make the correction, as I have the highest con- 
fidence in his ability and thoroughness as an analytical chemist. 

Phil. Hoglan. 

Ne^comerstouon^ O., May 24th, 1880. 



340 



Volumetric Analysis, 



( Am. J cur. Pharn?^ 
t July, 1880. 



A SIMPLE DEVICE FOR FILTRATION. 

By D. Anson Partridge. 
The cut represents a simple but efficient arrangement for filtration 
under atmospheric pressure. 

J B C h 2L glass tube three inches in> 
length, and about three-eighths of an inch 
internal diameter. 

At J the tube is drawn tapering, to 
make it fit closely to a rubber tube three- 
sixteenths of an inch calibre, which passes, 
inside of the glass tube. A short piece 
of glass tube is inserted into the rubber 
tube at J to make a tight joint ; the 
lower end of this rubber tube is closed by 
inserting a short piece of glass rod. At 
B a smooth slit is made in the rubber 
tube three-eighths of an inch long (as 
recommended by Bunsen) to act as a valve. 

On the projecting short limb of the glass tube is a piece of rubber 
tube, one-eighth of an inch calibre and about one inch long ; the outer 
end of this tube is closed by a piece of glass rod. At C a slit is made 
in the tube to serve as a valve. 

The lower end of the glass tube is drawn out to adapt it to a rubber 
ball of about two inches dianieter. 

This little apparatus, when adapted to a pint flask, will, with a few 
compressions of the ball, afford a pressure equivalent to a column of 
water 8 to i o feet high. / 




VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. 

By Alfred B. Taylor. 

Analysis is the separation of a compound into its several parts. 

Qualitive^ analysis is the determination of the parts, without refer- 
ence to quantities, while quantitive analysis determines also the quanti- 
ties of the parts, thus showing their relative proportions. 

^ " Qualitive " and " quantitive " (from " qualis " and " quantum ") would seem- 
to be much better words than "qualitative" and "quantitative" (from "qualitas"' 
and " quantitas Ti ta-tive is about as barbarous as '* te-to-tum." 



Am Jour. Pharm. "j 
July. 1880. j 



Volumetric Analysis, 



341 



Quantitive analysis by weight, or gravimetric, ■analysis, consists in 
separating and accurately weighing the constituents of a compound. 

The necessary operations are frequently very complicated, occupy- 
ing a long time, and in many cases require elaborate apparatus, as also 
the exercise of much care and experimental knowledge. 

Volumetric analysis, or quantitive analysis by measure, on the other 
hand, is quickly performed, as a general rule is susceptible of extreme 
accuracy, and needs much simpler apparatus. The leading principle 
of the method consists in submitting the substances to be estimated to 
certain characteristic reactions, employing for such reactions solutions 
•of known strength, and from the volume of solution required for the 
production of such reaction, determining the weight of the substance 
'to be e.timated, by aid of the known laws of chemical equivalence. 

Suppose, for example, that it is desirable to know the quantity of 
pure silver contained in a " Bland dollar." The coin is first dissolved 
in pure nitric acid, by which means a bluish solution, containing silver, 
copper, and probably other metals, is obtained. It is known that 
chlorine combines with silver, forming a chloride of silver, which is 
insoluble in dilute nitric acid. The proportions in which the combina- 
tion takes place are the atomic weights of the two substances, or 35*5 
parts of chlorine to every 108 parts of silver consequently, if a solu- 
tion of pure chloride of sodium be prepared by dissolving in water such 
a weight of the salt as will be equivalent to 35*5 grains of chlorine = 
58*5 grains of chloride of sodium (its molecular weight), and the solu- 
tion be diluted to the measure of 1,000 grains of distilled water, every 
single grain-measure (or one-thousandth part) of this solution, upon 
being carefully added to the silver solution, will combine with o*io8 
grain of pure silver to form chloride of silver, which, being insoluble, 
will be precipitated. In the process of adding the salt solution to the 
silver, drop by drop, a point is at least reached when the precipitate 
ceases to form, thus showing that all the silver has been separated from 
the solution. Upon carefully examining the graduated vessel from 
which the salt solution has been used, it at once becomes apparent how 
many grain-measures of liquid have been necessary to produce complete 
decomposition ; and to obtain the answer to the problem is a simple 
matter of calculation. 

For instance, suppose the quantity used to completely decompose 
the one-tenth part of the solution of silver was 343 grain-measures ; 
-this number multiplied by o*io8 (the amount of silver thrown down by 



342 



Volumetric Analysis, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

July, 1883. 



each grain-measure of the salt solution) will give the exact number of 
grains of pure silver contained in one-tenth of a dollar = 37*+ grains^ 
or 371*25 grains of pure silver in the dollar. 

The metric system of w^eights and measures is now used exclusively 
(for scientific purposes) in France, Prussia, Austria, Holland, Sweden,, 
Denmark, Belgium and Spain, the unit of weight being the gram (= 
15-43235 grains troy) ; a gram of distilled water at 4°C.^ (39°F.) mea- 
sures exactly a cubic centimeter or a "fluigram;''^ the kilogram 
contains 1,000 grams; the liter contains 1,000 fluigrams. 

The following apparatus is required in the preparation and use of the 
necessary solutions : 

1. A glass flask, which, when filled to a mark on the neck, contains' 
one liter. 

2. A graduated cylindrical jar, which, when filled to o, contains one 
liter, and is divided into one hundred equal parts. 

3. A burette, a graduated tube which, when filled to o, holds one 
hundred fluigrams, and is divided into one hundred equal parts. 

When volumetric analysis first came into use the test solutions were- 
generally prepared so that each substance to be tested had its own- 
special reagent, and the strength of the standard solution was so calcu- 
lated as to give the result in percentages ; consequently, in alkalimetry^ 
a distinct standard acid was used for soda, another for potash, a third 
for ammonia, and so on, necessitating a great variety of standard solu- 
tions. 

Griffin and Ure appear to have been the first to suggest the use of 
standard test solutions based on the atomic system. 

Normal test solutions, as a general rule, are prepared so that one 
liter at i6°C. shall contain the hydrogen equivalent of the active 
reagent weighed in grams (H == i). 

Decinormal solutions are made one-tenth, and centinormal solutions^ 
one-hundredth, of this strength. 

In the case of univalent substances, such as silver, iodine, hydro- 
chloric acid, sodium, etc., the equivalent and the atomic (or in the case 
of salts, molecular) weights are identical ; thus a normal solution of 

^ It is customary to make the measurements with metrical apparatus at 16^0. 
(about 60OF.) 

2 This name was suggested by the author in a paper published in the "Medical 
and Surgical Reporter," Feb. 24, 1877, P* iJi* 



jir-M""" } Volumetric Analysis. 343 

hydrochloric acid must contain 36'5 grams of the acid in a liter of fluid, 
and a normal solution of sodic hydrate, 40 grams. 

In the case of bivalent substances, such as lead, calcium, oxalic acid, 
sulphurous acid, etc., the equivalent is one-half of the atomic (or in the 
case of salts, molecular) weight ; thus a normal solution of oxalic acid 
would contain or 63 grams of the acid in a liter of fluid. 

Further, in the case of trivalent substances, such as phosphoric acid, 
a normal solution of sodic phosphate would be made by dissolving 
= 119*3 grants of the salt in distilled water, and diluting the liquid to 
the measure of one liter. 

The following standard test solutions have been recommended to be 
introduced into the United States Pharmacopoeia, the same being now 
official in the British Pharmacopoeia : 

1 . Volumetric Solution of Bichromate of Potassium, 

(K,CrA = 295). 

This is a decinormal solution, and contains 4*9 17 grams of the salt 
in one liter of the liquid. 

The reaction which takes place between potassic bichromate and 
ferrous oxide is as follows : 

eFeO + K^CrPy = 3Fe203+Cr203+K20. 

It is therefore necessary that one-sixth of an equivalent in grams 
should be used in a liter for the normal solution, and one-sixtieth for the 
decinormal ; and as it is preferable on many accounts to use a dilute 
solution, the latter is the more convenient for general purposes. 

2. Volumetric Solution of Hyposulphite of Sodium. 

Na2S203, 5H0O = 248. 
The normal solution contains 248 grams in the liter ; the decinor- 
mal solution is usually more convenient, and contains one-tenth as 
much, or 24*8 grams in the liter, while in some cases the centinormal 
solution is desirable. This can readily be prepared by diluting 100 
fluigrams of the decinormal solution to one liter. 

3. Volumetric Solntion of Iodine. I = 127. 

The solution directed in the Pharmacopoeia is the decinormal solu- 
tion, which contains 12*7 grams of iodine in the liter. 

4. Volumetric Solution of Nitrate of Silver, 

Ag.N03= 170. 

This solution is also the decinormal solution, and contains 17 grams 
of nitrate of silver (corresponding to io*8 grams of pure silver) in one 
liter of liquid. 



344 Volumitric Analysis, {"""j^Iiris^so"™' 

5. Volumetric Solution of Oxalic Acid. 
aH^O^ 126. 

Oxalic acid being bivalent, the normal solution is made by dissolving 
- = 63 grams of the acid in a sufficient quantity of water to make 
the solution measure one liter. 

6. Volumetric Solution of Soda. 
NaHO = 40. 

This is a normal solution, and contains 40 grams of sodic hydrate in 
one liter of liquid. 

Might not the process of volumetric analysis be much simplified, and 
especially in view of the abandonment of measures of capacity by the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia, would it not be more in accordance with the 
plan of the work, if measures of capacity were abandoned here also ? 
True, the process would no longer be volumetric, but the leading prin- 
ciple upon which the system is based would still remain. 

It is proposed, then, that all test solutions should be made gravimet- 
ric instead of volumetric ; that is to say, repeating, for example, the 
process of testing the amount of silver in a Bland dollar, the standard 
solution of chloride of sodium would be prepared by dissolving 58*5 
grains of chloride of sodium in distilled water, and diluting the solution 
until it weighed 1,000 grains, instead of measuring 1,000 grain-mea- 
sures, as before. In this case every grain (weight) of this solution, 
upon being added to the silver solution, will combine with O'loS grain 
of pure silver, and no further observation is necessary than to note how 
many grains of the salt solution have been used. This plan would do 
away with all apparatus ; the only instruments necessary to carry it out 
would be flasks or appropriate vessels in which to weigh the solutions, 
and an accurate set of scales and weights to weigh them. 

Variations in temperature would not affect the results, and inasmuch 
as weighing can be done with more exactness than measuring, greater 
accuracy would be obtained. 

This plan would be equally satisfactory with any system of weights, 
whether the British system or the metric system, or simply parts by 
weight were used. 

This same principle applied to all the test solutions would, in my 
• opinion, render the operation more easy of execution, retaining all the 
advantages and discarding some disadvantages of the present system. 

The principal facts herewith presented have been derived from 
"The Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis," by Francis 
Sutton, F. C. S,, published London, 1876, to which the reader is 
referred for further information on the subject. 



'^'"•yu^y'-ifso'""*} Remarks on Syrupus Guaiaci. 345 

SOME REMARKS ON SYRUPUS GUAIACI. 

By T. C. Craig, Ph.G., M.D. 

In the "American Journal of Pharmacy" for 1876, March No., 
page 139, the following formula appears: 

Syrupus Guaiaci. 

B Pulveris guaiaci, .... ^^''^ii 
Liquoris potassse, ... . f^^s 

Sacchari albi, . . . . tbi (avoird.) 

Aquae, . . . . . f^viii 

Fiat syrupus. Signa — Dose, a teaspoonful^ containing 5 grains of guaiacum. 

Having had occasion to make syrup of guaiac quite a number of 
times, and using this formula, I was surprised at finding very much of 
a residue left after making the syrup. As each teaspoonful of the 
syrup was to contain five grains of guaiacum, I thought it strange that 
so much of it should remain insoluble ; hence I was led to investigate 
the subject and discover the fallacy if any existed. 

I noticed that if I added a solution of caustic potash to the residue 
and filtered it the filtrate was dark brown, almost black. From this I 
concluded that the amount of solution of caustic potash prescribed in 
the formula was insufficient to extract the active principles of the gua- 
iacum, and that the reason I had so much residue was that more caus- 
tic potash was needed; but how much.? This I determined in the 
following way: According to recent authority (National Dispensatory) 
guaiac resin contains, as its active principles, guaiaconic acid and gua- 
iaretic acid, the former to the amount of seventy per cent. ; the latter, 
ten per cent. 

The chemical formula for guaiaconic acid is CggH^oO^Q, and for guai • 
aretic acid is Q^^Yi^^O^. The combining weight of guaiaconic acid is 
656 and that of guaiaretic acid is 330. The combining weight of 
caustic potash (KHO) is 56. 

Now, to neutralize 656 atoms, molecules or grains of guaiaconic 
acid will require 56 parts of caustic potash ; again, to neutralize 330 
atoms, molecules or grains of guaiaretic acid will require 56 parts of 
caustic potash ; then 656, the guaiaconic acid, plus 330 of guaiaretic 
acid will require 112 parts of caustic potash to neutralize them. 

Guaiac resin consists, as before stated, of 70 per cent, guaiaconic 
acid and 10 per cent, guaiaretic acid — 80 per cent, in all, or 80 grains 
in every hundred grains of the resin. According to our formula eight- 
tenths of all the guaiac resin should be dissolved, /v., eighty grains out 



346 Structure of Dye-Woods. {^"^'^X^lz::^ 

of every hundred grains of the resin. Every five grains of guaiac 
resin contains four grains of guaiaconic and guaiaretic acids ; then five 
hundred and twelve grains will be the amount of the two acids present. 

Now, 986 : 112 : : 512 : 58, or nearly four times the amount called 
for in the formula. Acting on the accuracy of this calculation, we 
made syrupus guaiaci, using 58 grains of KHO instead of the one-half 
fluidounce of liquor potassae called for, and the result was a small 
amount of residue, a much darker syrup and, therapeutically and 
pharmaceutically, a better preparation. Allow me, then, in conclusionj, 
to suggest the following formula for syrup of guaiac : 

R Pulveris guaiaci resinas, . . . ^xxxii 

Potassic hydrate, .... Iviii grs. 

Sacchari albi . . . . Ibi (avoird.) 

Aquae, . . . . . q. s. 

Dissolve the KHO in 8 fluidounces of water; moisten the guaiac 
with this solution ; pack it in a percolator and gradually pour on the 
balance of the solution ; when this ceases dropping add sufficient water 
to make the percolate measure eight fluidounces ; add the sugar and 
dissolve. 



A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF DYE-WOODS.. 

By Dr. F. R. von Hohnel, 

Lecturer in the Polytechnic Institute of Vienna. 

Translated from " Dingler's Polytech. Jour.," by Prof, Sam'l P. Sadtler. 

Having for some time been engaged upon a thorough histological 
and histo-chemical investigation of dye-woods, I recognized the neces- 
sity of establishing, aided by accurate macroscopic examination, some 
reliable means of distinguishing the various dye-woods from each other 
and from woods similar to them. The researches of Wiesner^ and 
Vogel^ afford all that can be desired as regards the completeness of our 
knowledge of these woods. It appeared, however, that one important 
point remained untouched, viz., reliable macroscopic recognition. The 
examination of dye-woods with the naked eye, or aided by the lens, as 
well as sufficient consideration of differential characters, appear to have 
passed unnoticed. 

^ Wiesner : "Die RohstofFe des Pflanzenreiches," p. 552. 
Vogel: " Untersuchungen ueber den Bau," etc., in "Lotos," March, 1873. 



^""-jXJt""-} Structure of Dye-Woods, 347 

To any one possessing a microscope and micrometer, with some 
skill in the use of the same, aided also by the publications referred to,, 
the task of distinguishing the different varieties of dye-woods is easy 
but to a person having only a lens difficulties present themselves, the 
removal of which, as far as possible, is the object of this communica- 
tion. I would return thanks to the gentlemen mentioned above for 
the material placed at my service. It was, in every respect, all that 
was required, and also affords sufficient guarantee for the general valid- 
ity of the characteristics described below. ^ 

Having but a splinter of the wood, it is easy, with the help of a 
a cross section, that can be got without trouble, to form accurate radial 
and tangential sections, as well as to produce cleavage planes, which 
would furnish all the cardinal points necessary for the carrying out of 
the following examination. 

A preliminary examination of the cross section with the glass will 
show that dye-woods, and woods most nearly related to them, can be 
arranged in a number of groups, which, as regards their structure, are 
sharply defined and separated from each other, but within these groups 
reliable distinction is attended with great difficulty. The groups are : 
I. Blue-wood. 2. The inferior varieties of Red-wood from America; 
Lima, Costa Rica, Santa Martha red-wood and others. 3. Brazil- 
wood, Sapan-wood and Coulteria Red-wood. 4. Red Sandal-wood 

^ For present information I will remark that the entire wood portion of the dye- 
woods, as regarded for present purposes, consists of parenchyma, wood fibre, medul-. 
lary rays and ducts. The rays appear on the cross section, often to the naked eye,, 
but always under a lens of 4 to 5 magnifying power, as delicate, pale, parallel lines, 
which are usually embedded in a darker, solid background, consisting of wood- 
fibre. The direction of the medullary rays is the radial. A section in this line is 
called the radial section. Perpendicular to the radial line (tangential) show on the 
cross section other fine and somewhat wavy lines, which represent the limits of the 
annual rays. The longitudinal section, perpendicular to the radial section, is called 
the tangential section. It intersects all the medullary rays obliquely, while the 
radial section lays them bare throughout its length. The wood fibres and ducts 
appear on the cross section as cut perpendicularly. The first form, to a certain 
extent, the background of the wood. They determine the hardness of the wood 
body, and in the cross section appear as dark, hard, closed masses of tissue, ini 
which the masses of pale parenchyma are embedded as patches of round or 
obliquely stretched shape, or as adherent, narrow tangential bands or lines. In the 
masses of parenchyma, mostly characterized by peculiar arrangement, are the ducts, 
and hollow tubes disposed lengthwise on the wood. 



348 



Structure of Dye-Woods, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1880. 



(African and Indian). 5. Cam-wood. 6. Madura Yellow-wood. 
7. Barberry-wood. 8. Rhus Cotinus Yellow-wood (Fustic). 

All these groups can be distinguished from each other without the 
use of the microscope. The blue-wood (Campeachy), however, is not 
always easily distinguished from some of the inferior varieties of red- 
wood by studying its structure by the aid of the lens. I give below 
accurately described characteristics of the several groups, with particu- 
lar reference to distinguishing properties of the individual woods. The 
accompanying figures are sections as seen with a lens. 

I. Blue-wood. — The medullary rays are partly visible to the naked 
eye. There is also a dark brown background, approaching black in 
color, in which lie faint red lines, points and streaks. The cross sec- 
tions of the ducts are not generally noticeable as such. In other cases 
(varieties in Domingo blue-wood) the pale parenchymous tissue predomi- 
nates, and eventually forms the base in which the wood tissue (fibre) 
is lodged, in the form of small patches. In such cases the ducts are 
always somewhat wider and plainly visible as hollow tubes (to o 25 
mm. width). 

Upon the tangential and radial sections the ducts can yet be plainly 
recognized as half tubes. (With Brazil-wood this is not the case.) 
The medullary rays are not visible on the tangential section. They 
appear radially as cross bands of very different widths, and clear and 
brilliant. The broadest medullary rays vary from 2 to 3 mm. in width; 
between them are visible delicate cross lines, corresponding to the 
small rays and never so regularly arranged as in Brazil-wood. 

The lens discloses on the cross section a tissue arrangement as seen 
in Figs. I and 2. The clear but dull parenchyma is (as in all the fig- 
ures) dark, and the medullary rays appear perpendicular. They never, 
as a rule, form exactly straight lines, and are characteristically of dif- 
ferent thickness. When the parenchyma predominates, there the rays 
as well as ducts are more frequent and wider, and the latter are dis- 
/posed in radial series. 






The medullary rays very rarely occur tangentially, and under the 
lens nothing further of any importance is shown by either a tangential 
or radial view. 



"""•/urxBSo""} Structure of Bye-Woods. 349 

2. The inferior varieties of Red-wood from America are in structure 
intimately connected with the Blue-wood, Their color, however, dis- 
tinguishes them, more or less readily, from the latter. In relation to 
structure and remaining properties, the Lima Red-wood (Caesalpina. 
crista?), Nicaragua Red-wood (C. brasiliensis) and others are not rep- 
resented with accuracy. 

Without the lens neither medullary rays nor annual growths are dis- 
cernible on a cross section. The ducts are not at all, or only partially,, 
visible. The arrangement of the parenchyma (Fig. 3) is the same as 
in the Campeachy-wood, only the structure is finer. The parenchy- 
mous spots appear more combined, and drawn out more delicately at 
their ends. 

In the tangential section the ducts appear as dark lines, and the 
medullary rays are very short and delicate longitudinal lines, which are 
not (as with Brazil-wood) disposed in horizontal series. On a radial 
section are seen the medullary rays, 0*3 mm. wide. These, with refer- 
ence to their width, may be classed as between the Brazil- and Sapan- 
wood. Under the lens, the cross section gives us Fig. 3. We notice 
here the duct openings, 0'i\ to o*i mm. in width, and the very irregu- 
larly developed medullary rays, while true annual rings are not to be 
seen. The tangential sections show, especially in the poorer, lighter- 
colored species, the medullary rays very distinctly, as dark longitudinal 
strokes, which are irregularly divided, so that a wave appearance (Bra- 
zil- and Sandai-wood) is not produced. This is not even noticed in the 
radial section. The medullary rays occur mostly as short, broad cross 
bands, the ducts as shining, dark half tubes. 

3. The Brazil, Sapan and Coulteria Red-wood agree with each 
other in the essential peculiarities of their structure. They all, for 
example, possess almost equally distributed duct pores, and round and 
very characteristic parenchymous spots. 

Of all the red-woods, the Coulteria Red-wood (Coulteria tinctoria) 
has the finest structure.* Its cross section presents almost exactly the 
same appearance as the Brazil-wood, only the annual rings are more 
distinct and the wood is colored more of a brown than a red. The 
tangential and radial sections are about the same as in the Brazil- 
wood. 

The Brazil-wood presents in its cross-section a reddish-brown, hard, 
shining background, in which are noticed innumerable scattered pale 
red points. Many of these are indistinct and blurred. Without a. 



350 Structure of Dye-Woods. {^''■XJ^o''!'' 

Ie3is the medullary rays and annual rings are not discernible. The 
ducts on the tangential section appear as delicate, dark, longitudinal 
lines. Tangential cleavage planes exhibit very delicate cross-lines, 
which impart a wave-like appearance to the same. They originate 
from the medullary rays disposed in horizontal lines. The principal 
radial cross-section has a similar appearance. The medullary rays 
are all small, 4 to 5=1 mm. Fig. 4 represents a cross-section under 
the lens. The medullary rays are equally removed from each other, 
and almost equally strong. The annual growths are recognized as 
very delicate cross-lines. The parenchymous spots are rounded and 
not sharply defined. They contain several very narrow ducts which, 
however, on a cross-section and under a lens, are found to be distinct 
tubes. The parenchymous spots rarely adhere to each other; they 
never form tangential separated fascia. 

A tangent view with the lens shows the medullary rays as delicate, 
short, dark, longitudinal lines, the ducts as dark, half-tubes, and the 
parenchyma as pale, longitudinal stripes. Upon both longitudinal views 
under the lens the wave appearance becomes more evident. 

Sapan-wood (Fig. 5) exhibits on a cross-section larger parenchymous 
spots than the Brazil-wood. The duct cross-sections appear as holes 
to the naked eye. The annual rings are distinct. Characteristic 
paler and darker concentric fascia are formed by the parenchymous 
spots being in greater proximitv on the internal edge of the annual 
growths. The medullary rays are just visible to the naked eye. The 
radial view does not disclose a wave appearance, although the medul- 
lary rays are more distinct than in the case of Brazil-wood (0*25 to 
0*66 mm. high). The wave appearance is not observed on the tan- 
gent cross-plane. The medullary rays appear very distinctly as short 
longitudinal stripes, especially on cleavage surfaces. On both longi- 
tudinal surfaces the ducts appear as recognizable half-tubes. The lens 
shows the large duct sections very plainly, also the medullary rays, 
separated from each other by nearly equal spaces, and the narrow 
annual rings looking like lines. The parenchymous sheath of the 
ducts are relatively smaller than in the Brazil and Coulteria Redwood, 
often barely visible, so that the respective ducts appear to border closely 
on libriform. Nothing new is observed when viewed longitudinally 
under the lens. 

4. Red Sandal'Wood (Pterocarpus santalinus), in cross-sections, pre- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
July, 1880. J 



Structure of Dye-PF oods. 



sents a dark red base, in which innumerable compact or more loosely- 
arranged cross-bands of dull, almost brick-red color, are lodged. At 
some places these bands appear swollen into knots, and in each swell- 
ing is found, on the rule, a duct of almost 0*3 mm. diameter, which is 
at once discerned by the naked eye to be a tube. The remarkably 
fine medullary rays are only visible with the lens, and are represented 
by figure 6. They are almost exactly of equal distance from each 
other, and somewhat curved about the larger ducts. 






To the naked eye the tangent section appears covered with very 
delicate, slightly wavy cross-lines, which (as seen under the micro- 
scope) as with Brazil-wood, where they are less striking and finer, are 
produced by the regular disposition of the medullary rays; 5 cross-lines 
are equal to i mm. The ducts on the longitudinal sections appear 
mostly as somewhat bent, dark-brown and shining half-tubes. The 
radial section shows the small, almost equally high medullary rays, 
which form a wave. There is slight indication of longitudinal lines, 
resulting from the concentric parenchymous layer of wood fibre. The 
ducts are visible to the naked eye, complete and strongly lustrous. 
Frequently they occur on the radial cleavage planes as unaltered tubes. 
Under the lens the cross-sections of the medullary rays on the tangent 
planes are defined in the form of fine, almost black stripes, about 0*2 
mm. in length. On the radial longitudinal section the medullary rays 
appear covered with very fine and innumerable cross-lines. The lens 
shows, too, the sections of the ducts, which are somewhat longer than 
broad, and very distinct. 

The African sandal-wood cannot be distinguished macroscopically 
or microscopically from the Asiatic with any certainty. According to 
Vogel ("Lotos," 1873), probably a little brighter colored, and the 
ducts are somewhat larger. 

5. Cam-wood (from Baphnia nitida) is very curiously constructed. 
The cross-section (Fig. 7) shows neither ducts nor medullary rays to 
the naked eye, but delicate, frail, wavy parallel or slightly divergent 
parenchymous zones. Under the lens the ducts appear as minute 



?52 Structure of Bye-Woods, { jify'xfso!"™- 

points (finer than those of the Brazil-wood) of 0'o8 mm. diameter. 
The medullary rays occur in scattered patches as remarkably delicate 
lines. The body of the wood-fibre is hard and black-red j the paren- 
chymous bands are unbroken and cherry-red. 

The tangential incision plane does not disclose any remarkable 
peculiarity in structure, even under the lens. Here and there are 
single widened ducts. Very characteristic are the longitudinal stripes 
on the radial incision plane; they are visible without the lens. They 
originate in the parenchymous zones; 4 to 6 of them equal i mm. 
The medullary rays appear as bright small bands of unequal width. 
Under the lens, a slight cross marking is observed on them. The 
ducts appear in spots as dark and shining longitudinal lines. 

6. Old Fustic (Madura tinctoria). — The cross sections show medul- 
lary rays without use of lens. The annual rings fail completely. 
This forms the most material difference between it and the Madura 
aurantiaca. In the thick dirty-brown background, partly isolated, 
partly more or less removed, are besprinkled band-like compact paren- 
chymous patches. (See Fig. 8.) The bands appear to be indented. 
The ducts are completely filled with parenchyma, and therefore the 
duct openings are not visible under a microscope. 

The tangent section shows, in a brilliant background, innumerable 
regularly scattered, dark, short screaks (medullary rays), and tolerably 
broad, somewhat bent, ochre-yeiiow lines, which originate in the ducts 
filled with parenchyma. On the radial section the medullary rays 
appear as pale cross lines, about O'l to 0*25 mm. in width. Under the 
lens, they reveal 6 to 20 delicate lines, originating from the separate 
cell series. On the longitudinal section the ducts, under the lens^ 
appear as if filled with yeilow-colored scales, which are lustrous. 




The wood of the Madura aurantiaca is readily distinguished from 
that of old Fustic by the well-defined annual ring, also by the light and 
not ochre-yellow color of the parenchymous mass, and its much finer 
structure. The parenchymous patches are more oblique in position, 
and in the spring consist of ducts filled with parenchyma, etc. 

7. Barberry (Roots of the Berberis vulgaris). — Intense lemon-yel- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1880. 



Structure of Dye-Woods, 



J5J 



low color. The naked eye will detect on the cross section a regular 
yellow background, in which are imbedded strongly converging, very 
broad, light yellow medullary rays. All of the latter are distinct. The 
ducts appear as small dark points, which are partly regularly distributed 
over the cross section, partly disposed in cross bands. Under the lens, 
the ducts are found to be empty, and nothing more is noticeable except 
what the eye would detect. The width of medullary rays on the cross 
section sometimes increases, and sometimes the opposite occurs. The 
annual rings are visible, but not so distinct as in the other yellow- 
woods. On the tangent section the medullary rays occur as nearly 
obliterated, broad longitudinal lines, the ducts as very thin dark lines. 
On the radial section the medullary rays appear over 2 mm. wide, and 
are furnished with horizontal lines. 

8. Rhus Cotinus, — In a cross section the naked eye will perceive con- 
centric light and dark cross bands. The ducts appear as small points, 
and the medullary rays are only indicated. Oq the tangent section the 
ducts are noticed, in an ochre-yellow ground, as light brown longitu- 
dinal lines. On the radial section the very small medullary rays occur 
rarely ; the ducts appear as on the tangent section. Fig. 10 represents 
the cross section, under the lens. The fine medullary rays are only 
partially visible. The very narrow ducts are disposed in radial series 
and the entire wood fibre split up into brown, compact, ductless zones, 
and into yellow, porous, concentric layers, full of ducts. On the lon- 
gitudinal sections the ducts appear complete and very lustrous, while 
the medullary rays are rare on the radial section. They are darker 
than the base, just as in the tangent section, where they appear as very 
minute, pale brown longitudinal lines. 

From what has been said I believe I have made it evident that to 
crude organic products belong a number of properties which are visible 
to the naked eye and under the lens, but which have heretofore been 
too slightly appreciated in considering these articles. As the search for 
accurately distinguishing features between raw products, similar but of 
unequal value, is one of the principal ends in view in the study of such 
material, no method should be despised in order to arrive at the desired 
end. I hope the preceding communication will be received in this 
sense. 

23 



354 



London Purple. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1880. 



LONDON PURPLE. 

By C. V. Riley. 

From the "American Entomologist," Bulletin No. 3 of the U. S. Entomological Commission. 

This powder is obtained in the following manner in the manufacture 
of anilin dyes. Crude coal oil is distilled to produce benzol. This 
is mixed with nitric acid and forms nitro-benzol. Iron filings are then 
used to produce nascent hydrogen with the excess of nitric acid in the 
benzol. When distilled, anilin results : to this arsenic acid, to give 
an atom of oxygen which produces rose anilin, and quicklime are added 
to absorb the arsenic. The residuum which is obtained by filtration or 
settling is what has been denominated " London Purple/' the sediment 
being dried, powdered and finely bolted. The powder is, therefore, 
composed of lime and arsenious acid, with about 25 per cent, of car- 
bonaceous matter which surrounds every atom. Experiments which I 
made with it in 1878 impressed me favorably with this powder as an 
insecticide, and its use on the Colorado potato beetle by Professors 
Budd and Bessey, of the Iowa Agricultural College, proved highly 
satisfactory. I was, therefore, quite anxious to test .its effect on the 
cotton worm in the field on a large scale, and in the winter of 1878-79 
induced the manufacturers to send a large quantity for this purpose to 
the Department of Agriculture. The analysis' made of it by Prof. 
Collier, the chemist of the Department, showed it to contain : 





Per cent. 


Rose anilin, 


12-46 


Arsenic acid, 


43*65 


Lime, 


21-82 


Insoluble residue. 


14-57 


Iron oxide, 


i-i6' 


Water, 


2-27 


Loss, 


4*07 




100-00 



Through the liberality of the manufacturers, Messrs. Hemingway & 
Co., a number of barrels of this powder were placed at my disposal 
the past season and distributed to various observers and agents in 
Georgia, Alabama and Texas. Early in the spring Mr. A. R. Whitney, 
of Franklin Grove, Illinois, found it to be a perfect antidote to the 
canker worms which had not been prevented from ascending his apple 
trees, and the experiments of those whom I had intrusted to make them 

1 Ordinarily the rose anilin has mixed with it a little ulmic acid and an increase of 
2 per cent, of arsenic acid. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

July, 1880 



London Purple. 



355 



-on the cotton worm, as well as those made under my own supervision, 
all showed that its effects are fully equal to those of Paris green. Like 
the latter it kills the worms quickly and does not injure the plants, if 
not applied in too great a quantity. Farther, it also colors the ingredi- 
ents so as to prevent their being mistaken for harmless material. Fin- 
ally, its cheap price removes the temptation to adulterate the poison, as 
every adulteration would prove more expensive than the genuine article. 
It is even superior to Paris green, as, owing to its more finely-powdered 
condition, it can be more thoroughly mixed with other ingredients and 
'Used in smaller proportion. Experiments on a large scale have been 
made with the dry application at the rate of 2 lbs. to 18 lbs. of dilu- 
ents, also at the rates of i, J, \ and \ lb. to 18 of the diluents. The 
last proved only partially effectual, and in no case were the plants 
'injured or the leaves even burned. In all but the last case the worms 
were effectually killed, but as the mixture, at the rate of J lb., was 
applied with greater care and regularity than is generally had on a large 
•scale, and also in very dry weather, the proportion of ^ lb. to 18 of 
the diluents is most to be recommended. All higher proportions are 
simply waste of the material. 

Like Paris green, it is not soluble, but is much easier kept suspended 
in water than the former. If applied in this way some care has to be 
taken in stirring it in the water, as it has a tendency to form lumps, 
owing to its finely-powdered condition. Experiments on a large scale 
with this material diluted in water gave the following results : When 
•used in the same proportion as Paris green, namely, i lb. of the poison 
to about 40 gallons of water, one experimenter reports that the leaves 
were slightly crisped, while four others report a perfect success and no 
injury whatever to the plant. Experiments bv myself and Mr. Schwartz 
showed that when applied in the proportion mentioned and thoroughly 
stirred up in the water the leaves were partly crisped, though by no means 
so much as by arsenic, even when applied in weaker solution. When 
•used in smaller proportion, or at the rate of } or J lb. to 40 gallons of 
water, it did not burn the leaves and still proved effectual in destroying 
the worms. Repeated experiment on a smaller scale confirmed these 
results obtained on large fields, and also showed that the proportion may 
be still farther reduced, and when applied with great care and in very 
'dry weather \ lb. to 40 gallons will kill. Still farther reduction in the 
.proportion of the powder used gave negative results. I would, there- 
fore, recommend the use of J lb. of this powder to from 50 to 55 gal- 



356 



Japanese Belladonna. 



f Am. Jour. Pharmt. 
\ July, 1880. 



Ions of water as the proportion most likely to give general satisfaction' 
by effectually destroying the worms without injuring the plants. 

All that has been said under the head of Paris green as to the desir- 
ability of adding a small quantity of flour or other substance to give 
adhesiveness to the liquid will hold equally true of London purple, but 
the latter has in many respects a great advantage over the former,, 
especially in its greater cheapness. 

London purple has this farther advantage over other arsenical com-' 
pounds hitherto employed : Its finely-pulverized condition seems to- 
give it such penetrating power that, when used in liquid, it tints the 
leaves so that cotton treated with it is readily distinguished at a dis- 
tance, the general effect being quite marked as compared with any of 
the other poisons similarly applied. It seems also to be more effectu- 
ally absorbed into the substance of the leaf, and is therefore more per- 
sistent. At the same time experience shows that it does not injurethe 
squares any more than Paris green. 



JAPANESE BELLADONNA. 

By E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 

Curator of the Museum of the Phai maceutical Society. 

In January last I received from Professor FlUkiger, of Strassburg, a 
specimen of a root labeled '^Japanese belladonna," and which, in his 
opinion, 'Seemed to contain atropia." 

The root was totally different in character to true belladonna; but^ 
having at that time no clue to its botanical source, I put it on one side: 
for future investigation. 

My attention was again called to this belladonna root by a sample- 
received a few (lays ago from Messrs. Hearon, Squire and Francis, who- 
informed me that it was offered at a drug sale in London early this 
month, but that no one bid for it. 

Just at this time I had occasion to refer to a figure of Scopolia carnio- 
Uca^ Jacq.,^ and was struck by the remarkable resemblance between 
the root of this plant, as figured by Jacquin, and the Japanese 
belladonna. 

On turning to the recently published work by Franchet and Savatier 
on Japanese plants, I found that an allied species, S. japonica^ Max., 
occurs in Japan, and that no other solanaceous plant there described. 

^Jacquin, " Obs. Bot.," p. 20. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1880, J 



Japanese Belladonna. 



357 



would be likely to have a stout rhizome like that of scopolia, most of 
the solanaceous plants of that country being either annuals, or sufFruti- 
cose perennials]*like ^dulcamara. On referring to Maximowicicz's 
description of Scopolia japonlca^ I found that he considered it to be the 
Atropa Belladonna of Japanese botanists. Although Franchet and 
^Savatier record it only, on the authority of Tschonaski, from near 
streams on the highest mountains of Nikoo, and on that of Tanaka, 
"from an unknown locality, yet it is well known that the Japanese cul- 
tivate several solanaceous plants, and probably this one among them, 
«ince it is figured both in the So mokou Zoussetz," vol. iii, fol. 17 
*(under the name of Hashiri dokoro)^ and in the "Phonzou Zoufou," 
vol. xxi, fol. 22 (under Ro outo). It would seem, therefore, to be a 
well known plant, and may reasonably be supposed to be as hardy as 
the S. carniolica of English gardens, and the root might well be an 
article of commerce in Japan. 

I entercain no doubt, there- 
fore, that the Japanese bella- 
donna root which has lately 
been offered for sale in Europe 
is the root of Scopolia japonica^ 
Max. This species differs 
from^ the European one {S. 
carniolica^ chiefly in its more 
acute leaves, which have con- 
stantly longer petioles, in the 
style being curved or declin- 
ate instead of straight, and in 
the teeth of the calyx being 
sometimes very unequal. The 
■Japanese Belladonna Koot.^TVt left hand fig- ^^^5^ unknown. In size the 
ure represents the root, the right hand one 

the twisted rhizome, and the central one a Japanese plant equals robust 
transverse section of the rhizome with the specimens of the European 
vascular bundles more marked than usual. ^ ^ ^ 

species. 

The rhizome, as met with in commerce, varies in length from 2 to 
4 or 5 inches, and on the average is \ inch in diameter, cylindrical or 
slightly compressed, rarely branched, knotty and more or less bent and 
•marked on the upper surface with circular, disc-like scars, where the 

^ Max., "Mel, Biol in Bull de TAcad. Imp. des Sc de St. Petersbourg," vol. viii, 
jp. 629. 




358 



Japanese Belladonna, 



Am. Jour. Pharra.. 
July, 1880. 



leafy stems have arisen. It is the slightly alternate disposition of the 
nodes from which these stems arise which gives the rhizome its knotty 
character. No rootlets remain attached to the rhizome, but each node 
is surrounded with one or more indistinct rows of dots or scars, appar- 
ently indicating their presence. The rhizome is externally of a brown 
color, not white when abraded, as in belladonna, of a pale brown color 
internally, speckled with numerous very minute dots, which appear 
under a lens to be white and starchy, and scattered through a resinous or 
horny looking structure. The bark is so similar in color and so closely 
applied to the meditullium as not to be readily distinguishable by the 
naked eye. The odor is slightly mousy and narcotic, and the taste- 
hardly any except a slight bitterness. From portions which were 
mixed with the rhizome, it would appear to terminate in a genuine root 
of some length and thickness. 

The recent investigations by Ladenburg, concerning the relationshipi 
of the solanaceous alkaloids to each other, seem to point out that the 
active principle of this drug might be worth examination, as well as 
that of its European congener. 

A few remarks on the genus Scopolia may perhaps not be out of 
place here. It was founded by Jacquin on the peculiarity of the fruit,, 
which is a capsule. The capsule, with the calyx and pedicel, fall off 
together, and after a time the capsule dehisces transversely, like that of 
henbane. In color of the flower and in foliage the plant so closely 
resembles belladonna that were it not for the fact that belladonna has> 
a baccate fruit and no rhizome, even a good botanist might be led to- 
call it an Atropa, The genus is named after Antoine Scopoli, an Idrian 
physician and professor of botany, who appears to have been the first 
to notice the European species. 

The Japanese scopolia has the leaves often more or less deeply den- 
tate, or even repand-dentate, in which character it presents an analogy 
to Solanum nigrum in this country, the leaves of which may sometimes- 
be found quite entire and sometimes coarsely toothed. — Pharm. Jour., 
and Trans. ^ April 3, 1880. 



^"^'jl^i^U^^'""-} Histology of Araroha. ' 359 

THE HISTOLOGY OF ARAROBA or GOA POWDER.^ 

By Thomas Greenish, F.C.S. 

Within the last few years much interest has attached to a drug im- 
ported from Brazil, and to which the native name "Araroba" is 
applied, and sometimes also "Goa" powder, from Goa, a Portuguese 
possession of that name on the Malabar Coast, through which it was 
imported into British India. 

Its chemistry has been investigated by Professor Attfield and subse- 
quently by Liebermann, the botanical characters of the tree whence it 
is produced have been described and illustrated, and so much of its 
history as has reached this country can be gathered from various papers 
in' the pharmaceutical journals of the last five years. 

The object of this paper is to deal with the histology of araroba, a 
substance at the present time employed chiefly, if not exclusively, for 
the production of chrysophanic acid. 

As met with in commerce araroba is in the form of a powder more 
or less agglomerated ; mixed with it, and covered by it, are splinters of 
the wood in which this substance originates. The powder has an 
intensely bitter taste, and somewhat of a resinous adhesion to the 
fingers; it is said that the color is originally of a fine yellow, resemb- 
ling sulphur, and that this by exposure gradually changes to a rhubarb 
color, and then darkens to that of aloes. Occasionally in the com- 
mercial powder lumps are met with, which, when broken, show inter- 
nally a canary color, whilst the external parts are dark brown. A 
sample dried at 100 to iio°C. lost 1*98 per cent. 

The drawing No. i represents a segment of a transverse section of 
the wood yielding araroba, from an authentic specimen deposited in 
the Society's Museum, and the fragments of wood found in the powder, 
from sections of which the other drawings were made, correspond 
with this in structure. 

The bark externally is more or less covered with lichen, which gives 
it a somewhat grey and black patchy appearance. The epidermal tis- 
sue is for the most part thrown off by a suberous layer composed of a 
large number of cork cells compressed together and forming a layer of 
dense tissue ; within this is a cellular tissue containing starch grains, 
and amongst these cells are sprinkled sclerogen or stone cells — cells 
much thickened by secondary deposit, and, therefore, equally with the 
cork cells, capable of great resistance to external or internal destruc- 

^ Read at the evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society, April 7, 1880. 



36o ' Histology of Araroba, { "^""ji^y'is^so^™" 

tive influences. The granular protuberances seen in a section of the 
bark are due to these sclerogen cells being left intact, whilst those con- 
taining the starch grains have to some extent given way. 




No. I— Segment of Araroba. 2— Transverse section of Araroba, 

enlarged, — <2, meduHary rays; por- 
ous vessels j r, parenchyma of wood j 
libriform cells. 

With reference to the bark little need be said, as it does not appear 
to enter into the composition of araroba. Within the bark is the 
woody column, traversed from the medulla to the bark by narrow 
medullary rays colored by the araroba, and the round spots show the 
porous vessels, most of them also filled with the same substance. 

The drawing No. 2 shows a small part only of the woody column 
of this segment, enlarged as seen under the microscope, and bounded 
on either side by the medullary rays. The whole segment of No. I 
being only a repetition of this section, an explanation, therefore, of the 
cellular structure of this portion will give the cells comprising the 
whole. It exhibits four distinct forms of cells. There are the medul- 
lary rays, ^, on either side ; they are usually two cells wide, narrow, 
thin-walled and elongated in a radial direction, h represents porous 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
July, 1880. I 



Histology of A r or aba. 



361 



vessels, surrounded by the parenchyma, of the woody tissue, having 
•some of its cells thickened and dotted, and d the libriform cells. This 
■comprises the whole of the cell tissue of the wood yielding araroba. 

The drawing No. 3 is a longitudinal section through the medullary 
and libriform cells, showing the latter disposed in their length as elon- 
gated pointed cells ; the several ceils composing these tissues were 
isolated and identified. 

The first question that presented itself was, 
what tissues are involved in the formation of 
araroba } Under the microscope, either alone 
or in any fluid that does not change its nature, 
araroba presents the character of an amorphous 
powder; by heating it in a test tube in a solu- 
tion of caustic alkali, which dissolves about 80 
,per cent., it was hoped that some indication 
would be obtained, in the deposit, of cell tissues, 
but the result was not satisfactory. Recourse 
was then had to boiling in repeated portions of 
benzol, but with no better success. Adopting, 
however, the micro chemical method, allowing 
the caustic alkali to run under a cover glass on 
the slide of moistened araroba, whilst under the 
microscope, and by this means dissolving away 
gradually the soluble portion of the powder, fragments of those cells 
just referred to as composing the several tissues were found and identi- 
fied without difficulty. 

In this manner broken portions of libriform cells and of porous ves- 
sels, also of cells of the parenchyma of the wood were discovered. 
Those of the medullary rays were too fragmentary to be distinguished 
satisfactorily ; being a very delicate tissue it was scarcely expected 
otherwise. In no single instance were cork cells present, or any of 
the sclerogen cells before referred to as forming part of the bark ; 
starch, although found in the cells of the parenchyma of the bark, has 
not been detected in any sample of araroba examined. It is fair to 
infer, therefore, that the bark does not form any portion of the araroba, 
although in some samples of it pieces may be found just in the same 
manner as pieces of the wood ; also that from the fragments of the 
cells in the araroba, which were obtained by the process just mentioned, 
a conclusion may be arrived at that the whole of the cell tissue, com- 




No. 3. 



362 



Histology of Avar aha. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm-. 
\ July, 1880. 



prising the woody column, from within the bark to the medulla, is. 
involved in the decomposition, which results in the formation of 
araroba. 

The next question that occurred was, what was the physical condi- 
tion of this substance immediately resulting from the destruction of 
tissue ? The araroba was found to have permeated more or less and 
imbued with color all the tissues, even those which retained their form,, 
but it filled many of the porous vessels, as shown in No. 2, and whilst 
examining under a high power the deposit in one of these vessels 
remains of cell tissue were visible, so disposed as to convey the impres- 
sion that the deposit must have once been in a fluid condition ; and 
subsequent examination of sections from different pieces of wood^ 
taken at random from a parcel of powder, presented other indications 
leading to the same conclusion. 

It will be observed that the libriform cells, on one part of the 
section, pressing closely upon each other, are in their outline sharply 
polygonal, whilst at the other they are separating, and show indications 
of having been subjected to some solvent action; the cells have lost 
their polygonal outline and are gradually becoming loose and shapeless^ 
and this is seen rather on the outside in contact with the powder than 
in the interior of the wood. It is difficult also to understand how the 
porous vessels in the interior of the wood could have been so densly 
filled, unless the araroba had been in a fluid or semifluid condition. 
That its presence in these porous vessels is not due to decomposition 
of the vessels themselves is evident from the fact that when the con- 
tents are removed by solution and the cell wall examined it is found ta 
be intact. Did the araroba consist of finely comminuted cell tissue 
the action of caustic alkali would little affect it; but the solution of 
about 80 per cent, proves, that the cell tissue has been changed to some 
other substance soluble in caustic alkali. So far as these investigations- 
go they point to a fluid condition of araroba, whilst its presence in the 
clefts and hollow places of the wood, and the fact of more being found 
in old trees than in younger ones, must dispose at once of the idea of 
its being a secretion. 

The most interesting point of the inquiry next suggested itself, the. 
cause of this formation. On this point there is no satisfactory evi- 
dence; but araroba has its analogies in the gums and resins, and to the. 
student of materia medica these obscure changes in plant organism are 
of especial interest. Kutzing first observed structure in tragacanth,. 



"^jir^-Jf"-} Raisins. 3631 

but erred in considering it to be a fungoid growth. Mohl confirmed^ 
KUtzing's observations that it possessed structure, but proved that the 
gum was due to a metamorphosis of the cell membrane, and the 
remains of cell tissue may very readily be seen under the microscope.. 

From the investigations of Wigand, Karsten and Wiesner, most of 
the natural resin which exudes from the coniferae is due to a similar 
change in the starch and the cell membrane. The gums, of which 
gum arabic may be taken as typical, owe their origin to a similar 
change from an obscure cause in the interior of the tree. In one 
instance the medulla and medullary rays with the starch are involved' 
and in another the bast ceils of the bark. 

This change has sometimes been called a degradation of cell tissue, 
but the word, restricted to its application in geology, is not a suitable 
term. If this had been a degradation, or rubbing down, of cell tissue 
the result would be nothing more or less than a mass of cell debris; but 
this is a disorganization or destruction of organic structure, resulting 
in the formation of a substance of a totally different character. 

Last autumn in the forest of Thuringia resin was seen exuding from 
a large number of coniferae and also gum from the cherry trees. A 
specimen which was brought home well illustrates a natural exudation 
of the cherry gum, and there seems little doubt but that the same 
natural law which governs the changes resulting in the formation of 
gums and resins governs also those which result in the formation of 
araroba, and that this substance was, equally with those named, origi- 
nally in a fluid condition. — Fharm. Jour, and Trans. ^ April lo, 1880. 



RAISINS. 

The United States is the greatest raisin consuming country in the 
world, and uses annually more raisins than the whole of Europe. The 
market is mainly supplied from Spain, the raisins known as "Malagas'* 
being considered the best. They come from a comparatively narrow 
strip of country in the south of Spain, which has hitherto been regarded 
as surpassing all other regions for raisins of that character. The 
annual yield of Malaga grapes averages 2,450,000 boxes of twenty 
pounds each. It sometimes reaches 2,500,000 boxes, and last season 
about 2,000,000 boxes were marketed. Of this enormous yield the 
United States takes fully one-half, on which it pays a duty — as on all. 
other raisins — of two and a half cents per pound. — Ibid^ 



,364 



Adulteration of Olive Oil. 



Am Jour Ptiarm 

July, 1880 



TESTING OILS. 

Maumsne found, says the ''Textile Manufacturer," after experi- 
menting with all the known methods for testing oils, the one with sul- 
phuric acid to be the best. 

This test is made as follows: — In a graduated cylinder, to hold 150 
cubic centimeters, put 50 grams of oil, ascertain the temperature of 
the same, and add with a pipette 10 cubic gentimeters sulphuric acid, 



stir with thermometer for a few minutes, a 
of temperature. 

Pure olive oil gives an increase of 42 deg 

50 grms. Pineseed oil give increase of 
" Tallow oil " 

" Ricinus oil " " 

" Horsefoot oil " " 

" Oil of bitter almonds " 

" Oil of sweet " " 

^' *' Rapeseed oil " 
" Earth nut oil 

" Sesame oil " 

Hemp oil " 

" " Nut oil " 

<' « Liver oil (Raja) " 
" " Cod (G. Morrhua) 

" " Linseed oil " 
— Journ. Jpp, Sci.^ Feb. 2, 1880. 



id note the highest degree 
C. 

Degrees. 

43 

41— 43J 
47 
54 
5^ 
5^ 
58 
67 
68 
98 
101 
102 
102 
103 



THE ADULTERATION OF OLIVE OIL, 

And the various substitutes for it, have increased to such an extent of 
late years that the French Academy of Sciences in its last sittings had 
under its consideration the best practical means of detecting the nefa- 
rious traffic. The celebrated chemist, Dumas, indicated some of the 
methods that can be employed. The chemical tests are numerous 
enough, but cooks, as a rule, are wanting in the necessary knowledge 
to enable them to apply them. A very simple method is to watch the 
variety of shapes taken by different oils on the surface of water poured 
into a saucer. If the oil is genuine olive oil, the drop will take an 
irregular shape, like an islet well indented and marked with bays and 
promontories. If it is the product of the black garden poppy, the 
form will be at first round, but quickly festooning into elegant half 
-circles round the edge. The same result will ensue with rape oil, but 



} Chemical Notes. 365 

the formations round the edge will be more pronounced. Arachis oil 
gives a circular drop, accompanied by a great quantity of fine little 
globules, as does oil of sesame, in which the globules are, however,, 
still more minute. Colza oil makes a precise and well defined circle. 
If there are one or more spurious oils mixed up with the true olive 
juice, the forms of the drops will resemble, more or less, the types 
above indicated, according to the greater or lesser proportion of the 
various adulterating substances. Oil which, when shaken in the bot- 
tle, assumes a permanent chaplet of air bubbles, is not pure olive oil, 
for in the latter air bubbles are only transitory. It may, therefore, be 
set down as a mixture in which rape oil predominates. Finally, there 
is an adulterant extracted from cotton seed, now largely employed by 
dishonest manufacturers, and which is about to engage the special 
attention of the Academy. This oil can be rendered colorless, and, as 
it possesses neither taste nor smell, affbids great facility in falsifying, 
olive oil. But it is of very little use for the Academy of Sciences or 
any other learned institution to expose these tricks of trade unless the 
laws are enforced against the adulterators. — your, of Applied Science^, 
Jan. I, 1880. 

CHEMICAL NOTES. 

By Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, Ph.D. 
Inorganic Chemistry. — On the Forjnation of Sulphuretted Mineral 
Water. — A French chemist, Eugene Planchud, claims to have shown 
that the presence of sulphur m mineral waters is due to the reducing, 
action of living vegetable matter on the sulphates contained in these 
waters. On examining under the microscope the long delicate threads 
found clinging to the stones in the neighborhood of sulphur springs and 
which are generally supposed to be threads of sulphur, the author dis- 
covered them to be composed of hollow cylindrical tubes mattfd 
together. Most of these tubes were filled with spores, which when 
liberated moved about with a rapid motion,- finally came to rest and 
developed hair-like processes like those from which thev had been 
discharged. 

M. Planchud conjectured these hair-weeds to be the cause and not 
the consequence of the sulphur in the water. To prove this he made 
the following experiment : He filled three flasks with a solution of 
sulphate of lime \ into one of these he put dead organic matter ; into 
the other two, hair-weeds obtained from a sulphur spring. One of the: 



36'6 



Chemical Notes. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ July, 1880. 



two flasks containing the hair-weeds he boiled to destroy the life of the 
weed and its spores. All three flasks were then sealed hermetically and 
allowed to stand under similar conditions. On opening them it was 
found that only the flask containing the living hair-weeds gave ofF 
sulphuretted hydrogen. The other flasks remained unchanged during 
several months. At the end of six months, however, the flask into 
which the dead organic matter had been put was found to smell faintly 
of sulphuretted hydrogen and on examination hair-weeds were found 
in it. — Chem. News^ May 21, p. 236. 

Action of Potassium Permanganate upon Potassium Cyanide. — E. Bau- 
drimont has found that when the solution is alkaline the result of the 
reaction is an abundance of nitrous fumes and relatively little urea ; if 
some acid (sulphuric), however, is added, urea is formed in abundance 
and with it carbonic, nitric, formic and oxalic acids, the latter as a 
decomposition product of the urea. The formation of these products 
is illustrated by equations. — Compt. Rend.^ 89, 1 115. 

Dissociation of Iodine and other Halogen Elements. — J. M, Crafts 
announced recently (this journal. May 1880, p. 262) that, while free 
chlorine showed a normal density and was not dissociated even at the 
highest temperatures, free iodine was dissociated and apparently gave a 
density two-thirds of the normal value as first stated by Prof. Victor 
Meyer. Crafts has repeated and extended his observations and now 
gives the following as a summary of his results : 







Per. cent. 


Temperature. 


Density 


of Normal Density. 


455° 


8-705 8785 875 




677°— 682° 


8-o6; 8-58 


0-94 


757°— 770"— 765° 


8 05 J 8-28 


0-93 


831°— 878° 


8-045 8-11 


0.92 


1039° — 1 059°- -1 030° 


7-185 7-02 5 6^83 


o-8i 


1270° 1 2-8'D° 


6-075 5'57 


0.66 


1390° 


5"23; 5"3i 


o-6o 


1468*^ 


5-065 5-07 


0-58 



He concludes from these experiments that the vapor-density of iodine 
compared with air, diminishes progressively with the increase of tem- 
perature between about 600°, when it is still normal, to about 1470°, 
where it is only 0*58 of the normal density, and he supposes that a 
still higher temperature than that which he has thus far been able to 
obtain would give a half normal density. If this phenomenon is 
attributed to a dissociation it must be interpreted to mean that the mole- 
cule I2 is separated into two atoms 14-1 or else that a group which 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

July, 1880. 



Chemical Notes, 



367 



represents a physical unity is separated into two parts, and he is not 
disposed to found upon these experiments any new hypotheses regard- 
ing the constitution of iodine. — Ber. der Chem. Ges,^ xiii, p. 869. 

Victor Meyer has just published a note announcing results confirm- 
ing those of Crafts. He has, indeed, by the use of considerably 
higher temperatures than any yet applied, obtained figures lower than 
those of Crafts'. Thus he finds the density of iodine at the highest 
temperature reached to be 4*53 to 4*55 to 4*57. 

The calculated density for 1^ is 8*79 ; for f I2 is 5*83 ; for 1^ is 4*39. 
He proposes to continue the experiment in order to see if the limit is 
reached at 4*39, which would make the result one of simple dissocia- 
tion as Crafts supposes, or if a density of 2*93 (Jig) may be reached 
which would agree with the "chlorogen" hypothesis of the compound 
nature of the halogen elements. — Ibid.^ p. lOio. 

Organic Chemistry. — On a Supposed Crystallixed Chinoidin Borate. 
— Julius Jobst has examined a compound described by Pavesi in "La 
Farmacia," 1879, No. 26, as a crystallized compound of chinoidin and 
boracic acid. He found that the yellow, scaly crystals, prepared as 
directed by Pavesi, when recrystallized several times from water, lost 
more and more of the chinoidin until finally scales of pure boracic acid 
only remained, easily recognized by their lustre and greasy feeling. 
He concludes, therefore, that the crystals examined were crystals of 
boracic acid, holding traces of chinoidin mechanically enclosed. The 
existence of a crystalline compound of chinoidin is, as far as the author 
knows, not as yet established. — Ibid.^ p. 750. 

The Alkaloids of Belladonna^ Datura^ Hyoscyamus and Duboisia. — 
Ladenburg, whose work in the preparation of artificial alkaloids has 
already been quoted (this journal, current vol., pp. 148 and 198), sum- 
marizes our knowledge of this class of alkaloids in a short notice : 

Atropia Belladonna contains at least two alkaloids, which on account 
-of their di